Group Members

Ashique Ali 07EL110
Arsalan Ansari 07EL126
Mukesh kumar 07EL128
Saddam Hussain 07EL131
Santosh Kumar 07,06EL74


MEHRAN UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING
AND
TECHNOLOGY JAMSHORO








GROUP 007 2
TOPICS
INTRODUCTION
1. NETWORK TOPOLOGY
CUT-SET MATRIX
LOOP MATRIX
E AND I SHIFT
2. CONCEPT OF STATES
STATE EQNS OF DYNAMIC SYSTEM WITH CONTINOUS
SIGNAL AND CONTINUOUS DATA
STATE EQNS OF HIGHER ORDER SYSTEM
DISCRETE STATE EQNS
STATE EQNS OF ELECTRICAL NETWORK
3. ANALYSIS OF NETWORK BY LAPLACE
TRANSFORM
4. CHARACTERISTIC OF LINEAR TIME-
INVARIENT TWO-PORTS BY SIX SET OF
PARAETERS

GROUP 007 4
RELATIONS AMONG PARAMETER SETS
INTERCONNECTION OF TWO PORTS
5. CONCEPT OF COMPLEX FREQUENCY
TRANSFORM IMPEDANCE & TRANSFORM CKTS
6. NETWORK FUNCTION OF ONE & TWO PORTS
PARTS OF NETWORKS FUNTIONS
MAGNITUDE & PHASE PLOTS
COMPLEX LOCI PLOTS
7. FOURIER SERIES
EVALUATION OF FOURIER CO-EFFICIENT
WAVEFORM SYMMETRIES
EXPONENTIAL FORM OF FOURIER SERIES
8. STEADY STATE RESPONSE TO PERIODIC SIGNALS
9 INTRODUCTION TO FOURIER TRANSFORMS





Objective of Subject
 The main objective of network analysis is the
determination of the current and voltages at various
points of a network.
Network Analysis
 There are two types of methods to analyze a network.
a) Conventional Network analysis
b) State variable method

GROUP 007 5
Basic Terminology
Graph: “In network analysis, a graph is a circuit
form by replacing each element by a line.”

 In constructing the graph of a network special attention
should be placed on the active elements.

 For a network with ideal source, the ideal voltage source
should be short circuit & ideal current source should e
replaced by an open circuit.

GROUP 007 6
Example 1: Draw the graph of given circuit.
GROUP 007 7
d
ORIENTED GRAPH:
 If we indicate a reference direction by an arrow for each
of the lines of the graph, then it is known is “ oriented
graph”.
Example 2: draw the oriented graph for the circuit
shown in fig.
GROUP 007 8
GROUP 007 9
TOPOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF
GRAPH:
 It deals with the properties of network which are
unaffected, when we stretch twist or otherwise distort
size and shape of the network.
Example 3:
 Notice that the graphs of the given circuit are identical.

These graphs are identical because the relationship between
nodes & are identical.
GROUP 007 10
1. PLANAR AND NON PLANAR
GRAPHS
 The graphs which may be drawn on a sheet of paper
without crossing lines, called “ planar graphs”
The graphs having crossing lines, called non planar graphs.
2.NODE PAIRS:
 The two nodes which we identify for specifying a
voltage variable.
GROUP 007 11
Topological properties:
3.LOOP: A Loop (or mesh) is a closed path in a graph
(or network ) formed y a number of connected branches.
4.SUB GRAPH: A Sub graph of a given graph is
formed by removing branches from the original graph.



GROUP 007 12
d
d

5.Branch: “Each line in a graph is identified as a
branch”.
6.Node: A point in a graph at which two or more lines
(branches) meet is called a node.
7. Node Pair: “A node pair is simply two nodes which
are identified y specifying a voltage variable.





GROUP 007 13
Tree Of Connected Graph
Tree
The tree is circuit less sub graph of n nodes and n-1
branches.
The tree of connected graph of n nodes has following
properties.
 It contains all the nodes of the graph, nodes are not left
and isolated portion.
 It contains n-1 branches.
 There is no closed path.

 Where
n = number of the nodes
&
(n-1)= number of tree branches.

GROUP 007 14
Example 4: Draw all possible trees of the given
circuit?
GROUP 007 15
SOLUTION:
 Here
n=4
Tree Branches= n-1
=3
then, all possible trees are given below
GROUP 007
16
GROUP 007 17
GROUP 007 18
Chord, Link OR Co- Tree
 Branches remove from the graph in-forming or preparing
the tree are called links or chords.
No: of links
No of links = b-(n-1)

Where
No: of links = L
No: of branches in graph= B
No: of tree branches= (n-1)
GROUP 007 19
Example 5: Draw at least 5 trees of the following
graph?

GROUP 007 20
Solution:
branches = b = 7
nodes = n =6
Tree Branches =5
No of Links=b-n+1
=2
The 5 possible trees are given below:
GROUP 007
21
Example6:Draw the graph of the following circuits.
(A) (B)
GROUP 007
R
1
R
2

a
b
c d
(C)
Solution:
(A)
GROUP 007 23
Sol:
(B)
GROUP 007 24
a
Proper or Normal Representation Of
Tree
There are two types of sources.
1. Current source
2. Voltage source
Inductor:
1. Current dependent source.
2. Stores current.
3. Represented by short circuit in a circuit.
4. Represented by link or chord in the tree of connected
graph.
GROUP 007 25
Capacitor
1. Voltage dependant source.
2. Stores voltage
3. Represented by open circuit in network analysis.
4. Represented by Tree branch in a tree of connected
graph.
Resistor
Represented by dotted lines or bold lines as a tree
branch.
Current dependent source
Represented by chord or link.

GROUP 007 26
Voltage dependent source
 Represented by tree branch
Excessive capacitor
 Excessive capacitor is represented by link.
Excessive inductor
 Excessive inductor is represented by tree branch.
Representation of Nodes
 Nodes are represented by numbers in circle.
Representation of Branch
 Branches are represented by numbers only.
GROUP 007 27
Example: Draw the graph containing tree branches,
links.
GROUP 007 28
R
1

R
2
R
3

R
4

R
2
R
3

R
1

C
2

C
1

Sol
branches= b = 1
nodes = n = 5
Tree Branches = n-1
= 4
links = b-n+1
= 3
GROUP 007 29
1 2 3
4
5
6
7
1
2
3
4
5
Cut Set
 Cut set of the graph, is the collection of branches and
nodes, such that if these are removed, then the graph
will be divided into
two parts.
 Cut set is basically a counter which cuts one tree branch
and maximum number of links at a time.
 A tree includes the branches that connects all the nodes
of a graph without forming the closed paths.
 The number of cut set in a given network is always
equal to number of tree branches.


 Different cut sets may e obtained with different tree
branches.
GROUP 007 30
Total number of cut sets = number of tree branches
= (n-1)
Example7: Draw the cut set of the given graph?
GROUP 007 31
Solution:
branches= b= 8
nodes n = 5
Tree Branches=n-1
= 4
Links= 4
Cut Set Equations
• The set of current equations can be written for each
cut set by applying K.C.L, these equations are called cut
set equations.
• Current is positive when it flows away from cut set &
is negative when it flows towards cut set.
GROUP 007 32
Cut set Matrix
“The matrix formed by co efficients of independent
branch currents in cut set equations is called cut set
matrix.

GROUP 007 33
i
b1

i
b2

i
b3

i
b4

i
b5

i
b6

i
b7

i
b8

Cut set equations for above graph
Applying KCL at cut set 1
i
b1
–i
b4
+i
b5
=0
Applying K.C.L at cut set 2
-i
b1
+i
b2
+i
b6
=0
GROUP 007 34
Applying K.C.L at cut set 3
-i
b2
+i
b3
+i
b7
=0
Applying K.C.L at cut set 4
-i
b3
+i
b4
+i
b8
=0
 Cut set matrix for above equations









A i
b
=0
Where A is a cut set matrix of order (n-1)xb.

GROUP 007 35
= 0
Example8: Draw the graph, tree and cut set of the
given circuit?
GROUP 007 36
nodes =n=4
Tree Branches=n-1
=3
branches= b=6
Links=b-(n+1)
=3
S0lution:
Graph, Tree & cut set:
GROUP 007 37
Cut set Equations
Applying K.C.L at cut set 1

i
b1
–i
b3
+i
b4
=0
Applying K.C.L at cut set 2

-i
b1
+i
b2
+i
b5
=0
Applying K.C.L at cut set 3
-i
b2
–i
b4
+i
b6
=0
GROUP 007 38
Cut set Matrix
GROUP 007 39
=0
Node transformation equations
Node pair voltage
It is the voltage difference between two parts of a graph
that are separated by a cut set.
The can also be obtained through the node pair voltages &
branch voltages of a graph.
GROUP 007 40
e
1
=V
1
– V
2

e
2
=V
2
– V
3

e
3
=V
3
– V
4

e
4
=V
4
– V
1

e
5
= V
1

e
6
= V
2

e
7 =
V
3
e
8
= V
4


GROUP 007 41
=
The above equation is known as node
transformation equation.
A
t
V
n
= e
b

Node transformation equation by
using cut set technique
 Where
R
b
= total resistance in branch
L
b
=total inductance in branch
C
b
= total capacitance in branch


GROUP 007 42
V
g

i
b

L
b
C
b
R
b

i
g

Node
i
b

e
b

Node
V
g
= total series voltage source in branch
i
g
= current source in branch
e
b
= branch voltage
i
b
= branch current
V
rb
= R
b
(i
b
- i
g
)

GROUP 007 43
Lb
b g
Lb b g
Then current for branch is given as
b b
b
b b g
g
i
b
=i
g
+Y
b
(e
b
- V
g
)
Multiplying by cut set matrix (A) on oth sides
Ai
b
=Ai
g
+Ay
b
(e
b
- V
g
)
0 = Ai
g
+Ay
b
e
b
-V
g

Ay
b
V
g
– Ai
g
= Ay
b
e
b


…...... Eq (A)
now let
Ay
b
V
g
- Ai
g
= i
n

&
Ay
b
A
t
= y
n
Eq (A) becomes



Where y
n
is node admittance matrix.
GROUP 007
44
A

i
b
= 0
e
b
= A
t
V
n

Ay
b
V
g
- Ai
g
= Ay
b
A
t
V
n

i
n
= y
n
V
n

Example9: write the node equations for the network
shown in fig:
GROUP 007
V
g

R
1

R
2

L
3

C
4

i
g

V
c
(t)
I
l
(t)
Sol:
n = 3
B = 4
T.B = n – 1
= 2
Links = b – n + 1
= 2
A
t
=



Y
b

AY
b
=
GROUP 007 46
AY
b
=

AY
b
A
t
=
AY
b
A
t
=
AY
b
V
g =

GROUP 007 47
AY
b
V
g =

Ai
g
=
Ai
g =

ֶi
n =
AY
b
V
g
- Ai
g

i
n
=
-
GROUP 007 48
i
n
=
ֶ i
n
= Y
n
V
n

GROUP 007 49
Node equation by using Tie-set technique
GROUP 007 50
Node
V
g
= total series voltage source in branch
i
g
= current source in branch
e
b
= branch voltage
i
b
= branch current
V
g

R
b

L
b

C
b

e
b

i
b

i
b

Node
R
b
= total resistance in branch
L
b
=total inductance in branch
C
b
= total capacitance in branch
e
b
=v
g
+(i
b
-i
g
)(R
b
+L
b
+ )
e
b
=v
g
+(i
b
-i
g
)Z
b

multiplying tie set matrix on both sides
Be
b
= BV
g
+ B(i
b
- i
g
)Z
b

Be
b
=Bv
g
+BZ
b
i
b
-BZ
b
i
g

0 = BV
g
+ BZ
b
B
t
i
L
- BZ
b
i
g
ֶ Be
b
=0
BZ
b
B
t
i
L
= BZ
b
i
g
- BV
g

i
b =
B
t
i
L

Assume
BZ
b
B
t
=Z
L

BZ
b
i
g
- BV
g
=V
L

now eq(A) becomes
z
L
i
L
=V
L

which is loop equations in matrix form, where Z
L
is loop
impedance matrix
51
......eq(A)
Example10: Write the loop equation shown in figure by
means of Tie-set method Assuming R
2
&L
3
Branches as tree
branches
Sol
b=4
n=3
T.B=2
T.S=2

GROUP 007 52
R
1

V
g

i
g

R
2

L
3

C
4

Since
v
L
=z
L
I


Z
L
=BZ
b
B
t

V
L
=BZ
b
i
g
-BV
g

GROUP 007 53
B=


B
t
=



Z
b
=

GROUP 007 54






  1 1 1 0
0 1 1 1














1 0
1 1
1 1
0 1












4
3
2
1
1/ DC 0 0 0
0 DL 0 0
0 0 R 0
0 0 0 R













4
3
2
1
1/ DC 0 0 0
0 DL 0 0
0 0 R 0
0 0 0 R






  1 1 1 0
0 1 1 1
BZ
b
=

BZ
b
=



BZ
b
B
t
=



BZ
b
B
t
=Z
L
=


i
g
=
GROUP 007 55






  4 3 2
3 2 1
1/DC DL R 0
0 DL R R






  4 3 2
3 2 1
1/DC DL R 0
0 DL R R














1 0
1 1
1 1
0 1






   
   
4 3 2 3 2
3 2 3 2 1
1/DC DL R DL R
DL R DL R R













0
0
i
0
g







g 2
g 2
i R
i R
BZ
b
i
g
=
BV
g
=


BV
g
=

v
L
=BZ
b
i
g
-BV
g



V
L
= -


v
L
=


GROUP 007
56






  1 1 1 0
0 1 1 1












 c
g
v
v
0
0






 c
g
v
v







g
g
i R
i R
2
2







 c
g
v
v







 
Vc i R
v i R
g
g g
2
2
Now
V
L
= Z
L
i
L







2
1
i
i
GROUP 007 57






   
   
4 3 2 3 2
3 2 3 2 1
1 DC DL R DL R
DL R DL R R
/







 
Vc i R
v i R
g
g g
2
2
=

E-SHIFT
It is possible to shift the voltage source generated (vg) to
the branch that are connected in series with it, with out
changing the characteristics of the branch.
Example:
GROUP 007 58
R
1

R
2

R
3

R
1
R
2

R
3

V
g
V
g

V
g

There are two possibilities of E-Shifting depending upon
the network
1)Forward E-Shifting
2)Backward E-Shifting
GROUP 007 59
R
1
R
2

R
3
R
4

C
1
C
2

V
g

GROUP 007 60
V
g

I-SHIFT
Current source I
g
can be placed in parallel which
each of the branch that formed a close loop with I
g
GROUP 007 61
i
g

R
1

R
2
R
3

C
1
C
2

i
g
i
g

R
1

R
2

R
3

C
1
C
2

C
1
C
2

R
1

R
2

R
3

i
g

i
g

GROUP 007 62
Example11: write the loop & node equations of the
network shown in fig by applying E shift & I shift.
Sol
n =4
b =7
T.B=n-1
=3 cut sets=3


GROUP 007 63
Links=b-n+1
=4
GROUP 007 64
A=
A
t
=



Y
b=

GROUP 007 65
AY
b
=
AY
b=

Y
n
=AY
b
A
t

GROUP 007 66
=
Y
n


Y
n
=
V
g
=
GROUP 007 67
AY
b
Vg=


=

I
g
=

GROUP 007
68
Ai
g
=
=

=
I
n
=AY
b
V
g
- Ai
g

GROUP 007 69
=
-

I
n
=
I
n
=Y
n
V
n

=
GROUP 007 70

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