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The Project Management Process

Groups: A Case Study
PROJECT MANAGEMENT
PROCESS GROUPS
Project management can be viewed as a
number of interlinked processes
The project management process groups include
 initiating processes
 planning processes
 executing processes
 controlling processes
 closing processes
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PROCESS GROUPS
OUTCOMES
 Initiating processes
 The organization recognizes that a new project exists – completion
of a business case and project charter
 Planning processes
 Completing the WBS and scope statement, project schedule and
cost estimate
 Executing processes
 Performing actions necessary to complete the work described in
the planning activities
 Monitoring and controlling processes
 Measuring progress toward the project objectives, monitoring
deviation from the plan and taking corrective action to match
progress with the plan
 Closing processes
 Formal acceptance of the work and creation of closing documents

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MAPPING THE PROCESS
GROUPS
TO THE KNOWLEDGE
AREAS
You can map the main activities of each PM process
group into the nine knowledge areas using the
PMBOK® Guide 2004
Note that there are activities from each knowledge
area under the planning and monitoring and
controlling process groups
All initiating activities are part of the project
integration management knowledge area

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RELATIONSHIPS AMONG PROCESS
GROUPS AND KNOWLEDGE AREAS
(PMBOK® GUIDE 2000)
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RELATIONSHIPS AMONG
PROCESS GROUPS AND
KNOWLEDGE AREAS (2)
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OVERLAP OF PROCESS GROUPS IN A
PHASE (PMBOK® GUIDE 2000)
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THE 5 PMI PROCESS GROUPS
1. Initiating
2. Planning
3. Executing
4. Controlling
5. Closing
Note: these can be repeated for each phase
Each process is described by:
 Inputs
 Tools & Techniques
 Outputs
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PMI: PROCESS LINKS

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PMI PHASE
INTERACTIONS

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Initiating
Processes
Planning
Processes
Controlling
Processes
Executing
Processes
Closing
Processes
Design Phase
Initiating
Processes
Planning
Processes
Controlling
Processes
Executing
Processes
Closing
Processes
Implementation Phase
PMI: INITIATING PROCESS
Inputs
 Product Description
 Strategic plan
 Project Selection Criteria
 Historical Information
Outputs
 Project charter
 Project Manager assigned
 Key stakeholders identified
 Business case completed
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PMI: PLANNING PROCESS
Scope Planning
Scope Definition
Activity Definition
Activity Sequencing
Activity Duration Estimating
Resource Planning
Cost Estimating
Cost Budgeting
Risk Planning
Schedule Development
Quality Planning
Communications Planning
Organization Planning
Staff Acquisition
Procurement Planning
Project Plan Development
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Devising and maintaining a workable scheme to accomplish the
business need that the project was undertaken to address
PMI: EXECUTING
PROCESS
Project Plan Execution
Scope Verification
Quality Assurance
Team Development
Information Distribution
Solicitation
Source Selection
Contract Administration
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Coordinating people and other resources to carry out the plan
PMI: CONTROLLING
PROCESS
Overall Change Control
Scope Change Control
Schedule Control
Cost Control
Quality Control
Performance Reporting
Risk Response Control
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Ensuring that project objectives are met by monitoring and measuring
progress and taking corrective measures when necessary
PMI: CLOSING PROCESS
Administrative Closure
Contract Close-out
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Formalizing acceptance of the project or phase
and bringing it to an orderly end
CASE STUDY: JWD
CONSULTING’S PROJECT
MANAGEMENT INTRANET
SITE
This case study provides an example of what’s
involved in initiating, planning, executing, controlling,
and closing an IT project
You can download templates for creating your own
project management documents from the companion
Web site for this text
Note: This case study provides a big picture view of
managing a project. Later chapters provide detailed
information on each knowledge area.
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PROJECT INITIATION
Initiating a project includes recognizing and starting a
new project or project phase
Some organizations use a pre-initiation phase, while
others include items like developing a business case as
part of initiation
The main goal is to formally select and start off projects
Key outputs include:
 Assigning the project manager
 Identifying key stakeholders
 Completing a business case
 Completing a project charter and getting signatures on it
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PROJECT INITIATION
DOCUMENTS
Note: Every organization has its own
variations of what documents are required
for project initiation
 It’s important to identify the need for projects, who the
stakeholders are, and what the main goals are for the
project

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PROJECT INITIATION:
BUSINESS CASE
 Introduction/ background
 Business objective
 Current situation and problem/opportunity
statement
 Critical assumptions and constraints
 Analysis of options and recommendations
 Preliminary project requirements
 Budget estimate and financial analysis
 Schedule estimate
 Potential risks
 Exhibits

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JWD’S PROJECT
CHARTER
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JWD’S PROJECT
CHARTER
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PROJECT PLANNING
The main purpose of project planning is to guide
execution
Every knowledge area includes planning information
Key outputs include:
 A team contract
 A scope statement
 A work breakdown structure (WBS)
 A project schedule, in the form of a Gantt chart with all
dependencies and resources entered
 A list of prioritized risks
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JWD’S PROJECT GANTT
CHART
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JWD’S LIST OF
PRIORITIZED RISKS
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PROJECT EXECUTING
Usually takes the most time and resources to perform
project execution

Project managers must use their leadership skills to
handle the many challenges that occur during project
execution

A milestone report can help focus on completing major
milestones

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PART OF MILESTONE
REPORT
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PROJECT CONTROLLING
Involves measuring progress toward project objectives,
monitoring deviation from the plan, and taking correction
actions
Affects all other process groups and occurs during all
phases of the project life cycle
Outputs include performance reports, requested
changes, and updates to various plans
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PROJECT CLOSING
Involves gaining stakeholder and customer acceptance
of the final products and services
Even if projects are not completed, they should be closed
out to learn from the past
Outputs include project archives and lessons learned,
part of organizational process assets
Most projects also include a final report and presentation
to the sponsor/senior management
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POST-PROJECT
FOLLOW-UP
Many organizations have realized that it’s important to
review the results of projects a year or so after they have
been completed
Many projects project potential savings, so it’s important
to review the financial estimates and help learn from the
past in preparing new estimates

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