# Group Members

Ashique Ali 07EL110
Arsalan Ansari 07EL126
Mukesh kumar 07EL128
Santosh Kumar 07,06EL74

MEHRAN UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING
AND
TECHNOLOGY JAMSHORO

GROUP 007 2
TOPICS
INTRODUCTION
1. NETWORK TOPOLOGY
CUT-SET MATRIX
LOOP MATRIX
E AND I SHIFT
2. CONCEPT OF STATES
STATE EQNS OF DYNAMIC SYSTEM WITH CONTINOUS
SIGNAL AND CONTINUOUS DATA
STATE EQNS OF HIGHER ORDER SYSTEM
DISCRETE STATE EQNS
STATE EQNS OF ELECTRICAL NETWORK
3. ANALYSIS OF NETWORK BY LAPLACE
TRANSFORM
4. CHARACTERISTIC OF LINEAR TIME-
INVARIENT TWO-PORTS BY SIX SET OF
PARAETERS

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RELATIONS AMONG PARAMETER SETS
INTERCONNECTION OF TWO PORTS
5. CONCEPT OF COMPLEX FREQUENCY
TRANSFORM IMPEDANCE & TRANSFORM CKTS
6. NETWORK FUNCTION OF ONE & TWO PORTS
PARTS OF NETWORKS FUNTIONS
MAGNITUDE & PHASE PLOTS
COMPLEX LOCI PLOTS
7. FOURIER SERIES
EVALUATION OF FOURIER CO-EFFICIENT
WAVEFORM SYMMETRIES
EXPONENTIAL FORM OF FOURIER SERIES
8. STEADY STATE RESPONSE TO PERIODIC SIGNALS
9 INTRODUCTION TO FOURIER TRANSFORMS

Objective of Subject
 The main objective of network analysis is the
determination of the current and voltages at various
points of a network.
Network Analysis
 There are two types of methods to analyze a network.
a) Conventional Network analysis
b) State variable method

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Basic Terminology
Graph: “In network analysis, a graph is a circuit
form by replacing each element by a line.”

 In constructing the graph of a network special attention
should be placed on the active elements.

 For a network with ideal source, the ideal voltage source
should be short circuit & ideal current source should e
replaced by an open circuit.

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Example 1: Draw the graph of given circuit.
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d
ORIENTED GRAPH:
 If we indicate a reference direction by an arrow for each
of the lines of the graph, then it is known is “ oriented
graph”.
Example 2: draw the oriented graph for the circuit
shown in fig.
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TOPOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF
GRAPH:
 It deals with the properties of network which are
unaffected, when we stretch twist or otherwise distort
size and shape of the network.
Example 3:
 Notice that the graphs of the given circuit are identical.

These graphs are identical because the relationship between
nodes & are identical.
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1. PLANAR AND NON PLANAR
GRAPHS
 The graphs which may be drawn on a sheet of paper
without crossing lines, called “ planar graphs”
The graphs having crossing lines, called non planar graphs.
2.NODE PAIRS:
 The two nodes which we identify for specifying a
voltage variable.
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Topological properties:
3.LOOP: A Loop (or mesh) is a closed path in a graph
(or network ) formed y a number of connected branches.
4.SUB GRAPH: A Sub graph of a given graph is
formed by removing branches from the original graph.

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d
d

5.Branch: “Each line in a graph is identified as a
branch”.
6.Node: A point in a graph at which two or more lines
(branches) meet is called a node.
7. Node Pair: “A node pair is simply two nodes which
are identified y specifying a voltage variable.

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Tree Of Connected Graph
Tree
The tree is circuit less sub graph of n nodes and n-1
branches.
The tree of connected graph of n nodes has following
properties.
 It contains all the nodes of the graph, nodes are not left
and isolated portion.
 It contains n-1 branches.
 There is no closed path.

 Where
n = number of the nodes
&
(n-1)= number of tree branches.

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Example 4: Draw all possible trees of the given
circuit?
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SOLUTION:
 Here
n=4
Tree Branches= n-1
=3
then, all possible trees are given below
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16
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 Branches remove from the graph in-forming or preparing
the tree are called links or chords.

Where
No: of branches in graph= B
No: of tree branches= (n-1)
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Example 5: Draw at least 5 trees of the following
graph?

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Solution:
branches = b = 7
nodes = n =6
Tree Branches =5
=2
The 5 possible trees are given below:
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21
Example6:Draw the graph of the following circuits.
(A) (B)
GROUP 007
R
1
R
2

a
b
c d
(C)
Solution:
(A)
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Sol:
(B)
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a
Proper or Normal Representation Of
Tree
There are two types of sources.
1. Current source
2. Voltage source
Inductor:
1. Current dependent source.
2. Stores current.
3. Represented by short circuit in a circuit.
4. Represented by link or chord in the tree of connected
graph.
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Capacitor
1. Voltage dependant source.
2. Stores voltage
3. Represented by open circuit in network analysis.
4. Represented by Tree branch in a tree of connected
graph.
Resistor
Represented by dotted lines or bold lines as a tree
branch.
Current dependent source

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Voltage dependent source
 Represented by tree branch
Excessive capacitor
 Excessive capacitor is represented by link.
Excessive inductor
 Excessive inductor is represented by tree branch.
Representation of Nodes
 Nodes are represented by numbers in circle.
Representation of Branch
 Branches are represented by numbers only.
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Example: Draw the graph containing tree branches,
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R
1

R
2
R
3

R
4

R
2
R
3

R
1

C
2

C
1

Sol
branches= b = 1
nodes = n = 5
Tree Branches = n-1
= 4
= 3
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1 2 3
4
5
6
7
1
2
3
4
5
Cut Set
 Cut set of the graph, is the collection of branches and
nodes, such that if these are removed, then the graph
will be divided into
two parts.
 Cut set is basically a counter which cuts one tree branch
and maximum number of links at a time.
 A tree includes the branches that connects all the nodes
of a graph without forming the closed paths.
 The number of cut set in a given network is always
equal to number of tree branches.

 Different cut sets may e obtained with different tree
branches.
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Total number of cut sets = number of tree branches
= (n-1)
Example7: Draw the cut set of the given graph?
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Solution:
branches= b= 8
nodes n = 5
Tree Branches=n-1
= 4
Cut Set Equations
• The set of current equations can be written for each
cut set by applying K.C.L, these equations are called cut
set equations.
• Current is positive when it flows away from cut set &
is negative when it flows towards cut set.
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Cut set Matrix
“The matrix formed by co efficients of independent
branch currents in cut set equations is called cut set
matrix.

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i
b1

i
b2

i
b3

i
b4

i
b5

i
b6

i
b7

i
b8

Cut set equations for above graph
Applying KCL at cut set 1
i
b1
–i
b4
+i
b5
=0
Applying K.C.L at cut set 2
-i
b1
+i
b2
+i
b6
=0
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Applying K.C.L at cut set 3
-i
b2
+i
b3
+i
b7
=0
Applying K.C.L at cut set 4
-i
b3
+i
b4
+i
b8
=0
 Cut set matrix for above equations

A i
b
=0
Where A is a cut set matrix of order (n-1)xb.

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= 0
Example8: Draw the graph, tree and cut set of the
given circuit?
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nodes =n=4
Tree Branches=n-1
=3
branches= b=6
=3
S0lution:
Graph, Tree & cut set:
GROUP 007 37
Cut set Equations
Applying K.C.L at cut set 1

i
b1
–i
b3
+i
b4
=0
Applying K.C.L at cut set 2

-i
b1
+i
b2
+i
b5
=0
Applying K.C.L at cut set 3
-i
b2
–i
b4
+i
b6
=0
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Cut set Matrix
GROUP 007 39
=0
Node transformation equations
Node pair voltage
It is the voltage difference between two parts of a graph
that are separated by a cut set.
The can also be obtained through the node pair voltages &
branch voltages of a graph.
GROUP 007 40
e
1
=V
1
– V
2

e
2
=V
2
– V
3

e
3
=V
3
– V
4

e
4
=V
4
– V
1

e
5
= V
1

e
6
= V
2

e
7 =
V
3
e
8
= V
4

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=
The above equation is known as node
transformation equation.
A
t
V
n
= e
b

Node transformation equation by
using cut set technique
 Where
R
b
= total resistance in branch
L
b
=total inductance in branch
C
b
= total capacitance in branch

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V
g

i
b

L
b
C
b
R
b

i
g

Node
i
b

e
b

Node
V
g
= total series voltage source in branch
i
g
= current source in branch
e
b
= branch voltage
i
b
= branch current
V
rb
= R
b
(i
b
- i
g
)

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Lb
b g
Lb b g
Then current for branch is given as
b b
b
b b g
g
i
b
=i
g
+Y
b
(e
b
- V
g
)
Multiplying by cut set matrix (A) on oth sides
Ai
b
=Ai
g
+Ay
b
(e
b
- V
g
)
0 = Ai
g
+Ay
b
e
b
-V
g

Ay
b
V
g
– Ai
g
= Ay
b
e
b

…...... Eq (A)
now let
Ay
b
V
g
- Ai
g
= i
n

&
Ay
b
A
t
= y
n
Eq (A) becomes

Where y
n
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44
A

i
b
= 0
e
b
= A
t
V
n

Ay
b
V
g
- Ai
g
= Ay
b
A
t
V
n

i
n
= y
n
V
n

Example9: write the node equations for the network
shown in fig:
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V
g

R
1

R
2

L
3

C
4

i
g

V
c
(t)
I
l
(t)
Sol:
n = 3
B = 4
T.B = n – 1
= 2
Links = b – n + 1
= 2
A
t
=

Y
b

AY
b
=
GROUP 007 46
AY
b
=

AY
b
A
t
=
AY
b
A
t
=
AY
b
V
g =

GROUP 007 47
AY
b
V
g =

Ai
g
=
Ai
g =

ֶi
n =
AY
b
V
g
- Ai
g

i
n
=
-
GROUP 007 48
i
n
=
ֶ i
n
= Y
n
V
n

GROUP 007 49
Node equation by using Tie-set technique
GROUP 007 50
Node
V
g
= total series voltage source in branch
i
g
= current source in branch
e
b
= branch voltage
i
b
= branch current
V
g

R
b

L
b

C
b

e
b

i
b

i
b

Node
R
b
= total resistance in branch
L
b
=total inductance in branch
C
b
= total capacitance in branch
e
b
=v
g
+(i
b
-i
g
)(R
b
+L
b
+ )
e
b
=v
g
+(i
b
-i
g
)Z
b

multiplying tie set matrix on both sides
Be
b
= BV
g
+ B(i
b
- i
g
)Z
b

Be
b
=Bv
g
+BZ
b
i
b
-BZ
b
i
g

0 = BV
g
+ BZ
b
B
t
i
L
- BZ
b
i
g
ֶ Be
b
=0
BZ
b
B
t
i
L
= BZ
b
i
g
- BV
g

i
b =
B
t
i
L

Assume
BZ
b
B
t
=Z
L

BZ
b
i
g
- BV
g
=V
L

now eq(A) becomes
z
L
i
L
=V
L

which is loop equations in matrix form, where Z
L
is loop
impedance matrix
51
......eq(A)
Example10: Write the loop equation shown in figure by
means of Tie-set method Assuming R
2
&L
3
Branches as tree
branches
Sol
b=4
n=3
T.B=2
T.S=2

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R
1

V
g

i
g

R
2

L
3

C
4

Since
v
L
=z
L
I

Z
L
=BZ
b
B
t

V
L
=BZ
b
i
g
-BV
g

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B=

B
t
=

Z
b
=

GROUP 007 54

  1 1 1 0
0 1 1 1

1 0
1 1
1 1
0 1

4
3
2
1
1/ DC 0 0 0
0 DL 0 0
0 0 R 0
0 0 0 R

4
3
2
1
1/ DC 0 0 0
0 DL 0 0
0 0 R 0
0 0 0 R

  1 1 1 0
0 1 1 1
BZ
b
=

BZ
b
=

BZ
b
B
t
=

BZ
b
B
t
=Z
L
=

i
g
=
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  4 3 2
3 2 1
1/DC DL R 0
0 DL R R

  4 3 2
3 2 1
1/DC DL R 0
0 DL R R

1 0
1 1
1 1
0 1

   
   
4 3 2 3 2
3 2 3 2 1
1/DC DL R DL R
DL R DL R R

0
0
i
0
g

g 2
g 2
i R
i R
BZ
b
i
g
=
BV
g
=

BV
g
=

v
L
=BZ
b
i
g
-BV
g

V
L
= -

v
L
=

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56

  1 1 1 0
0 1 1 1

 c
g
v
v
0
0

 c
g
v
v

g
g
i R
i R
2
2

 c
g
v
v

 
Vc i R
v i R
g
g g
2
2
Now
V
L
= Z
L
i
L

2
1
i
i
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   
   
4 3 2 3 2
3 2 3 2 1
1 DC DL R DL R
DL R DL R R
/

 
Vc i R
v i R
g
g g
2
2
=

E-SHIFT
It is possible to shift the voltage source generated (vg) to
the branch that are connected in series with it, with out
changing the characteristics of the branch.
Example:
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R
1

R
2

R
3

R
1
R
2

R
3

V
g
V
g

V
g

There are two possibilities of E-Shifting depending upon
the network
1)Forward E-Shifting
2)Backward E-Shifting
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R
1
R
2

R
3
R
4

C
1
C
2

V
g

GROUP 007 60
V
g

I-SHIFT
Current source I
g
can be placed in parallel which
each of the branch that formed a close loop with I
g
GROUP 007 61
i
g

R
1

R
2
R
3

C
1
C
2

i
g
i
g

R
1

R
2

R
3

C
1
C
2

C
1
C
2

R
1

R
2

R
3

i
g

i
g

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Example11: write the loop & node equations of the
network shown in fig by applying E shift & I shift.
Sol
n =4
b =7
T.B=n-1
=3 cut sets=3

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=4
GROUP 007 64
A=
A
t
=

Y
b=

GROUP 007 65
AY
b
=
AY
b=

Y
n
=AY
b
A
t

GROUP 007 66
=
Y
n

Y
n
=
V
g
=
GROUP 007 67
AY
b
Vg=

=

I
g
=

GROUP 007
68
Ai
g
=
=

=
I
n
=AY
b
V
g
- Ai
g

GROUP 007 69
=
-

I
n
=
I
n
=Y
n
V
n

=
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