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Mechanical Properties

Mechanical Properties:
(Forces ~ deformation)
Strength ➼
Ductility ➼
Impact
Creep ➼
Fatigue ➼
Wear
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Definition of Stress:
Tensile stress:
F
σ =
A0
Where F: force, normal to
the cross-
sectional area,
A0: original cross-
sectional area
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Shear Stress
Fs
τ=
A0
Fs: force, parallel to the cross-
sectional area
A0: the cross-sectional area
Force N
= 2
unit of stress: area m
1Pa = 1 Nm-2 ; 1MPa = 106Pa; 1GPa=109Pa
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Some examples of stress:
✔ Simple tension: σ (+)
✔ Simple compression: σ (-)
✔ Biaxial tension: σ
✔ Hydrostatic pressure: p
✔ Pure shear stress: τ

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Definition of strain
Nominal tensile strain (Axial
strain)
l − l0 ∆l
ε= =
l0 l0

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Engineering shear strain
γ = tan θ
For small strain:

γ ≅θ

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Dilatation (Volume strain)
Under pressure: the
p
volume will
change
p p
V-∆ V
∆V
∆=
V
p

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Hooke’s Law
When strains are small, most of materials are linear elastic.

Young’s modulus σ
Tensile: σ = Ε ε
Shear modulus
Shear: τ =Gγ E

ε
Hydrostatic: – p = κ ∆
Bulk modulus

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Elastic Behavior of materials

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Modulus of Elasticity - Metals

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Modulus of Elasticity - Ceramics

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Modulus of Elasticity - Polymers
Polymers Elastic Modulus (GPa)

Polyethylene (PE) 0.2-0.7

Polystyrene (PS) 3-3.4

Nylon 2-4

Polyesters 1-5

Rubbers 0.01-0.1
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Example: NaCl
By considering both attractive and repulsive
force, α =0.58
Charge on electron q=1.602× 10-19 C
Permittivity of vacuum: ε 0=8.854 × 10-12 Fm-1
r0≈ 2.5 × 10-10 m
0.58 × (1.602 × 10−19 ) 2 −1
S0 = = 8 .54 Nm
4π × 8.854 × 10−12 × ( 2.5 × 10−10 )3
S0 8.54
E≈ = −10
= 34.16GPa
r0 2.5 × 10 13
Tension and Compression Test

Standard tensile specimen

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Tension and Compression Test

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Elastic Stress-Strain Curves

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Nonlinear Elastic σ -ε Curve

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Plastic Deformation

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Yielding and Yield Strength
✔ Yielding point: the turning point which separate
the elastic and plastic regions
✔ Yield strength: the stress at the yielding point.
✔ Offset yielding (proof stress): if it is difficult to
determine the yielding point, then draw a parallel
line starting from the 0.2% strain, the cross point
between the parallel line and the σ −ε curve

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Tensile Strength

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Ductility

Measurement of ductility:
Percent elongation
Percent reduction in area

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Ductility – percent elongation
 l f − l0 
% EL =   × 100
 l0 
Where lf: fracture length
l0: the original gauge length

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Ductility –
percent reduction in area
 A0 − A f 
% RA =   ×100
 A0 

Where Af: cross-sectional area at the point of


fracture
A0: the original cross-sectional area

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Typical mechanical properties for
some metals and alloys

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Temperature influences on
mechanical properties of Iron

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Resilience
Resilience is the capacity of a material to
absorb energy when it is deformed
elastically and then, upon unloading, to
have this energy recovered.
Modulus of resilience Ur

εy
U r = ∫ σdε
0

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Modulus of Resilience

If it is in a linear elastic region,

1 σ y  σ y
2
1
U r = σ yε y = σ y   =
2 2  E  2E

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Toughness
Energy absorbed due to fracture – fracture
toughness

εf
U = ∫ σ dε
0

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True Stress and Strain
✔ True Stress F
σT =
A
Where A is instantaneous cross-sectional area

✔ True Strain
l
ε T = ln = ln(1 + ε )
l0
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True Stress and Strain
If no volume change during deformation:
A0l0=Al
Then

σ T = σ (1 + ε )
ε T = ln (1 + ε )

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True Stress-Strain Curve

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True Stress and Strain

σ T = Kε T
n

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Hardness
F
H=
indented area

Hardness: a measure of a material’s


resistance to localized plastic deformation

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Hardness

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Hardness Tests
✔ Simple and inexpensive
✔ Nondestructive
✔ Other mechanical properties often may be
estimated from hardness data, such as
tensile strength

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Hardness Tests
✔ Rockwell Hardness Tests (HR): Diamond
cones or steel spheres
✔ Brinell Hardness Tests (HB): 10 mm sphere
of steel or tungsten carbide
✔ Knoop Microhardness Tests (HK):
Diamond pyramid
✔ Vickers Microhardness Tests (HV)

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Hardness Tests

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Rockwell Hardness Tests

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Correlation between Hardness
and Tensile Strength
TS (MPa) = 3.45HB
TS (psi) = 500HB

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3-point Bending tests

3F f L
σ fs = 2
2bd
Ff L
σ fs =
πR 3

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Stress-Strain Behavior of
Ceramics – Flexure Tests

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Stress-Strain Behavior of
Polymers

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Temperature influence

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Macroscopic Deformation

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