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MECHANICS OF FRP
COMPOSITE LAMINATES
Stresses, Strains & Failure

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PRESENTOR
PROF.DR. A.KANNI RAJ M.E.(NITT), PH.D.(IITM)
AUTHOR - Omni Scriptum GmbH & Co KG - GERMANY

PROFESSOR
DEPARTMENT OF ARONAUTICAL ENGINEERING
PSN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

MELATHEDIYOOR-627152
TIRUNELVELI DISTRICT

TAMILNADU
INDIA

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COMPOSITES
"A composite is a structural material which consists of
combining two or more constituents. The constituents are
combined at a macroscopic level and are not soluble in each
other. One constituent is called the reinforcing phase and the
one in which it is embedded is called the matrix.





Reinforcing phase - Fibres, particles or flakes
Matrix- Materials are generally continuous, eg. polymer.
A lamina (also called a ply or layer) is a single flat layer of
unidirectional fibers or woven fibers arranged is a matrix.
A laminate is a stack of plies of composites. Each layer can be
laid at various orientations and can be different material
systems."

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LAY-UP CODES
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ORTHOTROPY
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HOOKES LAW
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STIFFNESS
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LAMINATES
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NEED FOR STACK
lamina (ply) of FRP is remarkably
strong along the fiber direction

lamina is considerably weaker in
all off-fiber directions

So, a laminate constructed by a
number of laminae oriented at
different directions is used
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LAMINA THEORY
valid for thin laminates
(span a and b > 10thinckness t)

small displacement w in the transverse
direction (w << t)

It shares the same classical plate
theory assumptions
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KIRCHHOFF IDEAS
Normals remain straight (they do not
bend)

Normals remain unstretched (they keep
the same length)

Normals remain normal (they always
make a right angle to the neutral plane)

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GOOD BONDING
The bonding itself is infinitesimally small
(there is no flaw or gap between layers)

The bonding is non-shear-deformable
(no lamina can slip relative to another)

The strength of bonding is as strong as
it needs to be (the laminate acts as a
single lamina with special integrated
properties)
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PLATE THEORY

The classical lamination theory is identical
to the classical plate theory

only difference is in the material properties
(stress-strain relations)

In classical plate theory, material is
isotropic, while FRPlaminate with multiple
plies have more complicated
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CORNERSTONES

Kinematic equations

Constitutive equations

force resultant equations

equilibrium equations
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KINEMATICS
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WHERE
u
0
, v
0
, and w
0
are the displacements of the
middle plane in the x, y, and z directions,
respectively.

Please note that some literature may
define k
xy
as the total skew curvature which
eliminates the factor of 2.

Also note that Kirchhoff's assumptions are
introducted to simplify the displacement
fields.
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CONSTITUTIVE



alternatively,

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WHERE
subscript k indicates the k
th
layer
counting from the top of the laminate

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RESULTANTS
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WHERE
subscript k indicates the k
th
layer
from the top of the laminate

N is the total number of layers.

Note that perfect bonding is
assumed so we can move the
integration inside the summation
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EQUILIBRIUM
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[A],[B] & [D]
The plate is homogeneous

Plate is not isotropic material

subjected to both transverse and in-plan
loadings

Cartesian coordinate system is used

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AGAIN

goal is to develop the relations
between the external loadings and the
displacements

relations between the resultants
(forces N and moments M) and the
strains (strains and curvatures k) are
of most interest in practice
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REPALCE F & M
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PLUS
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where
A is called the extensional stiffness

B is called the coupling stiffness

D is called the bending stiffness of laminate
COMBINE
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COMPONENTS
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t
k
is the thickness of the k
th
layer









is distance from mid-plan to the centroid of
k
th
layer


Forming A, B, and D, is probably crucial step
WHERE
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TSAI-HILL
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WHERE