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Email Systems

Kalpesh Vyas & Seward Khem


Overview
Email Basics
What Makes Up An Email
How Email Works
What Are TCP/IP Ports


Email Basics
What is an Email an electronic message
transmitted over a network from one user to
another.
Can be as simple as a few lines of text, or
include attachments such as pictures or
documents.
Email made up 75% of network traffic soon
after the introduction of the internet.
What Makes Up An Email
The Header
Who sent the email.
To whom the mail is sent.
When the email was sent.
The email subject.
The size of the email.
What Makes Up An Email
The Body
Contains the message.
May also contain an attachment.
Attachments
If not embedded within the body, attachments are
sent along with the email.
How Email Works
Different Architectural Models exist for
constructing computer systems.
Some models include:
Peer-Peer
Pipe and Filter
Implicit Invocation
Client-Server
How Email Works
Peer-Peer Model
Provided Interface
Peer
Required Interface
Provided Interface
Peer
Required Interface
Provided Interface
Peer
Required Interface
Provided Interface
Peer
Required Interface
Provided Interface
Peer
Required Interface
Provided Interface
Peer
Required Interface
Provided Interface
Peer
Required Interface
Provided Interface
Peer
Required Interface
Provided Interface
Peer
Required Interface
How Email Works
Pipe and Filter Model
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How Email Works
Implicit Invocation Bus Model
Provided Interface
Component
Required Interface
Provided Interface
Component
Required Interface
Provided Interface
Component
Required Interface
Provided Interface
Component
Required Interface
Provided Interface
Component
Required Interface
Provided Interface
Component
Required Interface
Provided Interface
Component
Required Interface
Provided Interface
Component
Required Interface
Provided Interface
Bus
Required Interface
Provided Interface
Bus
Required Interface
How Email Works
Client-Server Model
Provided Interface
Client
Required Interface
Provided Interface
Client
Required Interface
Provided Interface
Client
Required Interface
Provided Interface
Client
Required Interface
Provided Interface
Client
Required Interface
Provided Interface
Client
Required Interface
Provided Interface
Server
Required Interface
Provided Interface
Server
Required Interface
How Email Works
The model that works best for email is the
Client-Server model.
Clients carry out user interactions with the email
server.

How Email Works
Clients
Forms in which clients appear:
Application based - these are installed onto users
machines and include Microsoft Outlook and the
freely available Outlook Express and Eudora.
Web based - these appear in a web browsers
window and include Hotmail, Yahoo and Outlook
web client.
How Email Works
Clients
Clients vary greatly in functionality, but all provide a
basic level of functionality that assists the user.
Basic functions include:
Ability to create new emails.
Display and store received emails.
Hold address lists of contacts, a calendar, journal and other
extra functions that help organize the users working day.
The client is also configured with the account information
and names or IP addresses of the email servers with which it
will be communicating.
How Email Works
Servers
An email server is typically a combination of processes running
on a server with a large storage capacity a list of users and
rules, and the capability to receive, send and store emails and
attachments.
These servers are designed to operate without constant user
intervention.
Should process emails for months as sending, receiving and
maintenance tasks are carried out at scheduled times. The client
only has to connect to the email server when it sends and
checks/receives new email.
Sometimes it may be permanently connected to the server to
allow access to shared address books or calendar information
this is typical of a LAN-based email server.
How Email Works
Servers
Most email servers conduct email services by running
two separate processes on the same machine.
One process is the POP3 (Post Office protocol 3)
server, which holds emails in a queue and delivers
emails to the client when they are requested.
The other is the SMTP (simple mail transfer protocol)
server that receives outgoing emails from clients and
sends and receives email from other SMTP servers.
These two processes are linked by an internal mail
delivery mechanism that moves mail between the POP3
and SMTP servers.
How Email Works
Servers
When the client calls the email server to send or check
for mail it connects to the server on certain TCP/IP
ports:
SMTP on port 25
POP3 on port 110.
How Email Works
Servers
Email systems come in various formats, but the
most common rely on a single server that
provides both POP3 and SMTP services.
Sometimes, in large organizations, these services
are separated onto different servers.
Currently, the majority of email servers use
Windows NT or 2000.
What Are TCP/IP Ports
Most email servers run on a web server platform with
email services installed.
Each server has one or more unique TCP/IP
(transmission control protocol/internet protocol)
addresses. Attached to all TCP/IP addresses are many
ports that range from 0 to 65,535.
TCP/IP uses ports to allocate different jobs to different
services. The server will listen for a client or application
to call it on a port and direct traffic from that port to
the required service.