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by

Dr.M.Manikandan

Associate Professor

Dept. of Electronics Engg.

Anna University.

Overview

Important concept analyze digital

circuits

Given a circuit

Create a truth table

Create a minimized circuit

Overview

Approaches

Boolean expression approach

Truth table approach

Leads to minimized hardware

Provides insights on how to design

hardware

The Problem

How can we convert from a circuit

drawing to an equation or truth

table?

Two approaches

Create intermediate equations

Create intermediate truth tables

The Problem

A

B

C

A

B

C

Out

Label Gate Outputs

Label all gate outputs that are a

function of input variables.

Label gates that are a function of

input variables and previously

labeled gates.

Repeat process until all outputs are

labelled.

Label Gate Outputs

C

A

B

C

A

B

Out

R

S

T

Approach 1: Create

Intermediate Equations

Step 1: Create an equation for each

gate output based on its input.

R = ABC

S = A + B

T = CS

Out = R + T

Approach 1: Create

Intermediate Equations

A

B

C

A

B

C

Out

R

S

T

Approach 1: Substitute in

subexpressions

Step 2: Form a relationship based on input

variables (A, B, C)

R = ABC

S = A + B

T = CS = C(A + B)

Out = R+T = ABC + C(A+B)

Approach 1: Substitute

in subexpressions

A

B

C

A

B

C

Out

R

S

T

Approach 1: Substitute in

subexpressions

Step 3: Expand equation to SOP

final result

Out = ABC + C(A+B) = ABC +

AC + BC

Out

Approach 1: Substitute

in subexpressions

A

C

Out

B

C

A

B

C

Approach 2: Truth Table

Step 1: Determine outputs for

functions of input variables.

A

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

B

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

C

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

R

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

S

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

Approach 2: Truth Table

A

B

C

A

B

C

Out

R

S

T

Approach 2: Truth Table

Step 2: Determine outputs for

functions of intermediate variables.

T = S * C

A

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

B

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

C

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

R

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

S

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

T

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

C

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

Approach 2: Truth Table

A

B

C

A

B

C

Out

R

S

T

Approach 2: Truth Table

Step 3: Determine outputs for function.

A

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

B

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

C

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

R

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

S

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

T

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

Out

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

R + T = Out

Approach 2: Truth Table

A

B

C

A

B

C

Out

R

S

T

More Difficult Example

Step 3: Note labels on interior nodes

Logic Diagram for Analysis Example

More Difficult Example: Truth

Table

Remember to determine

intermediate variables starting from

the inputs.

When all inputs determined for a

gate, determine output.

The truth table can be reduced

using K-maps.

More Difficult Example: Truth

Table

A

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

B

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

C

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

F

2

0

0

0

1

0

1

1

1

F

2

1

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

T

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

T

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

T

3

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

F

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

1

Summary

Important to be able to convert

circuits into truth table and

equation form

WHY? ---- leads to minimized

sum of product

representation

Summary

Two approaches illustrated

Approach 1: Create an

equation with circuit output

dependent on circuit inputs

Approach 2: Create a truth

table which shows

relationship between circuit

inputs and circuit outputs

Summary

Both results can then be

minimized using K-maps.

Next time: develop a minimized

SOP representation from a high

level description

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