Ivy Joy E. Panganiban
 Roadbeds underlie highway pavement
structures and the ballast and track on which
trains move.
 Unless there is a bridge, tunnel, or other
special structures, this roadbed is constructed
of in-situ soils or on earth embankments.
 Organizing to Carry Out Construction
Competitive bids
Payments to contractor usually is on a unit
price basis.
Construction contracts are directed and carried
out by the management staff and workers of
contractors or by subcontractors employed by
 Quality Assurance in Construction
Construction plans and specifications
stipulate many requirements that are to
be met by materials or construction
Two approaches for obtaining them:
a) Manner and method – spell out in detail the
materials to be supplied or the procedures
to be followed.
b) Result or End result – stipulates the desired
end product and leaves manner and method
to the contractor.
Weather Effects on Construction
 Precipitation as rain snow, high winds, and
extremely hot or very cold temperatures can
slow or halt certain construction operations.

 Site clearing in rural areas
 Site clearing in urban areas

 Grading – an inclusive term to describe
construction operations between site clearing
and paving.
 Detours are carefully planned, signed, and
operated so that traffic flows freely.
 Excavation – the process of loosening and
removing earth or rock from its original
position in a cut and transporting it to a fill or
to a waste deposit.
 Selection of equipment depends on the nature
of the material, how far it is to be moved
(hauled), and the method of disposal.
 Materials are usually described as “rock,”
“loose rock,” or “common” with “common”
signifying all materials not otherwise
 Where material is moved less than about
200ft of steeply downhill, drifting with a track
or wheel type bulldozer.
 For moderate and longer hauls, self loading
scrapers pulled by rubber-tired hauling units
and push-loaded by tractors offer low costs.
 For hauls of considerable length over the
public highways where axle loads are limited,
rear- or bottom-dump trucks loaded by front-
end loaders, power shovels, or belt conveyors
may be cheapest.
Pull-type scraper

rear- or bottom-dump trucks
 Payment for excavation commonly is made at
a bid price per cubic yard measured “in
place” in the space originally occupied.
 This unit price includes payment for
loosening and loading the material,
transporting it any distance less than the
“free haul limit”, and spreading and
compacting it in the fill.
 Payment for light clearing and grubbing and
for trimming cut and fill slopes is also included
in the unit price for excavation.
Slides and Slipouts
 The side slopes of all cuts are steeper than
the original ground surface and those of high
fills commonly are relatively steep in order to
reduce the amount of embankment.
 Payment for slides on cuts commonly is made
under the excavation item for the project.
Overbreak – Presplitting
 Overbreak occurs in rock cuts when material
outside the staked backslopes becomes
loosened and falls or is removed along with
the intended excavation.
 Presplitting is a drilling and blasting procedure
that may be employed or even specified to
control overbreak and give a uniform face to
the backslope of rock cuts.

 Embankment describes the fill added above
the low points along the roadway to raise the
level to bottom of the pavement structure.
 Materials for embankment commonly comes
from roadway cuts or designated borrow

Free Haul - Overhaul
 When the material is moved a distance
greater than this free-haul distance, it is usual
to pay for the added transportation under a
bid item called “overhaul.”
 Units for overhaul are commonly the station-
yard or cubic yard-mile.
 Principles of Embankment Construction
At one time, fills, weather of rock or earth,
were constructed to full height by “end
dumping” from the transporting vehicle.
Today, engineers agree that proper
embankment construction requires that the soil
be spread in layers, moistened or dried to
something near an optimum moisture content,
and compacted.
Control of Embankment Construction
 Two basically control procedures for assuring
a specified embankment density.
1. State the expected end result which is the
minimum acceptable value for relative
compaction, and to make sure, by field
density tests, that the specified density is
2. State the manner and method for constructing
the embankment.
 Tamping rollers
 Grid rollers
 Pneumatic-tired rollers
 Smooth-tired rollers
 Vibratory compactors
 Hauling and spreading equipment

Tamping rollers

Grid rollers

Pneumatic-tired rollers

Vibratory compactor

Payment for Embankment
 Methods of payment for embankment
construction vary.
 Some agencies , specify that the price per
cubic yard of excavation or of borrow shall
include all charges for compaction, for
water as needed, or for aerating the soil.
 Others, pay separately for water.
 Still others pay for rolling, either at a bid price
per hour of rolling with an acceptable roller or
at a bid price per cubic yard of material.
 Finishing describes a number of operations
associated with shaping the roadbed and the
rest of the cross section.
 Surfaces that will underlie the traveled way
and shoulders are compacted and smoothed
to close tolerance.
 Roadside and other ditches, backslopes in
cuts, sideslopes in embankments, and
roadside areas will be dressed to the
requirements set by the plans and
 There is no specific pay item covering these
finishing operations; rather the contractor is
instructed to include these costs in other bid