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LECTURE PRESENTATIONS

For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION


Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Lectures by
Erin Barley
Kathleen Fitzpatrick
Cellular Respiration and
Fermentation
Chapter 9
Overview: Life Is Work
Living cells require energy from outside
sources
Some animals, such as the chimpanzee, obtain
energy by eating plants, and some animals
feed on other organisms that eat plants
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Figure 9.1
Energy flows into an ecosystem as sunlight
and leaves as heat
Photosynthesis generates O
2
and organic
molecules, which are used in cellular
respiration
Cells use chemical energy stored in organic
molecules to regenerate ATP, which powers
work
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Figure 9.2
Light
energy
ECOSYSTEM
Photosynthesis
in chloroplasts
Cellular respiration
in mitochondria
CO
2
H
2
O
O
2

Organic
molecules
ATP powers
most cellular work
ATP
Heat
energy
Concept 9.1: Catabolic pathways yield
energy by oxidizing organic fuels
Several processes are central to cellular
respiration and related pathways
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Catabolic Pathways and Production of ATP
The breakdown of organic molecules is
exergonic
Fermentation is a partial degradation of
sugars that occurs without O
2

Aerobic respiration consumes organic
molecules and O
2
and yields ATP
Anaerobic respiration is similar to aerobic
respiration but consumes compounds other
than O
2


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Cellular respiration includes both aerobic and
anaerobic respiration but is often used to refer to
aerobic respiration
Although carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are
all consumed as fuel, it is helpful to trace cellular
respiration with the sugar glucose
C
6
H
12
O
6
+ 6 O
2
6 CO
2
+ 6 H
2
O + Energy (ATP + heat)

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Redox Reactions: Oxidation and Reduction
The transfer of electrons during chemical
reactions releases energy stored in organic
molecules
This released energy is ultimately used to
synthesize ATP
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The Principle of Redox
Chemical reactions that transfer electrons
between reactants are called oxidation-reduction
reactions, or redox reactions
In oxidation, a substance loses electrons, or is
oxidized
In reduction, a substance gains electrons, or is
reduced (the amount of positive charge is
reduced)

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Figure 9.UN01
becomes oxidized
(loses electron)
becomes reduced
(gains electron)
Figure 9.UN02
becomes oxidized
becomes reduced
The electron donor is called the reducing
agent
The electron receptor is called the oxidizing
agent
Some redox reactions do not transfer electrons
but change the electron sharing in covalent
bonds
An example is the reaction between methane
and O
2


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Figure 9.3
Reactants Products
Energy
Water Carbon dioxide Methane
(reducing
agent)
Oxygen
(oxidizing
agent)
becomes oxidized
becomes reduced
Oxidation of Organic Fuel Molecules During
Cellular Respiration
During cellular respiration, the fuel (such as
glucose) is oxidized, and O
2
is reduced
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Figure 9.UN03
becomes oxidized
becomes reduced
Stepwise Energy Harvest via NAD
+
and the
Electron Transport Chain
In cellular respiration, glucose and other organic
molecules are broken down in a series of steps
Electrons from organic compounds are usually
first transferred to NAD
+
, a coenzyme
As an electron acceptor, NAD
+
functions as an
oxidizing agent during cellular respiration
Each NADH (the reduced form of NAD
+
)
represents stored energy that is tapped to
synthesize ATP
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Figure 9.4
Nicotinamide
(oxidized form)
NAD


(from food)
Dehydrogenase
Reduction of NAD


Oxidation of NADH
Nicotinamide
(reduced form)
NADH
Figure 9.UN04
Dehydrogenase
NADH passes the electrons to the electron
transport chain
Unlike an uncontrolled reaction, the electron
transport chain passes electrons in a series of
steps instead of one explosive reaction
O
2
pulls electrons down the chain in an energy-
yielding tumble
The energy yielded is used to regenerate ATP
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Figure 9.5
(a) Uncontrolled reaction (b) Cellular respiration
Explosive
release of
heat and light
energy
Controlled
release of
energy for
synthesis of
ATP
F
r
e
e

e
n
e
r
g
y
,

G

F
r
e
e

e
n
e
r
g
y
,

G

H
2

1
/
2
O
2
2 H


1
/
2
O
2
1
/
2
O
2
H
2
O
H
2
O
2 H
+
2 e

2 e

2 H
+
ATP
ATP
ATP
(from food via NADH)
The Stages of Cellular Respiration:
A Preview
Harvesting of energy from glucose has three
stages
Glycolysis (breaks down glucose into two
molecules of pyruvate)
The citric acid cycle (completes the
breakdown of glucose)
Oxidative phosphorylation (accounts for
most of the ATP synthesis)
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Figure 9.UN05
Glycolysis (color-coded teal throughout the chapter)
1.
Pyruvate oxidation and the citric acid cycle
(color-coded salmon)
2.
Oxidative phosphorylation: electron transport and
chemiosmosis (color-coded violet)
3.
Figure 9.6-1
Electrons
carried
via NADH
Glycolysis
Glucose Pyruvate
CYTOSOL
MITOCHONDRION
ATP
Substrate-level
phosphorylation
Figure 9.6-2
Electrons
carried
via NADH
Electrons carried
via NADH and
FADH
2

Citric
acid
cycle
Pyruvate
oxidation
Acetyl CoA
Glycolysis
Glucose Pyruvate
CYTOSOL
MITOCHONDRION
ATP ATP
Substrate-level
phosphorylation
Substrate-level
phosphorylation
Figure 9.6-3
Electrons
carried
via NADH
Electrons carried
via NADH and
FADH
2

Citric
acid
cycle
Pyruvate
oxidation
Acetyl CoA
Glycolysis
Glucose Pyruvate
Oxidative
phosphorylation:
electron transport
and
chemiosmosis
CYTOSOL
MITOCHONDRION
ATP ATP
ATP
Substrate-level
phosphorylation
Substrate-level
phosphorylation
Oxidative
phosphorylation
The process that generates most of the ATP is
called oxidative phosphorylation because it is
powered by redox reactions

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BioFlix: Cellular Respiration
Oxidative phosphorylation accounts for almost
90% of the ATP generated by cellular
respiration
A smaller amount of ATP is formed in glycolysis
and the citric acid cycle by substrate-level
phosphorylation
For each molecule of glucose degraded to CO
2
and water by respiration, the cell makes up to
32 molecules of ATP
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Figure 9.7
Substrate
Product
ADP
P
ATP
Enzyme
Enzyme
Concept 9.2: Glycolysis harvests chemical
energy by oxidizing glucose to pyruvate
Glycolysis (splitting of sugar) breaks down
glucose into two molecules of pyruvate
Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm and has two
major phases
Energy investment phase
Energy payoff phase
Glycolysis occurs whether or not O
2
is present
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Figure 9.8
Energy Investment Phase
Glucose
2 ADP 2 P
4 ADP 4 P
Energy Payoff Phase
2 NAD
+
4 e

4 H
+

2 Pyruvate 2 H
2
O
2 ATP used
4 ATP formed
2 NADH 2 H
+

Net
Glucose 2 Pyruvate 2 H
2
O
2 ATP
2 NADH 2 H
+
2 NAD
+
4 e

4 H
+

4 ATP formed 2 ATP used
Figure 9.9-1
Glycolysis: Energy Investment Phase
ATP
Glucose Glucose 6-phosphate
ADP
Hexokinase

1
Figure 9.9-2
Glycolysis: Energy Investment Phase
ATP
Glucose Glucose 6-phosphate
Fructose 6-phosphate
ADP
Hexokinase

Phosphogluco-
isomerase

1
2
Figure 9.9-3
Glycolysis: Energy Investment Phase
ATP ATP
Glucose Glucose 6-phosphate
Fructose 6-phosphate Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate
ADP ADP
Hexokinase

Phosphogluco-
isomerase

Phospho-
fructokinase

1
2
3
Figure 9.9-4
Glycolysis: Energy Investment Phase
ATP ATP
Glucose Glucose 6-phosphate
Fructose 6-phosphate Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate
Dihydroxyacetone
phosphate
Glyceraldehyde
3-phosphate
To
step 6
ADP ADP
Hexokinase

Phosphogluco-
isomerase

Phospho-
fructokinase

Aldolase

Isomerase

1
2
3
4
5
Figure 9.9-5
Glycolysis: Energy Payoff Phase
2 NADH
2 NAD

+

2 H


2 P
i

1,3-Bisphospho-
glycerate
6
Triose
phosphate
dehydrogenase

Figure 9.9-6
Glycolysis: Energy Payoff Phase
2 ATP
2 NADH
2 NAD

+

2 H


2 P
i

2 ADP
1,3-Bisphospho-
glycerate
3-Phospho-
glycerate
2
Phospho-
glycerokinase

6
7
Triose
phosphate
dehydrogenase

Figure 9.9-7
Glycolysis: Energy Payoff Phase
2 ATP
2 NADH
2 NAD

+

2 H


2 P
i

2 ADP
1,3-Bisphospho-
glycerate
3-Phospho-
glycerate
2-Phospho-
glycerate
2 2
Phospho-
glycerokinase

Phospho-
glyceromutase

6
7
8
Triose
phosphate
dehydrogenase

Figure 9.9-8
Glycolysis: Energy Payoff Phase
2 ATP
2 NADH
2 NAD

+

2 H


2 P
i

2 ADP
1,3-Bisphospho-
glycerate
3-Phospho-
glycerate
2-Phospho-
glycerate
Phosphoenol-
pyruvate (PEP)
2 2 2
2 H
2
O
Phospho-
glycerokinase

Phospho-
glyceromutase

Enolase

6
7
8
9
Triose
phosphate
dehydrogenase

Figure 9.9-9
Glycolysis: Energy Payoff Phase
2 ATP
2 ATP
2 NADH
2 NAD

+

2 H


2 P
i

2 ADP
1,3-Bisphospho-
glycerate
3-Phospho-
glycerate
2-Phospho-
glycerate
Phosphoenol-
pyruvate (PEP)
Pyruvate
2 ADP
2 2 2
2 H
2
O
Phospho-
glycerokinase

Phospho-
glyceromutase

Enolase

Pyruvate
kinase

6
7
8
9
10
Triose
phosphate
dehydrogenase

Figure 9.9a
Glycolysis: Energy Investment Phase
ATP
Glucose Glucose 6-phosphate
ADP
Hexokinase

1
Fructose 6-phosphate
Phosphogluco-
isomerase

2
Figure 9.9b
Glycolysis: Energy Investment Phase
ATP
Fructose 6-phosphate
ADP
3
Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate
Phospho-
fructokinase

4
5
Aldolase

Dihydroxyacetone
phosphate
Glyceraldehyde
3-phosphate
To
step 6
Isomerase

Figure 9.9c
Glycolysis: Energy Payoff Phase
2 NADH
2 ATP
2 ADP
2
2
2 NAD


+

2 H

2 P
i

3-Phospho-
glycerate
1,3-Bisphospho-
glycerate
Triose
phosphate
dehydrogenase
Phospho-
glycerokinase
6
7
Figure 9.9d
Glycolysis: Energy Payoff Phase
2 ATP
2 ADP
2 2 2 2
2 H
2
O
Pyruvate
Phosphoenol-
pyruvate (PEP)
2-Phospho-
glycerate
3-Phospho-
glycerate
8
9
10
Phospho-
glyceromutase
Enolase Pyruvate
kinase
Concept 9.3: After pyruvate is oxidized, the
citric acid cycle completes the energy-
yielding oxidation of organic molecules
In the presence of O
2
, pyruvate enters the
mitochondrion (in eukaryotic cells) where the
oxidation of glucose is completed
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Oxidation of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
Before the citric acid cycle can begin, pyruvate
must be converted to acetyl Coenzyme A
(acetyl CoA), which links glycolysis to the citric
acid cycle
This step is carried out by a multienzyme
complex that catalyses three reactions
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Figure 9.10
Pyruvate
Transport protein
CYTOSOL
MITOCHONDRION
CO
2
Coenzyme A
NAD

+

H

NADH
Acetyl CoA
1
2
3
The citric acid cycle, also called the Krebs
cycle, completes the break down of pyruvate
to CO
2

The cycle oxidizes organic fuel derived from
pyruvate, generating 1 ATP, 3 NADH, and 1
FADH
2
per turn
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The Citric Acid Cycle
Figure 9.11
Pyruvate
NAD


NADH
+ H

Acetyl CoA
CO
2

CoA
CoA
CoA
2 CO
2

ADP + P
i
FADH
2

FAD
ATP
3 NADH
3 NAD


Citric
acid
cycle
+ 3 H

The citric acid cycle has eight steps, each
catalyzed by a specific enzyme
The acetyl group of acetyl CoA joins the cycle
by combining with oxaloacetate, forming citrate
The next seven steps decompose the citrate
back to oxaloacetate, making the process a
cycle
The NADH and FADH
2
produced by the cycle
relay electrons extracted from food to the
electron transport chain
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Figure 9.12-1
1
Acetyl CoA
Citrate
Citric
acid
cycle
CoA-SH
Oxaloacetate
Figure 9.12-2
1
Acetyl CoA
Citrate
Isocitrate
Citric
acid
cycle
H
2
O
2
CoA-SH
Oxaloacetate
Figure 9.12-3
1
Acetyl CoA
Citrate
Isocitrate
-Ketoglutarate
Citric
acid
cycle
NADH
+ H

NAD


H
2
O
3
2
CoA-SH
CO
2

Oxaloacetate
Figure 9.12-4
1
Acetyl CoA
Citrate
Isocitrate
-Ketoglutarate
Succinyl
CoA
Citric
acid
cycle
NADH
NADH
+ H

+ H

NAD


NAD


H
2
O
3
2
4
CoA-SH
CO
2

CoA-SH
CO
2

Oxaloacetate
Figure 9.12-5
1
Acetyl CoA
Citrate
Isocitrate
-Ketoglutarate
Succinyl
CoA
Succinate
Citric
acid
cycle
NADH
NADH
ATP
+ H

+ H

NAD


NAD


H
2
O
ADP
GTP GDP
P
i

3
2
4
5
CoA-SH
CO
2

CoA-SH
CoA-SH
CO
2

Oxaloacetate
Figure 9.12-6
1
Acetyl CoA
Citrate
Isocitrate
-Ketoglutarate
Succinyl
CoA
Succinate
Fumarate
Citric
acid
cycle
NADH
NADH
FADH
2

ATP
+ H

+ H

NAD


NAD


H
2
O
ADP
GTP GDP
P
i

FAD
3
2
4
5
6
CoA-SH
CO
2

CoA-SH
CoA-SH
CO
2

Oxaloacetate
Figure 9.12-7
1
Acetyl CoA
Citrate
Isocitrate
-Ketoglutarate
Succinyl
CoA
Succinate
Fumarate
Malate
Citric
acid
cycle
NADH
NADH
FADH
2

ATP
+ H

+ H

NAD


NAD


H
2
O
H
2
O
ADP
GTP GDP
P
i

FAD
3
2
4
5
6
7
CoA-SH
CO
2

CoA-SH
CoA-SH
CO
2

Oxaloacetate
Figure 9.12-8
NADH
1
Acetyl CoA
Citrate
Isocitrate
-Ketoglutarate
Succinyl
CoA
Succinate
Fumarate
Malate
Citric
acid
cycle
NAD


NADH
NADH
FADH
2

ATP
+ H

+ H

+ H

NAD


NAD


H
2
O
H
2
O
ADP
GTP GDP
P
i

FAD
3
2
4
5
6
7
8
CoA-SH
CO
2

CoA-SH
CoA-SH
CO
2

Oxaloacetate
Figure 9.12a
Acetyl CoA
Oxaloacetate
Citrate
Isocitrate
H
2
O
CoA-SH
1
2
Figure 9.12b
Isocitrate
-Ketoglutarate
Succinyl
CoA
NADH
NADH
NAD


NAD


+ H

CoA-SH
CO
2

CO
2

3
4
+ H

Figure 9.12c
Fumarate
FADH
2

CoA-SH
6
Succinate
Succinyl
CoA
FAD
ADP
GTP GDP
P
i

ATP
5
Figure 9.12d
Oxaloacetate
8
Malate
Fumarate
H
2
O
NADH
NAD


+ H

7
Concept 9.4: During oxidative
phosphorylation, chemiosmosis couples
electron transport to ATP synthesis
Following glycolysis and the citric acid cycle,
NADH and FADH
2
account for most of the
energy extracted from food
These two electron carriers donate electrons to
the electron transport chain, which powers ATP
synthesis via oxidative phosphorylation
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The Pathway of Electron Transport
The electron transport chain is in the inner
membrane (cristae) of the mitochondrion
Most of the chains components are proteins,
which exist in multiprotein complexes
The carriers alternate reduced and oxidized
states as they accept and donate electrons
Electrons drop in free energy as they go down
the chain and are finally passed to O
2
, forming
H
2
O
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Figure 9.13
NADH
FADH
2

2 H

+
1
/
2
O
2

2 e


2 e


2 e


H
2
O
NAD


Multiprotein
complexes
(originally from
NADH or FADH
2
)
I
II
III
IV
50
40
30
20
10
0
F
r
e
e

e
n
e
r
g
y

(
G
)

r
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

t
o

O
2

(
k
c
a
l
/
m
o
l
)

FMN
FeS
FeS
FAD
Q
Cyt b
Cyt c
1

Cyt c
Cyt a
Cyt a
3

FeS
Electrons are transferred from NADH or FADH
2

to the electron transport chain
Electrons are passed through a number of
proteins including cytochromes (each with an
iron atom) to O
2

The electron transport chain generates no ATP
directly
It breaks the large free-energy drop from food
to O
2
into smaller steps that release energy in
manageable amounts
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Chemiosmosis: The Energy-Coupling
Mechanism
Electron transfer in the electron transport chain
causes proteins to pump H
+
from the
mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space
H
+
then moves back across the membrane,
passing through the proton, ATP synthase
ATP synthase uses the exergonic flow of H
+
to
drive phosphorylation of ATP
This is an example of chemiosmosis, the use of
energy in a H
+
gradient to drive cellular work
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Figure 9.14
INTERMEMBRANE SPACE
Rotor
Stator
H


Internal
rod
Catalytic
knob
ADP
+
P
i
ATP
MITOCHONDRIAL MATRIX
Figure 9.15
Protein
complex
of electron
carriers
(carrying electrons
from food)
Electron transport chain
Oxidative phosphorylation
Chemiosmosis
ATP
synth-
ase
I
II
III
IV
Q
Cyt c
FAD FADH
2

NADH
ADP P
i

NAD


2 H

+
1
/
2
O
2
H


2 1
H


H
2
O

ATP
The energy stored in a H
+
gradient across a
membrane couples the redox reactions of the
electron transport chain to ATP synthesis
The H
+
gradient is referred to as a proton-
motive force, emphasizing its capacity to do
work
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An Accounting of ATP Production by
Cellular Respiration
During cellular respiration, most energy flows
in this sequence:
glucose NADH electron transport chain
proton-motive force ATP
About 34% of the energy in a glucose molecule
is transferred to ATP during cellular respiration,
making about 32 ATP
There are several reasons why the number of
ATP is not known exactly
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Figure 9.16
Electron shuttles
span membrane
MITOCHONDRION
2 NADH
2 NADH 2 NADH 6 NADH
2 FADH
2

2 FADH
2

or
2 ATP 2 ATP about 26 or 28 ATP
Glycolysis
Glucose 2 Pyruvate
Pyruvate oxidation
2 Acetyl CoA
Citric
acid
cycle
Oxidative
phosphorylation:
electron transport
and
chemiosmosis
CYTOSOL
Maximum per glucose:
About
30 or 32 ATP
Concept 9.5: Fermentation and anaerobic
respiration enable cells to produce ATP
without the use of oxygen
Most cellular respiration requires O
2
to produce
ATP
Without O
2
, the electron transport chain will
cease to operate
In that case, glycolysis couples with
fermentation or anaerobic respiration to
produce ATP
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Anaerobic respiration uses an electron
transport chain with a final electron acceptor
other than O
2
, for example sulfate
Fermentation uses substrate-level
phosphorylation instead of an electron
transport chain to generate ATP
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Types of Fermentation
Fermentation consists of glycolysis plus
reactions that regenerate NAD
+
, which can be
reused by glycolysis
Two common types are alcohol fermentation
and lactic acid fermentation
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In alcohol fermentation, pyruvate is converted
to ethanol in two steps, with the first releasing
CO
2
Alcohol fermentation by yeast is used in
brewing, winemaking, and baking

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Animation: Fermentation Overview
Figure 9.17
2 ADP
2 ATP
Glucose Glycolysis
2 Pyruvate
2 CO
2

2


2 NADH
2 Ethanol
2 Acetaldehyde
(a) Alcohol fermentation (b) Lactic acid fermentation
2 Lactate
2 Pyruvate
2 NADH
Glucose Glycolysis
2 ATP 2 ADP 2 P
i

NAD
2 H

2 P
i

2 NAD


2 H

2 ADP 2 P
i

2 ATP
Glucose Glycolysis
2 Pyruvate
2 CO
2

2 NAD


2 NADH
2 Ethanol
2 Acetaldehyde
(a) Alcohol fermentation


2 H


Figure 9.17a
In lactic acid fermentation, pyruvate is reduced
to NADH, forming lactate as an end product,
with no release of CO
2

Lactic acid fermentation by some fungi and
bacteria is used to make cheese and yogurt
Human muscle cells use lactic acid
fermentation to generate ATP when O
2
is
scarce
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(b) Lactic acid fermentation
2 Lactate
2 Pyruvate
2 NADH
Glucose Glycolysis
2 ADP 2 P
i

2 ATP
2 NAD


2 H


Figure 9.17b
Comparing Fermentation with Anaerobic
and Aerobic Respiration
All use glycolysis (net ATP = 2) to oxidize glucose
and harvest chemical energy of food
In all three, NAD
+
is the oxidizing agent that
accepts electrons during glycolysis
The processes have different final electron
acceptors: an organic molecule (such as pyruvate
or acetaldehyde) in fermentation and O
2
in cellular
respiration
Cellular respiration produces 32 ATP per glucose
molecule; fermentation produces 2 ATP per
glucose molecule
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Obligate anaerobes carry out fermentation or
anaerobic respiration and cannot survive in the
presence of O
2

Yeast and many bacteria are facultative
anaerobes, meaning that they can survive
using either fermentation or cellular respiration
In a facultative anaerobe, pyruvate is a fork in
the metabolic road that leads to two alternative
catabolic routes
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Figure 9.18
Glucose
CYTOSOL
Glycolysis
Pyruvate
No O
2
present:
Fermentation
O
2
present:
Aerobic cellular
respiration
Ethanol,
lactate, or
other products
Acetyl CoA
MITOCHONDRION
Citric
acid
cycle
The Evolutionary Significance of Glycolysis
Ancient prokaryotes are thought to have used
glycolysis long before there was oxygen in the
atmosphere
Very little O
2
was available in the atmosphere
until about 2.7 billion years ago, so early
prokaryotes likely used only glycolysis to
generate ATP
Glycolysis is a very ancient process
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Concept 9.6: Glycolysis and the citric acid
cycle connect to many other metabolic
pathways
Gycolysis and the citric acid cycle are major
intersections to various catabolic and anabolic
pathways
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The Versatility of Catabolism
Catabolic pathways funnel electrons from many
kinds of organic molecules into cellular
respiration
Glycolysis accepts a wide range of
carbohydrates
Proteins must be digested to amino acids;
amino groups can feed glycolysis or the citric
acid cycle

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Fats are digested to glycerol (used in
glycolysis) and fatty acids (used in generating
acetyl CoA)
Fatty acids are broken down by beta oxidation
and yield acetyl CoA
An oxidized gram of fat produces more than
twice as much ATP as an oxidized gram of
carbohydrate
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Figure 9.19
Carbohydrates Proteins
Fatty
acids
Amino
acids
Sugars
Fats
Glycerol
Glycolysis
Glucose
Glyceraldehyde 3- P
NH
3

Pyruvate
Acetyl CoA
Citric
acid
cycle
Oxidative
phosphorylation
Biosynthesis (Anabolic Pathways)
The body uses small molecules to build other
substances
These small molecules may come directly
from food, from glycolysis, or from the citric
acid cycle
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Regulation of Cellular Respiration via
Feedback Mechanisms
Feedback inhibition is the most common
mechanism for control
If ATP concentration begins to drop,
respiration speeds up; when there is plenty
of ATP, respiration slows down
Control of catabolism is based mainly on
regulating the activity of enzymes at
strategic points in the catabolic pathway
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 9.20
Phosphofructokinase
Glucose
Glycolysis
AMP
Stimulates



Fructose 6-phosphate
Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate
Pyruvate
Inhibits Inhibits
ATP Citrate
Citric
acid
cycle
Oxidative
phosphorylation
Acetyl CoA
Figure 9.UN06
Inputs
Outputs
Glucose
Glycolysis
2 Pyruvate 2 ATP
2 NADH
Figure 9.UN07
Inputs Outputs
2 Pyruvate 2 Acetyl CoA
2 Oxaloacetate
Citric
acid
cycle
2
2 6
8 ATP NADH
FADH
2

CO
2

Figure 9.UN08
Protein complex
of electron
carriers
(carrying electrons from food)
INTERMEMBRANE
SPACE
MITOCHONDRIAL MATRIX
H


2 H

+
1
/
2
O
2
H
2
O
NAD


FADH
2
FAD

Q

NADH

I

II

III

IV

Cyt c

Figure 9.UN09
INTER-
MEMBRANE
SPACE
H


ADP

+ P
i
MITO-
CHONDRIAL
MATRIX
ATP
synthase
H


ATP

Figure 9.UN10
Time
p
H

d
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
c
e

a
c
r
o
s
s

m
e
m
b
r
a
n
e

Figure 9.UN11