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MOHAMMAD AIZRULSHAH BIN KAMARUDDIN

PPPTDH42M PRODUCT DESIGN


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
POLITEKNIK MUADZAM SHAH
BY
JJ310
CHAPTER
JJ310
This topics will analyses the effect of forces on
materials, HOOKEs LAWS, Shear stress and Shear
and Shear strain
Objectives
Explain the effect of forces on materials
Differentiate between tensional , compression and shear forces
Define stress, strain and YOUNGS MODULUS
OUTLINE
Fundamental concept
Dynamics
Statics
Impact
Fatigue and Alternating loads

Type of forces
Tensional
compression
shear
Effects forces on materials
Force
Force is a quantitative description of the interaction between two
physical bodies, such as an object and its environment. Force is
proportional to acceleration. In calculus terms, force is the derivative
of momentum with respect to time. Unit in N or kgm/s
2


=
Where
=





Effects forces on materials
Dynamics
The rigid body in analysis is in motion.
Statics
The rigid body in analysis is in stationary state.
Impact
is a high force or shock applied over a short time
period when two or more bodies collide


Effects forces on materials
Fatigue
weakening of a material caused by repeatedly
applied loads( alternating loads)
Alternating loads
Load that is applied, removed and applied again, always acting on
the same direction
Alternating load that reverse direction during every cycle of loading.
Fluctuating load that varies about an average value.

commonly associated with machinery, engines, turbines, generators,
shafts, propellers, airplane parts, automobile parts..


TYPE OF FORCES
Tensile
Tensile is a force that
tends to stretch a
material.



increase the length

Example?
Compressive
Compressive is a force that
tends to squeeze or crush a
material.





Example?
Shear
Shear is a force that
tends to slide one face of
the material over an
adjacent face.




bend, slide or twist.

Example?
decrease the length
Problem 1
Figure (a) represents a crane and Figure (b) a
transmission joint. State the types of forces
acting, labeled A to F.

STRESS & STRAIN
STRESS
The intensity forces acting on a material in
normal direction that cause deformation or
change of dimension.
Ratio of applied force F cross sectional area A of
the material
Tensile stress
Compressive stress
1 Pa = 1N/m
2

Example 1
Figure 1. Shows a steel block with cross area of
15000mm
2
subjected to loading shown.
Determine the normal stress
M=500KG
=


=
500 9.81 /
2
1500010
6

2


= 327000

2

Example 2
Figure 2 shows a steel cable used to lift a mass
of 600kg. The cable cross section area is A =
2000mm
2

i. Calculate the stress in the cable
ii. What will happen if the cable cross section area is reduce to
1000mm
2

Tensile stress
Force that act within a body that tends to change the
length measurement of a body.

Example 3

Example 4

Compressive Stress
???????

Example 5

Example 6