1.

CULTURE - students’ cultural
background
Differences in culture that exists within the pupils
domain and the culture in the literary texts may
pose a problem in comprehending the texts.
Bridge the cultural, traditional and even religious
differences that exist between pupils and the text.

2. CONTENT - suitability of content
– refer to CS
 It is necessary that pupils know or at least have
some idea of content of the text. This is to ensure
that their schematic knowledge will be drawn
upon when comprehending the text or doing the
tasks.
 Pupils must have some background knowledge of
what they are doing.
 The texts should include works of different genres.
Thus, the literary texts taught must include such
genres as poems, short stories, novels, and plays
 The texts should have a connection with students’ here
and now learning context. It would be motivating for
students to study the literature which is currently
being discussed in their society, particularly when that
literature has been interpreted through other media,
such as movies or musicals. Experiencing the ‘here-
and-now literature’ would help students understand
that literature is neither useless nor faraway, and that
literature is part of our life.
 Constructivism will enable pupils to build new
knowledge and concepts based on existing knowledge
or schema that they have. The teacher assists pupils to
acquire new knowledge and solve problems through
pupil-centred active learning.
 Most importantly, the texts should have the capacity to
engage the interest of the student.
 However, a poem may not always be a favoured item in
the classroom mainly because of its deviant and
densely metaphorical use of language. Teaching poetry
becomes especially difficult when the emphasis is put
on correctness in grammatical form.
 It is important that texts should provide good
potential for a variety of classroom activities, in order
to give students more chance to gain true familiarity
with any work as a whole
3. INTEREST - students’ interests,
experiences, enjoyment
 Gauge pupils’ interest towards songs and poetry?
 Interest has to go with motivation… if pupils are
motivated to learn, they will have high interest and
receptivity.
 To cultivate interest, tell pupils the benefits of learning
lit. Have a variety of activities or reward them duly.
 Text selection is no easy task because there are many
interesting literary works to choose from, such as
children’s literature and young adult literature.
4. VALUES - Character-building
infused
 Are there values in the text(s)? How do we instill these
values in our pupils?
 Texts based on values have to be incorporated in
teaching and learning in order to impart the
importance of good values for the wholesome
development of individuals.
5. AGE - appropriacy, gender
 When texts are selected, ensure that they will match
with the age and maturity of the pupils.
 Must not be biased towards boys or girls? Must be
impartial (neutral / unbiased).
6. RESOURCES - reliable, easy
access, related to CS
 It is important that appropriate resources and
materials are used with pupils of different learning
capabilities so that their full potential can be realised.
 Readily available resources? Commercial resources?
Adapted resources? Simplified resources? Etc.
7. PROFICIENCY LEVEL – lang
must be accessible, simplified,
adapted or shortened
 Simplify – to make the sentences shorter or to use
words that are of common usage.
 Adapt – consider localising scenes, names, characters
etc.
 Shorten – shortening the text (genre), the sentences
 To build a strong foundation of language skills.
8. EXPLOITABILITY
 Possible activities to be carried out – pre, while and post.
 Will the selected text be able to develop further activities?
How?
 Lessons, which emphasise meaningful contexts and the
integration of language skills, allow pupils to learn by
doing fun-filled activities. Contextualised as well as
purposeful activities will promote the fun element in
language learning.
 Through fun-filled and meaningful activities in this
component, pupils will gain a rich and invaluable
experience in using the English language.
 Creativity is the ability to produce something new in
an imaginative and fun-filled way. Pupils in Year 1 and
2 will display interest, confidence and self-esteem
through performance and producing simple creative
works.

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