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Boardworks Ltd 2003

KS4 Forces
Boardworks Ltd 2003
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What is a force?
A force is a push, pull or twist.
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Say if the following are pushes, pulls or twists:
Writing on paper
Typing on a keyboard
Tug-of-war
Unscrewing the top off a bottle
Posting a letter through a door
Putting on a pair of socks
Turning a door handle
Pull
Pull
Push
Push
Push
Twist Twist
Twist Twist
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Types of force you need to know
Friction
Gravity
Magnetism
Air resistance
Tension
Compression
Electrostatic
Nuclear
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Describing the forces
Magnetism

Friction

Compression

Tension
The force you get when two
material rub together

The force you get when a
material is being stretched


The force you get when a
material is being squashed

The force that enables
compasses to work
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Describing the forces
Gravity

Nuclear

Air resistance

Electrostatic
The force that holds the particles
in a nucleus together

The force you get when an
object moves through air

The force that exists between all
objects with mass

The force you get between two
charged objects
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Attractive or repulsive?
Gravity?


Magnetism?


Electrostatic?
Attractive, always

Attractive and repulsive
Attractive and repulsive
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Contact and non-contact
If two objects or materials need to be touching for the
force to have an effect then it is a C________ force.
Examples:

If two objects or materials do not need to be t______
for the force to have an effect then it is a NON
CONTACT force.
Examples:

ONTACT
ouching
Friction
Air resistance
Gravity
Electrostatic
Magnetic
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Gravity
Gravity is an attractive f____ that exists
between all m_____. Gravity is always
a_______.
The l____ the mass is, the greater the
gravitational attraction. The f_____ away a
mass is, the less the gravitational
attraction.
Your w____ is the pull of the Earths gravity
on your body.
If you stood on the M___ you would weigh
less than on Earth.
This is because the Moon has less mass
than Earth, so the Moons g_________ pull
is weaker than the Earths.
orce
asses
ttractive
arger
urther
eight
oon
ravitational
The Moon is kept in
orbit around the
Earth due to gravity.
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Mass and weight
What is the difference between mass and weight?
Your mass is a measure of how
many particles there are in
your body. It does not matter
where you are in the Universe,
your mass does not change.
What is mass measured in?
Kilograms
Your weight is a measure of
the pull of gravity on your
body. Your weight depends
upon what planet you are
standing on.
You would weigh less on
Mercury than on Earth
because Mercury is smaller
than Earth.
What is weight measured in?
Newtons
10kg
Mass = 10kg
Weight = 100 N
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Force diagrams
Force diagrams show
you the direction a force
is acting in. It shows you
the direction an object is
being pushed, pulled or
twisted. The direction of
the arrow shows you the
direction of the force. The
sizes of the arrows can
be used to compare the
sizes of the forces.
Draw a force diagram for a falling
object when it first starts to fall.
Air resistance

Weight
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Unused homework diary on a table
What force pulls down on the book?
Gravity
The diary does not move, so there
must be an equal and opposite force
pushing up on the diary.
What do we call this force?
Reaction force
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Forces on a speeding fish?
Upthrust
Friction
Thrust
Weight
What is thrust?
A forward push
What is upthrust?
The upwards force on a body in a liquid or a gas
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Label the forces acting on the moving ship shown:
Upthrust or
buoyancy
Thrust
Air
resistance
Friction
Weight
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A ship arrives at port and is loaded with cargo:
What happens to the weight of the ship?
What happens to the upthrust on the ship?
Which is the largest force, weight or upthrust?
Increases
Increases
Both equal
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Forces and motion
If an object is stationary and an unbalanced
force acts on it, it will start to move.
If an object is moving and an unbalanced force acts
on it there are three possibilities
The object could speed
up.
The object could slow
down.
The object could change
direction.
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In which direction, if any will the following
stationery objects move?
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What is friction?
If you rub your hands together there is resistance to the
motion.
What do we call this force?
What causes it?
Friction
Even though your hands
look smooth, on a
microscopic level it is not,
so when your hands rub
together you get the
resistive force of friction.
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Direction of friction
Friction always acts in the
opposite direction to the way
an object is moving.
For the following moving
objects, mark with an
arrow, the direction
friction is acting in.
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Friction effects
Friction always acts in the o______ direction to
which an object is moving in.
Friction is a type of f____.
Whenever you get friction between two objects
you always get h___ and w_____.
You can reduce the effect of friction by using a
l______. O_ is a lubricant used in car engines to
reduce friction effects.
pposite
orce
eat earing
ubricant il
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Starting moving
An object will only start to move if the forces applied to it
overcome any frictional forces. For the examples shown say
if the stationary objects will move or not, and if they do move,
say in which direction.
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Friction - useful or hindrance?
Useful Hindrance
Write down three instances where friction is useful and three
where it is a hindrance.
Discuss your ideas with the class and then have a vote on
what the class thinks are the top three for each.
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Which of the following is not a force?
A. Heat
B. Gravity
C. Tension
D. Friction

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For a man standing up, in which direction
does gravity act?
A. B.C. D.

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For a fish in water, what do we call force Z?
A. Friction
B. Air resistance
C. Gravity
D. Upthrust

Z
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In what units is force measured in?
A. Joules
B. Metres
C. Newtons
D. Seconds

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What device is used to measure force?
A. Clock
B. Voltmeter
C. Joulemeter
D. Newtonmeter