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**Our Actions from
**

Remembering HOW to

Understanding WHY

Steve Leinwand

TMC14 – Jenks, OK

sleinwand@air.org www.steveleinwand.com

1

And what message do far too

many of our students get?

(even those in Namibia!)

2

3

Ready??

What is 8 + 9?

17 Bing Bang Done!

Vs.

Convince me that 9 + 8 = 17.

Hmmmm….

4

8 + 9 =

17 – know it cold

10 + 7 – add 1 to 9, subtract 1 from 8

7 + 1 + 9 – decompose the 8 into 7 and 1

18 – 1 – add 10 and adjust

16 + 1 – double plus 1

20 – 3 – round up and adjust

Who’s right? Does it matter?

5

4 + 29 =

How did you do it?

How did you do it?

Who did it differently?

6

So…the problem is:

If we continue to do what we’ve

always done….

We’ll continue to get what we’ve

always gotten.

7

8

9

Where is the opportunity to

learn?

Where is the sense-making?

Does anyone benefit from a

sheet like this?

10

95

- 48 How did you do it?

or

Convince me that 95-48=47.

11

In other words,

our questions make all the

difference.

(no pun intended)

12

Mathematics

• A set of rules to be learned and memorized

to find answers to exercises that have limited

real world value

OR

• A set of competencies and understanding

driven by sense-making and used to get

solutions to problems that have real world

value

13

And Alt apps and mult reps emerge

from this why/convince me

• Effective teachers of mathematics elicit, value, and

celebrate alternative approaches to solving

mathematics problems so that students are taught

that mathematics is a sense-making process for

understanding why and not memorizing the right

procedure to get the one right answer.

• Effective teachers of mathematics provide multiple

representations – for example, models, diagrams,

number lines, tables and graphs, as well as symbols

– of all mathematical work to support the

visualization of skills and concepts.

Also know as rational, doable DIFFERENTIATION!

14

Adding and Subtracting

Integers

15

Remember How

5 + (-9)

“To find the difference of two integers, subtract

the absolute value of the two integers and then

assign the sign of the integer with the greatest

absolute value”

16

Understand Why

5 + (-9)

- Have $5, lost $9

- Gained 5 yards, lost 9

- 5 degrees above zero, gets 9 degrees colder

- Decompose 5 + (-5 + -4)

- Zero pairs: x x x x x O O O O O O O O O

- On number line, start at 5 and move 9 to the left

17

Let’s laugh at the absurdity of “the

standard algorithm” and the one right

way to multiply

58

x 47

18

3 5

58

x 47

406

232_

2726

19

How nice if we wish to

continue using math to sort

our students!

20

So what’s the alternative?

21

Multiplication

• What is 3 x 4? How do you know?

• What is 3 x 40? How do you know?

• What is 3 x 47? How do you know?

• What is 13 x 40? How do you know?

• What is 13 x 47? How do you know?

• What is 58 x 47? How do you know?

22

3 x 4

Convince me that 3 x 4 is 12.

• 4 + 4 + 4

• 3 + 3 + 3 + 3

• Three threes are nine and three more for the

fourth

•

3

4

12

23

3 x 40

• 3 x 4 x 10 (properties)

• 40 + 40 + 40

• 12 with a 0 appended

• 3

40

120

24

3 x 47

• 3 (40 + 7) = 3 40s + 3 7s

• 47 + 47 + 47 or 120 + 21

• 3

40 7

120 21

25

58 x 47

40 7

50

8

58

x 47

56

350

320

2000

2726

26

Why bother?

27

28

Just do it:

Siti packs her clothes into a suitcase and it

weighs 29 kg.

Rahim packs his clothes into an identical

suitcase and it weighs 11 kg.

Siti’s clothes are three times as heavy as

Rahims.

What is the mass of Rahim’s clothes?

What is the mass of the suitcase?

29

The old (only) way or RemHow:

Let S = the weight of Siti’s clothes

Let R = the weight of Rahim’s clothes

Let X = the weight of the suitcase

S = 3R S + X = 29 R + X = 11

so by substitution: 3R + X = 29

and by subtraction: 2R = 18

so R = 9 and X = 2

30

Or using a model to support UndWhy:

www.thesingaporemaths.com

11 kg

Rahim

Siti

29 kg

Multiplying Decimals

31

Remember How

4.39

x 4.2

“We don’t line them up here.”

“We count decimals.”

“Remember, I told you that you’re not allowed

to that that – like girls can’t go into boys

bathrooms.”

“Let me say it again: The rule is count the

decimal places.”

32

But why?

How can this make sense?

How about a context?

33

Understand Why

So? What do you see?

34

Understand Why

gallons

Total

Where are we? 35

Understand Why

4.2

gallons

Total

How many gallons? About how many?

$

36

Understand Why

4.2

gallons

$ 4.39

Total

About how much? Maximum?? Minimum??

37

Understand Why

4.2

gallons

$ 4.39

Total

184.38

Context makes ridiculous obvious, and breeds sense-making.

Actual cost? So how do we multiply decimals sensibly?

38

Solving Simple Linear

Equations

39

3x + 7 = 22

How do we solve equations:

Subtract 7 3 x + 7 = 22

- 7 - 7

3 x = 15

Divide by 3 3 3

Voila: x = 5

40

3x + 7

1. Tell me what you see: 3 x + 7

2. Suppose x = 0, 1, 2, 3…..

3. Let’s record that:

x 3x + 7

0 7

1 10

2 13

4. How do we get 22?

41

3x + 7 = 22

Where did we start? What did we do?

x 5

x 3 3x 15 ÷ 3

+ 7 3x + 7 22 - 7

42

3x + 7 = 22

X X X IIIIIII IIII IIII IIII IIII II

X X X IIIII IIIII IIIII

43

Let’s look at a silly problem

Sandra is interested in buying party favors for

the friends she is inviting to her birthday

party.

44

Let’s look at a silly problem

Sandra is interested in buying party favors for

the friends she is inviting to her birthday

party. The price of the fancy straws she

wants is 12 cents for 20 straws.

45

Let’s look at a silly problem

Sandra is interested in buying party favors for

the friends she is inviting to her birthday

party. The price of the fancy straws she

wants is 12 cents for 20 straws. The

storekeeper is willing to split a bundle of

straws for her.

46

Let’s look at a silly problem

Sandra is interested in buying party favors for

the friends she is inviting to her birthday

party. The price of the fancy straws she

wants is 12 cents for 20 straws. The

storekeeper is willing to split a bundle of

straws for her. She wants 35 straws.

47

Let’s look at a silly problem

Sandra is interested in buying party favors for

the friends she is inviting to her birthday

party. The price of the fancy straws she

wants is 12 cents for 20 straws. The

storekeeper is willing to split a bundle of

straws for her. She wants 35 straws. How

much will they cost?

48

So?

Your turn. How much?

How did you get your answer?

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

Putting it all together one way

Good morning class.

Today’s objective: Find the surface area of right

circular cylinders.

Open to page 384-5.

3

Example 1:

4 S.A.= 2πrh + 2 πr

2

Find the surface area.

Homework: Page 385 1-19 odd

58

Putting it all together another way

Overheard in the ER as the sirens blare:

“Oh my, look at this next one. He’s completely burned

from head to toe.”

“Not a problem, just order up 1000 square inches of

skin from the graft bank.”

You have two possible responses:

- Oh good – that will be enough.

OR

- Oh god – we’re in trouble.

59

• Which response, “oh good” or “oh my” is

more appropriate?

• Explain your thinking.

• Assuming you are the patient, how much skin

would you hope they ordered up?

• Show how you arrived at your answer and be

prepared to defend it to the class.

60

• Exit slip: Sketch an object and it’s

dimensions that has a surface area of about

100 square inches?

• Homework: How many square cm of skin do

you have and be prepared to show how you

arrived at your answer.

61

The CCSSM Trojan Horse:

SMP 3: Construct viable

arguments and critique

the reasoning of others

62

Questions?

Comments?

Thank You!

63

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