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Network Technology
Semester 1 2004/2005
Chapter 4

CCNA1: Module 9, 10.3 and 11

 Introduction
 Internet Address

 Obtaining an IP Address

 Introduction to Subnetting

 TCP/IP Transport Layer

 Application Layer
 The design of TCP/IP is ideal for
the decentralized and robust
network that is the Internet.
 The TCP/IP model has four
layers: the application layer,
transport layer, Internet layer, and
the network access layer.
 The application layer of the
TCP/IP model handles high-level
protocols, issues of
representation, encoding, and
dialog control
 TCP Applications
 File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)

 Network File System (NFS)

 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)

 Terminal emulation (Telnet)

 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)

 Domain Name System (DNS)

 The transport layer provides transport services from the
source host to the destination host.
 TCP and UDP
 Segmenting upper-layer application data

 Sending segments from one end device to another end

 TCP only
 Establishing end-to-end operations

 Flow control provided by sliding windows

 Reliability provided by sequence numbers and

 The purpose of the Internet layer is to select the best path through
the network for packets to travel.
 Internet Protocol (IP)
 provides connectionless, best-effort delivery routing of packets

 Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)

 provides control and messaging capabilities

 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

 Determines the data link layer address, MAC address, for known
IP addresses
 Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP)
 Determines IP addresses when the MAC address is known
 The network access layer is also called the host-to-
network layer.
 It is the layer that make a physical link to the network
 Modem protocol standards such as Serial Line Internet
Protocol (SLIP) and Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
provide network access through a modem connection
 Network access layer functions include mapping IP
addresses to physical hardware addresses and
encapsulation of IP packets into frames.
 The Internet uses the principle of network layer
 Internetworking must be scalable with regard to the
number of networks and computers attached.
Internet Address
 Each computer in a TCP/IP network must be given a unique
identifier, or IP address.
 An IP address is a 32-bit sequence of 1s and 0s.
 IP address is usually written as four decimal numbers separated
by periods.
 Using the IP address of destination network, a router can deliver
a packet to the correct network.
 When the packet arrives at a router connected to the destination
network, the router uses the IP address to locate the particular
 Every IP address has two parts, the first part identifies the
system's network address. The second part, called the host
Internet Address
 IP addresses are divided into classes to define the large,
medium, and small networks.
Internet Address
Internet Address
 The network is reserved for loopback testing
 The Class D address class was created to enable multicasting in
an IP address.
 The first four bits of a Class D address must be 1110.

 Reserved IP addresses

 Network address

 Used to identify the network itself

 Broadcast address

 Used for broadcasting packets to all the devices on a network

 Data that is sent to the broadcast address will be read by all

hosts on that network
Internet Address
Internet Address
 IANA manages the supply of IP addresses to ensure that
duplication of publicly used addresses does not occur.
 No two machines that connect to a public network can have the
same IP address because public IP addresses are global and
 Private networks that are not connected to the Internet may use
any host addresses
 Connecting a network using private addresses to the Internet
requires translation of the private addresses to public
 This translation process is referred to as Network Address
Translation (NAT) which done by router
Internet Address

Private IP Address
Obtaining IP Address
 Static Assignment
 Assigns and tracks IP addresses for each computer,
printer, or server on the intranet.
 Works best on small, infrequently changing networks

 RARP IP Assignment
 Associates a known MAC addresses with an IP
 A RARP server must be present on the network to
answer RARP requests
 RARP requests are broadcast onto the LAN
Obtaining IP Address
 BOOTP IP assignment
 The bootstrap protocol (BOOTP) operates in a client-
server environment
 The administrator creates a configuration file that
specifies the parameters for each device.
 The administrator must add hosts and maintain the
BOOTP database
 Every host on the network must have a BOOTP profile
with an IP address assignment in it
Obtaining IP Address
 A device uses BOOTP to obtain an IP address when
starting up. The device will send a broadcast IP
 A BOOTP server receives the broadcast and then
sends back a broadcast reply
 If the client finds its own MAC address in the
destination address field and a broadcast in the IP
destination field, it takes and stores the IP address
and other information supplied in the BOOTP reply
Obtaining IP Address
 DHCP IP Management
 Dynamic host configuration protocol (DHCP) allows a
host to obtain an IP address dynamically without having
to set up an individual profile for each device.
 A range of IP addresses must be define on a DHCP
 The hosts contact the DHCP server and request an
address. The DHCP server chooses an address and
leases it to that host.
 It allows users to be mobile

 Offers a one to many ratio of IP addresses

Obtaining IP Address
 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
 Automatically obtain MAC addresses for local transmission.

 When a source determines the IP address for a destination, it

then consults the ARP table in order to locate the MAC
address for the destination.
 If the source locates an entry in its table, it will associate the
IP address to the MAC address
 If not found, the host broadcasts an ARP request

 If one of the local devices matches the IP address of the

request, it sends back an ARP reply that contains its IP-MAC
Obtaining IP Address
Introduction to Subnetting
 Subnetting a network means to use the subnet mask to
divide the network and break a large network up into
smaller, more efficient and manageable segments, or
 Subnet addresses include the network portion, plus a
subnet field and a host field
Introduction to Subnetting
 Subnet mask is created by using binary ones in the host
 If three bits were borrowed, the mask for a Class C address
would be or /27.
 The last two bits in the last octet, regardless of the IP address
class, may never be assigned to the subnetwork
 (2powerofborrowedbits ) – 2 = usable subnets
 (2powerofremaininghostbits ) – 2 = usable hosts
 (2powerofborrowedbits ) = total subnets
 (2powerofremaininghostbits ) = total hosts
 The available bits for assignment to the subnet field in Class A
address is 22 bits while a Class B address has 14 bits.
Introduction to Subnetting
TCP/IP Transport Layer
 The transport layer provides transport services from the source
host to the destination host.
 It establishes a logical connection between the endpoints of the
 Primary duties
 Segmentation of upper-layer application data

 Establishment of end-to-end operations

 Transport of segments from one end host to another end host

 Flow control provided by sliding windows

 Reliability with sequence numbers and acknowledgments

TCP/IP Transport Layer
 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a connection-
oriented Layer 4 protocol that provides reliable full-
duplex data transmission.
 TCP is responsible for breaking messages into
segments, reassembling them at the destination station,
resending anything that is not received, and
reassembling messages from the segments.
 Protocols that use TCP include: FTP (File Transfer
Protocol), HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), SMTP
(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol), Telnet
TCP/IP Transport Layer
 User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is the connectionless
transport protocol
 It exchanges datagrams, without acknowledgments or
guaranteed delivery.
 UDP is designed for applications that do not need to put
sequences of segments together
 The protocols that use UDP include: TFTP (Trivial File
Transfer Protocol), SNMP (Simple Network Management
Protocol), DHCP (Dynamic Host Control Protocol), DNS
(Domain Name System)
TCP/IP Transport Layer
 Both TCP and UDP use port (socket) numbers to pass
information to the upper layers.
 Port numbers are used to keep track of different
conversations crossing the network at the same time.
 Range of Port number
 Numbers below 1024 - Well-known ports numbers.

 Numbers above 1024 - Dynamically assigned ports

 Registered port numbers are those registered for
vendor-specific applications. Most of these are above
TCP/IP Transport Layer
Application Layer
 DNS (Domain Name System)
 To associate the contents of the site with the address
of that site.
 It is a system used on the Internet for translating
names of domains and their publicly advertised
network nodes into IP addresses.
 A domain is a group of computers that are associated
by their geographical location or their business type.
 A domain name is a string of characters, number, or

Application Layer
 FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
 To transfer files from one computer to another by
copying and moving files from servers to clients, and
from clients to servers.
 Data transfer can occur in ASCII mode or in binary
 TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol)
 Uses User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

 Used on the router to transfer configuration files and

Cisco IOS images and to transfer files between
systems that support TFTP.
Application Layer
 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
 Works with the World Wide Web

 http:// tells the browser which protocol to use.

 www is the hostname of a server with a specific IP

 SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
 enables network administrators to manage network
performance, find and solve network problems, and
plan for network growth.
 Uses UDP as its transport layer protocol
Application Layer
 Three key components
 Network management system (NMS)

 Monitor and control managed devices.

 Managed devices

 Network nodes that contain an SNMP agent

 Collect and store management information and make
this information available to NMSs
 Agents

 Network-management software modules that reside in

managed devices.
 Has local knowledge of management information
Application Layer
Application Layer
 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
 Transports email messages in ASCII format using TCP.

 The most popular mail client protocols are POP3 and IMAP4,
which both use TCP to transport data.
 SMTP port (25) or to the POP3 port (110)

 Telnet
 Provides the ability to login to a remote Internet host that is
running a Telnet server application and then to execute
commands from the command line.
 Telnet works at the application layer of the TCP/IP model.