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Using Sources in your Work

:
Avoiding Plagiarism


Dr. Courville’s class

March 19
th
, 2014
Agenda for Today:
1. Plagiarism Tutorial – ppt.
a. What is Plagiarism?
b. What is Paraphrasing?
c. Direct Quote or Paraphrase
d. Cite the Source or not?
2. Using NoodleTools – Create 3
Citations – Computers
a. Bibliographic Styles
b. Learn how to create a Bibliography
c. Exit Ticket: Deposit 3 citations to Dr.
Courville’s Digital Drop Box


Plagiarism Tutorial
 Read 3 sample Situations. Determine if
the student was ethical in his or her use of
a source. Read 3 sample Models to
determine if it is a Direct Quote or a
Paraphrase. Read 3 sample Cases to
determine whether to cite the source or not
cite the source.

 Learn more about how to avoid plagiarism.

 Take the Pledge to not plagiarize.


Let’s look at some
hypothetical situations.

For each, identify if the student
used his or her sources acceptably.
3 Situations:
Plagiarism or not?
 Jack’s situation
Reader: Mrs. Luther

 Jill’s situation
Reader: Mrs. Stephens

 Sally’s situation
Reader: ?

Jack’s Situation:
Jack’s Situation
Jack has an English paper due tomorrow.
He read the book and paid attention
during class, but he has no idea what to
write about.
Jack logs onto the Internet ―just to get
some ideas about topics for his paper.‖
He finds a great idea and begins writing his
paper using the topic he found. He is very
careful to avoid copying any text or words
from the Internet article he found.
Is this plagiarism?
No
You said…
Jack did plagiarize.
You are right. Jack’s actions
constitute plagiarism.
• Jack is committing plagiarism by taking
the ideas of the source without citing
them in the paper.
• Even though he put the ideas in his own
words, Jack is stealing the intellectual
property of the source.
You said…
Jack did not plagiarize.
You are wrong. Jack’s actions constitute
plagiarism.
• Jack is committing plagiarism by taking the
ideas of the source without citing them in the
paper.
• Even though he put the ideas in his own
words, Jack is stealing the intellectual property
of the source.
• He could avoid plagiarism if he cites the source
of the ideas in his paper.
Jill’s Situation:
Jill’s Situation
During history class, Jill is asked to
find some background on Fidel
Castro’s rise to power.
Jill does a Google search and arrives at
World Book Online’s article on Fidel
Castro. Without using quotation
marks, Jill cuts and pastes several
sentences from World Book Online
into her assignment.
Is this plagiarism? Yes No
You said…
Jill did plagiarize.
You are right. Jill’s actions constitute
plagiarism.
• By taking the words from the World
Book Online article, Jill is committing
plagiarism.
• She can avoid plagiarizing if she quotes
the article in her assignment and
includes an entry describing the source
in a bibliography at the end of her
paper.
You said…
Jill did not plagiarize.
You are wrong. Jill’s actions
constitute plagiarism.
• By taking the words from the World
Book online article, Jill is committing
plagiarism.
• She can avoid plagiarizing if she quotes
the article in her assignment and
includes an entry describing the source
in a bibliography at the end of her
paper.
The Dangers of Cut and
Paste…
DID YOU KNOW…
 That if you CUT AND PASTE from a
website
It’s cheating!!
Yikes!
Sally’s Situation:
Sally’s Situation
Sally is a freshman who feels
overwhelmed by the high school.
When her science teacher assigns a
short worksheet on genetics, Sally is
confused and frustrated.
During lunch, Sally ―borrows‖ her
friend’s paper and copies the
answers onto her own paper.
Is this plagiarism?
Yes No
You said…
Sally did plagiarize.
You are right. Sally’s actions
constitute plagiarism.

• Even if Sally’s friend gave permission
for Sally to copy her work, it is still
plagiarism.
• She tried to take credit for the words
and ideas of another person.

You said…
Sally did not plagiarize.

You are wrong. Sally’s actions
constitute plagiarism.
• Even if Sally’s friend gave permission
for Sally to copy her work, it is still
plagiarism.
• Sally tried to take credit for the words
and ideas of another person.
Think you’ve got it?

Read the following…
There are two acceptable ways
to use sources:
 Direct Quotation

 Paraphrase
•Includes summarizing and
referencing the works of others
within your paper or project



There are two acceptable ways
to use sources:
1. DIRECT QUOTATION

•How to use it:
 Copy the exact words of the
source, putting those words inside
quotation marks.
 Put a citation at the end of the
quotation indicating the page
number.
 At the end of your paper, include
a bibliographic entry on a page
that lists your references.
Example of Quotation & Paraphrasing

In his famous and influential work
The Interpretation of Dreams, Sigmund Freud
argues that dreams are the "royal road to the
unconscious" (Freud 98), expressing in coded
imagery the dreamer's unfulfilled wishes
through a process known as the "dream-work"
(57). According to Freud, actual but
unacceptable desires are censored internally
and subjected to coding through layers of
condensation and displacement before
emerging in a kind of rebus puzzle in the dream
itself (215).
Works Cited

Freud, Sigmund. The Interpretation of Dreams. New

York: Macmillan Company, 1913. Print.

Miller, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird. New York:

Harper Collins,1967. Print.

Russell, Tony, Allen Brizee, and Elizabeth Angeli. "MLA

Formatting and Style Guide." The Purdue OWL.
Purdue U Writing Lab, 4 Apr. 2010. Web. 20
July 2010.

There are two acceptable ways
to use sources:

2. PARAPHRASE
• How to use it:
 Before the paraphrase, introduce the source.
This will show where the paraphrase begins.
 Use your own words to restate the meaning of the
source. This means you change words, structure,
and syntax. You do not merely substitute
synonyms for the source’s original phrasing.
 Put a citation at the end of the quotation
indicating the page number or source.
 Include a bibliographic entry on a reference page
at the end of your paper or project.

Testing your understanding…
Can you tell the difference between a
direct quotation and a paraphrase?

Click on the correct answer for each of
the following samples.
What do you think?
Can someone tell me what
they think the difference
between a SUMMARY and a
PARAPHRASE ?
3 Models:
Direct Quotation vs. Paraphrase
Model #1
Reader: Mrs. Luther

Model #2
Reader: Mrs. Stephens

Model #3
Reader: ?
Model 1:
Direct Quotation vs. Paraphrase
Model #1
In his book on Google’s business
strategy, John Battelle states,
―…Google had more than its finger on
the pulse of our culture, it was directly
jacked into the culture’s nervous
system‖ (2).
This is an example of
DIRECT QUOTATION
This is an example of
PARAPHRASE
Paraphrase
Sorry, no. You are incorrect.

The student did not paraphrase--she used a
direct quotation. The quotation marks give
it away:

In his book on Google’s business strategy,
John Battelle states: ―…Google had more
than its finger on the pulse of our culture, it
was directly jacked into the culture’s
nervous system‖ (2).
Direct Quotation
 Easy, right? If you see quotation
marks, it is a direct quotation.

 Any time you use the exact words of
a source, you must surround them in
quotation marks and indicate the
source.
Model 2:
Direct Quotation vs. Paraphrase
Model #2
Battelle’s argument is based on a
memo written by Google CEO Eric
Schmidt. The memo reveals that
Google was focusing its attention on
corporate marketing budgets (153).
This is an example of
DIRECT QUOTATION
This is an example of
PARAPHRASE
Paraphrase
Good job! Sample #2 WAS a
paraphrase.

Anytime a student rewrites a source’s
idea into his or her own words, the
user must give the source credit. This
is paraphrasing.
Direct Quotation
No. Read it again:
Battelle’s argument is based on a memo
written by Google CEO Eric Schmidt. The
memo reveals that Google was focusing its
attention on corporate marketing budgets
(153).
That example IS a paraphrase.
You should know because the student did
not include quotation marks; she rephrased
the original into her own written style; and
she cited the source.
Model 3:
Direct Quotation vs. Paraphrase
Model #3
As he explains the importance of choosing
the best searchable keywords to allow
others to find a website, Battelle presents a
comparison to the Greek story of The
Odyssey,
―Is [being known to a wide audience] not
what every person longs for—what
Odysseus chose over Kalypso’s nameless
immortality—to die, but to be known
forever?‖ (284).
This is an example of
DIRECT QUOTATION
This is an example of
PARAPHRASE
Paraphrase
 You are incorrect. The example was
a direct quotation. Look at it again:
In explaining the importance of searchable
functions, Battelle reveals his insight into
the heart of mankind, ―Is that not what
every person longs for—what Odysseus
chose over Kalypso’s nameless
immortality—to die, but to be known
forever?‖ (284).
 The student included quotation
marks, indicating that he used the
exact words of the original source.
Therefore, it is a direct quotation.
Direct Quotation
 Correct!
 The use of the exact words of the
source makes it a direct quotation.
 The student shows readers that it is
a direct quotation by using quotation
marks.
 Additionally, he provides information
to help the reader identify the
source.
So, you know the difference
between a direct quotation
and a paraphrase…

Now what?
Review: Definition of Plagiarism
 Plagiarism is:
• To steal the words or ideas of another
person
• To pass off the words or ideas of
another person as one’s own

 Further:
• It does not matter whether the theft of
words or ideas is intentional or
accidental.
• Either way, it is plagiarism!
Why should you bother?

Four good reasons for citing sources in
your work:
1. Citing reliable information gives
credibility to your work.
2. Cheating is unethical behavior.
3. It is only fair to give credit to the
source—otherwise, you are stealing the
source’s ideas.
4. The consequences are severe
Plagiarism is not worth the risk!
You probably have two
questions:

(1) What do I need to cite?

(2) How do I cite?

Read on for the answers…
What do I need to cite?
 This chart will
help you decide
what must be
cited.
• It was created by
Robert A. Harris in
The Plagiarism
Handbook.
Did you
think of
it?
No.
Yes.
Is it
common
knowledge?

No.
Yes.
Cite it.
Do not cite it.
So—the RULE is:

If YOU created it,
you do not need
to cite the source.

If you did not
create the
content, you must
cite the source.
Did you
think of
it?
No.
Yes.
Is it
common
knowledge?

No.
Yes.
Cite it.
Do not cite it.
The one exception to
that rule is for
“common
knowledge.”

You do not need to
cite the source of an
unoriginal piece of
information IF:

(1) an educated person
should know the
information,

OR

(2) it is a provable fact
that could be found in a
general encyclopedia.
Did you
think of
it?
No.
Yes.
Is it
common
knowledge?

No.
Yes.
Cite it.
Do not cite it.
So, you don’t need to cite a fact,


but you must cite the source of opinions
and ideas that are not your own.



And, you must cite any time you use the exact
words of the source—even if the words are
presenting common knowledge.

Take one
more look
at this
chart!

If the idea and
the words are
yours, you do
not need to cite.
Did you
think of
it?
No.
Yes.
Is it
common
knowledge?

No.
Yes.
Cite it.
Do not cite it.
So, let’s check to see that you
understand when you need to cite
the source and when you don’t…

Answer the following questions and
choose the correct answer.

3 CASES:
Cite the Source or not?

 Model #1
Reader: Mrs. Luther
 Model #2
Reader: Mrs. Stephens
 Model #3
Reader: ?

Case #1

Case #1
Jack isn’t sure if he needs to cite the source of the
information below. He found the fact online.

“Abraham Lincoln was our 16
th
president.”

What do you think? What should Jack do? Pick one of
the answers below.
Cite the source.
Do not cite the
source.
You are incorrect.
In this case,
citation is not necessary.
 Jack does not need to cite the source
of quote the information because it is
general knowledge.

 Because Abraham Lincoln’s status as
the 16
th
President of the US is a fact
that is verifiable in many places, Jack
can use the information without
citation.
You are correct!
Jack does not need to cite this
information.
 Jack does not need to cite the source
or quote the information because it is
general knowledge.

 Because Abraham Lincoln’s status as
the 16
th
President of the US is a fact
that is verifiable in many places, Jack
can use the information without
citation.
Case #2

Case #2
In her paper on Affirmative Action, Jill found one source
explaining that Affirmative Action “evens the field of
play by wreaking equity on all players.”

In her paper, Jill uses the phrase “wreaking equity” but
she puts all the other parts of the source into her own
words.

What should Jill do? Pick one of the answers below.
Cite the source.

Not cite the source.


You are correct!
Jill must cite this information.
 Jill needs to cite the source of the
paraphrase because the idea belongs
to the source.

 Further, because Jill uses the unique
phrase “wreaking equity,” she
must include that phrase in quotation
marks, indicating that it is a direct
quotation from the source.
You are incorrect.
In this case, citation is necessary.
 Jill needs to cite the source of the
paraphrase because the idea belongs
to the source.

 Further, because Jill uses the unique
phrase “wreaking equity,” she
must include that phrase in quotation
marks, indicating that it is a direct
quotation from the source.
Case #3

Case #3
Sally found a very helpful article in an online database.
She very carefully made sure that she rewrote the
content of the article using her own personal style;
she changed the author’s syntax and organization so
that it fit seamlessly into her paper.

What should Sally do?

Cite the source.


Not cite the source.

You are correct.
In this case, citation is required.
 Sally paraphrases the source’s idea
and content. She must give credit to
the source.

 She must provide her audience with
the source of the idea that she
borrowed.
You are incorrect!
Sally must cite the source of this
information, even though she put it
in her own words.
 Sally paraphrases the ideas of the
source, so she must cite the identity
of the source.

 Sally must provide her audience with
the source of the material that she
borrowed.
At Lee High, if you plagiarize:
 Zero on the assignment, call home, conference
with parent and administrator. Can lose class or
school privileges.
 Loss of extra-curricula's, suspension/expulsion
In the “Real World,” if you plagiarize, you
may…
 Be expelled from college the first time
 Lose your job
 Lose recommendations to another college or job
 Be sued by the person whose idea you
―borrowed‖
Don’t Forget:
There is a fine line between plagiarism and
paraphrasing.

If the wording of the paraphrase is too close to
the wording of the original content, then it is
plagiarism.

The main ideas need to come through, but the
wording has to be YOUR OWN!!!! 



















Now you will practice
citing a source using…

NOODLETOOLS



LET’S TAKE THE PLEDGE NOT
TO PLAGIARIZE!
Sources Cited
Harris, Robert A. The Plagiarism
Handbook: Strategies for Preventing,
Detecting, and Dealing with
Plagiarism. Pyrczak Publishing: Los
Angeles, 2001.

Works Consulted
DeSena, Laura Hennessey. Preventing
Plagiarism: Tips and Techniques. National
Council of Teachers of English: Urbana, IL,
2007.

Valenza, Joyce Kasman. ―What is
Plagiarism? (And Why You Should Care).‖
Springfield High School Media Center
Information Literacy Lessons. Springfield
School District.
End of Tutorial Presentation.
 If you have questions about
plagiarism and citing sources, please
Dr. Courville or Mrs. Luther.


….…Now for NoodleTools