Marktng management fundamentals

What is mrktg all about?

Understanding mrkts and managing markts effectively,efficiently to be successful how to do this?

What are markets?

• Mrkts are prospects,customers and consumers with unfulfilled needs,with a desire to fulfill the same and • An ability to buy and willingness to buy, • An ability to pay& willingness to pay and a willingness to be loyal as long as the marketer’s offer is perceived to be of far higher value than those of all substitute and competitive offers

What is mrktng?

• Marktg is a continuous and proactive process of creating,nurturing and retaining a loyal customer base and helping them perceive that the co’s offer is far superior to those of all current and future substitute and competitive offers

Purpose of any business-what is it?

• Because it’s purpose is to create a customer,a business has two and only two basic functions; marktg and innovation. Mrktg and innovation produce results; all the rest are costs. • Mrktng is too important to leave to a mrktng department. Mrktng is so basic that it cannot be considered to be a separate is the whole business seen from the point of view of its final result, that is ,from the customer’s point of view, • Peter F Drucker’ • Concept of internal and external customers

• • • •

The producttion concept or orientation The product concept or orientation The selling concept or orientation The marketing concept or orientation

Types of business orientationswhat philosophy guides your business?

• What are the differences?what are the implications? • The elephantine electronics co case

Elephantine case
• The engineering manager of this co one day concieved of a new computer terminal that would do every thing but peel potatoes- a slight exaggeration perhaps ,but the concept was a widely applicable, broadly compatible device. • Since the manager enjoyed excellent rapport with the firm’s general manager,who was also an engineer,it was easy to convince the GM of the merit of the idea, and a product development program was vigorously undertaken.

Elephantine----• When the prototype was complete and functionally proven,a production line was set up and manufacturing was begun. About this time,the sales manager and his sales force were called in for a product presentation. After the new device was explained and demonstrated, they were told to ”go,sell it”. • SInce the new production line was capable of producing 500 units a month, this was established as average sales goal .The sales manager and the sales force went optimistically forth into the market, but 6 months later reported back to the general management that they were unable to move this wonderful new product in any thing approaching the target volume.

• After firing the sales manager, the gm and the engg mgr commisserated with one another about the incompetence of sales people who couldn’t sell a product that is obviously superior to anything else available and right for the markt. • Neither of them knew quite where the mrkt was or who it was,and unforttunately even the ex sales mngr hadn’t known either.Since the mountain wouldn’t come to Mohemmad and Mohemmad didn’t know where the mountain was, so he could go to it, a lot of time and money were wasted for practically nothing. • It was certainly too bad Elephantine was so unlucky, because,when the product design was eventually sold to Whiz-Bang computer co, it was a roaring success.

Elephantine----Discussion questions
• 1.Does ur group think Elephantine was really unlucky? Why? Why not? • 2.What do u think whiz-bang did to make it a roaring success? Step by step process or activities? • 3.What is wrong with Elephantine?What is right, If any? • 4.What concept or philosophy drove Elephantine mngmnt? Whiz-bang mngmnt? • 5.Do u think Ele– learnt any mrktng lessons? What mrktng lessons did u learn? What is the moral of the story?

Mrktng fundamentals
• Mrktng is --• A rouge function--• Salesmen are cheats---they push you into buying things that you don’t want • Advertising is a bunch of lies • Mrktng is a sheer waste. Goods cost us much less if we don’t promote them and advertise. • Inshort, life wd be better off without this function.

• Do we agree with this? If so why? If not why not?

Finally what is mrktg?
• • • • It is a function It is a process It is a concept It deals with understanding mrkts,effectively and efficiently managing the same and continuously measuring the success through monitoring continuous profitable growth in sales volume,markt share,profit,customer nos and brand loyltycompared to all competitors.

• What attitudes,knowledge,skills and behaviour does mrktg need to be effective?

Characteristics of market-oriented companies
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1.have clear market objectives strategic intent Ambitious mrkt share,positioning goals 2.segment their mrkts Identify growth opportunities Tailor strategies to segments 3.understand customers’existing and potential needs Get close to customers Focus on solutions, not products 4create competencies to match opportunities Develop capabilities Integrate functions and resoutces around this task. competitive advantage Beating competition Sustainable advantages via branding and continuous improvement

• • • • • • • • • • • •

Beating competition Sustainable advantages via branding and continuous improvement 6.recognise environment changes Existing strategies erode Priorities to change and innovation 7.customer-focussed organisation Inverting and flattening the pyramid Prioritising service providers Lower costs-faster response—greater motivation 8.monitor and bench mark customer satisfaction Quantitative research systems Indepth research.

Formulating a mrktng plan
• • • • • • • • • • • • 1.situational assessment Current performance Background analysis Trends and projections Opportunity and issue analysis 2.objectives Marketing Financial Human 3.positioning strategy A.tarjet market segment(s) B.differential advantage

Mrktng plan
• • • • • mix A.product B.price C.promotion

• 5 action programs • 6.organisation and control & Recruitment of talent • 7,budjet & Control systems in implementation.

Key tasks of mrktg mgmt
• • • • • • • • • • • 1.Understand broad mrkts&segment 2.Carry out environment analysis 3.Set goals and objectives 4.Develop positioning strategies A)select target mrkt segments—a.broad market b.identify bases for segmentation c.develop profiles of segments d.measure segments’attractiveness B).create a differential advantage a.identify benefits sought b.measure competitor positioning c.create reason for preference 5.Develop appropriate mrktg mix a.product b.price d.promotion 6.Action programs 7.Create organisation structure &Recruit Appropriate talent 8.Budjets and controls and implementation 9.Learnings

The essence Of marketing
Customer Wants Marketing MIX Variables Product Functional



Self image TMS Availability DA





Risk Avers ness


Marketing Mix

• • • • • • • •

1product Product Quality-features—options—style—brand name—packaging—sizes —services—warranties—returns 2price List price—discounts—allowances—payment period—credit terms 3place Channels—coverage—locations—inventory—transport 4.promotion Advertising—personal selling—sales promotion—public relations

All addressed at target market segment

Characteristics of mrkt – oriented co’s
1have clear mrkt objectives----have strategic intent-----have ambitious markt share and positioning goals 2segment their markets--------------identify growth opportunities------tailor strategiesto segments 3understand customers’existing and potentialneeds Get close to customres Focus on solutions,not products

Characteristics of mrkt oriented co’s
• 4.Create competencies to match opportunities • Develop capabilities • Integrate functions and resources around this task • 5.Build competitive advantage • Beating competition • Sustainable advantages via branding and continuous improvement

Charactiristics of--• 6.Recognise environment changes • Existing strategies erode • Priorities to change and innovation • 7. Customer-focussed organisation • Inverting and flattening the pyramid • Prioritising service providers • 8.Monitor and bench mark customer satisfaction • Quantitative research systems • In-depth research

The strategy of a modern airlines
• In the olden days, airlines didn’t segment their markets.It soon became clear that passengers differ in their expectations. Business travellers value convenience, comfort and service,while,leisure travellers were more interested in lower price, • A carrier flying from London to New York, using a 300 seater plane and anticipating an average load factor of 80%, if it pursues an un-differentiated strategy-one class plane-the management can charge a highest price of $250 TO AChIEVE A 80% OCCUPANCY RATE.The variable cost for the airlines was $20 per passenger and the fixed cost is $50,000per flight.

• However to the mrktng mgmnt,it is obvious that while a price of $250 already begins to lose the business of low budget travellers,business people and the more affluent people would be willing to pay much more for superior service and comfort. The result was that the airlines moved to the differentiated strategy whereby they offered 3 levels of service on the plane;economy,business and first class at very different price levels. To get the same 80%occupancy level,the prices are respectively $250,500,and 1000 per passenger while the variable costs are$20,40 and 100 per passenger. It is estimated that the fixed cost would go up by 10% to accommodate the changes in the aircraft to provide the desired comfort to the upper 2 classes, each of them taking 50% of the additional amount.It is also estimated that the business class pssengers wd be 3 times the number of first class and economy passengers wd be double the business class occupants at 80% plane loading factor.

• •

• • • The consequences are to massively enhance the revenue and the profitability for the airlines.In addition,the strategy better meets the needs of all customers by offering the values that the particular type of passenger prioritises And this example of airline segmentationis exactly analogous to the strategies pursued by most of the sophisticated cos of today! You are requested to calculate the profits,the profitability, the revenues and the costs incurred in both the strategies,for the full plane,for each class and per passenger in each class, assuming in both cases the plane is 80%loaded.Pl find the break even point in both. Discussion q’s 1List all benefits of segmentation to all stakeholders of the airlines 2Who all could be the beneficiaries 3Do u think any segment is subsidising for any other segment? If so who to whom? If not,why not?What do u understand by absolute satisfaction and relative satisfaction? Do u think that there is a possibility that any cass may feel relatively dissatisfied although absolutely satisfied, When wd that happen? How wd mgmnt prevent it? 4When can segmentation go wrong?How to avoid segmentation from going wrong? What precautions to take?

• • • •

What is your position?are we positioned correctly?
• A manufacturer of industrial cutting equipment was concerned about its poor market share and wondered whether its prices were the problem. • It undertook a markt research study which identified the product and service attributes most desired by customers and evaluated how its product “ X “ & its key competitors were rated in tablebelow on a 1to 6 scale where 1 is lowest and 6 is highest.

Table assessing price & value competitiveness
Importa Quality Competi nce wt dimensio tors ns abcx 35% 25% 15% 20% 5%
Precision 6 5 4 6 reliability 6 6 3 4 durability 5 3 2 5 service


Delivery 2 5 5 5

weigh A tedsc ore 5.5 Actual prices







29 K 21 K 15 K 22 K Mrkt share 27 %




1.What is the problem of x In marktng jargon?
• do you solve? What srategy do u recommend? Why? • 3. What alternates can be considered by X? Why should they be dropped?

How to take positions? - 2 ways based on Quality&price conscious markets •
• • •

QUALITY-CONSCIOUS MARKTS-steps 1.find out quality dimensions,relative importance between them and assess performance of all current players on each dimension 2.If there is a gap between expectations and performance tae a position 3. fill the position by offering the highest value than the average value provider as well as the best value provider so that no one will find a gap in value to replace u in future. 4 constantly monitor and defend this position thro innovation.

• 1.find out what price are the markets willing to pay? • 2.find out what quality are they willing to accept for the price they are willing to pay • 3.find put a gap if any where u can offer a higher value for the price they are willing to pay –better than the average value privider as well as the highest value provider in the markt. • 4defend and protect .

Price conscious customers/markts---how to take positions

• Adi godrej said,when asked what is important,top line or bottom line? • REVENUE IS (read sales) vanity,PROFIT IS SANITY and cash is reality.Cost is a fact & Value is a perception. • Value is benefit divided by price • Customer delivered value=total customer benefits(TCB)total customer costs(TCC). • TCB=Product benefits+Service benefits+personnel benefits +image benefits • TCC=monetory cost+Time cost+energy cost+psychic cost

Concepts of cost,price,revenue,value & are they connected?

• • •

Quality is 2 types –Quality of conformance & quality of performancemeeting specifications QUALITY OF CONFORMANCE-consistently

• •

laid down batch after batch/supply after supply.—at any agreed level of quality Performance as per promise.supplier commits to buyer a certain level of quality features,prices and performance and delivers in practice what was promised. QUALITY OF PERFORMANCE-this has got to do with the level of quality Certain products promise and perform at higher level of quality and certain other products promise and perform at a lower level of quality. EXAMPLE.Which product has a higher quality of performance,Mercedes Benz? Or Maruti 800? Answer is the former. Which of the above 2 products has a higher quality of conformance/ Answer is both can have the same level or one can have a higher or loer level than the other depending on the actual percetved performance over a period of time.

• Compare the customer deliverd value of any 2 brands fighting with each other in the same TMS/ • Compare cdv of kinetic Honda to ladies with cdv of Hero Honda to male Youth. Which one is greater?

Caterpiller VS komatsu how to price caterpiller’s buldozer?
• • • • Cost to make =$30k Perceived worth of customers=$100k Added value=$70k Pricing options—A.Share equally,P=$65k. —B.take a higher share,P=$80k—C.Take a smaller share, • P=$50k. • How to decide what strategy to follow.?

Caterpiller ‘s price strategy depends on
• • • • 1.the Co’s goals/ambitions 2.the competitive factors and 3. the customers value perceptions If the co wanta a short run high return,and doesn’t mind losing competitive entry, price it high. • If the co’s interest is to gain a high markt share quickly and protect it over a long term,go for a low price but a longer pay-back.

• Usp development—an attribute to tout as number 1—common no1 positions—best quality ----lowest price—safest---best service—best value---fastest—most customised—most convenient—most advanced technology etc. • Examples of value propositions

Co/prod Target 1 uniquePercvd uct custome benefit benefit rs’ to price profile ratio

Value Remark propositi s— on compact stateme ,artistic, nt punchy--


GeoDemoPsycho Tcchno

The Just best andright the price for firstbeauthe ty soap benefit

4 positioning errors to avoid
• 1.Under positioning; buyers have only a vague idea of the brand.Nothing special is seen. PepsiCola’s clear ‘Crystal Pepsi”, was introduced in 1993. Costomers didn’t see ‘clarity’ as important benefit in a soft drink. • 2.Over positioning. Buyers have too narrow an ‘image’ of the brand. Consumers think ‘diamond rings’ at Tiffany’s start at $5000 while Tiffany’s now offers affordable diamond rings $900 upwards Unsuccessfully.

Positioning errors--contd
• 3.Confused positioning; Too many changes in brand’s positioning too job’s sleek and powerful NeXT computer positioned first for students, then for engineers and then for business people all unsuccessfully. • 4.Doubtful positioning; Buyers find it hard to believe the brand features.GM’s Cadillac division launched Cimarron as a luxury competitor with BMW, Mercedes and Audi. While the car featured leather seats, a large luggage rack,lots of chrome and Cadillac logo stamped on the chassis, customers saw the car as a dolled-up version of Chevy’s Cavalier and Oldsmobile’s Firenza. While the car was positioned as “more for more” customers saw “less for more”.

Factors affecting positioning strategies
• • • • • • • • • • • • • A.Attractiveness of market 1.Market size 2.Mrkt growth 3.Competitive structure 4.Profitability 5.Socio-political constraints B.Ability of Co to create a relative strength. 1.Mrkt share & position 2.Cost competitiveness 3.Technical capability 4.Mrktng and distrbn capability 5.Future cash requirements 6.Commncn & Branding capabilitry.

6 key analyses for developing positioning strategies
• • • • • • 1.Mrkt analysis 2.Customer analysis 3.Competitor analysis 4.Trade analysis 5.Economic analysis 6.Environmental analysis

1.Market analysis
• • • • • • • • • • • • A.How attractive are alternate mrkts? 1.Size 2.Growth 3.Competition 4.Profitability. 5.Socio-political issues B.Do we have the capability to compete effectively? 1.Mrkt share &position 2.Cost competitiveness 3.Technical capability 4. Mrktg & distribution 5.Future cash requirements.

2.Customer analysis
• • • • • 1.How is the mrkt segmented? 2 What are the needs of each segment? 3.How are purchasing decisions made? 4.Who makes the key decisions? 5.Are there any new segments to appear or be created?

3.competitor analysis
• 1.Who are the key competitors?intra-type?--Inter-type?---Innovative? • 2.What are the strategies of competitors?--Aggressive?---Me-too?---Segmentation? • 3.How are we positioned as competitors?---Where are they vulnerable?---Where are we vulnerable? • 4.Are there any srategic windows?---New markt segmentation?----New technologies?---Market redefinition?----Channel changes?

4.Trade analysis
• 1.What are the key channels? • 2.Are new channel opportunities likely to develop? • 3.What are the needs of our dealers? • 4.Do we have an effective partnership to develop our mrkt opportunities? • 5.How are we perceived relative to our competitors? • 6.What can we add to enhanceour dealer business?

5.Economic analysis
• 1.Can “ROI” and “share holder value”be enhanced ? • 2.Can costs be reduced? • 3.Can prices be revised ?up and down wards? • 4. Can the product mix be improved? • 5. Can volume be improved by investing in new mrkts or brand enhancements? • 6. Can investment in fixed and current assets be rationalised? • 7. Can time be taken out of the production and marktng processes?

6.Environmental analysis
• 1 How are we likely to be affected by trends in the environment?---------------------Demographic?-------------------------------------Economic?-----------------------------------• Pollution and environmental protection controls • Technology? Political? Cultural? • 2.what contingency and crisis mngmnt plans exist? For key vulnerabilities?

Developing the “value proposition” USP,UBP,VP CONCEPTS
• • • • USP—unique selling proposition UBP—unique buying proposition VP—value proposition USP is an attribute to tout as No.1. Common No.1 positions—Best Quality— Lowest Price—Safest—Best Service— Best Value—fastest—Most Customised— most Convenient—Most Advanced Technology.

Examples of value propositionsStep by step process
• 1. Co name? and Product name? • 2.What is target customer profile In Geographic,Demographic,Psychographic including life style and Technosavviness parameters? • 3.What is one unique benefit that is distinctly different from others? And a couple of other normal benefits? • 4. What is customers perception of Benefit to price ratio? Expressed as—Too high a price for the benefit?--Moderately high price for the benefit?—Just right price for the benefit?—Moderately low price for the brenefit • 5.Make a value proposition statement—An artistic statemennt, compact, unambiguous’ and easily understood—Neither too long nor too short- but covering the salient aspects of all the above 4 points.

3definitions of positioning strategy
• 1 Positioning strategy is choice of target mrkt segment(TMS), which determines where the business competes and the choice of “DA” which dictates how it competes. • 2.Positioning strategy is deciding which game to play and how better to play so that the co continues to win the game for ever • 3.Positioning is not so much what the product actually is, but rather how the Co wants it’s target customers to perceive it. A Co can choose from a No. of different strategies. • Match the strategy with the example.

Match strategy with example
• Positioning strategy • 1.Positioning by attribute;Associating a product with a particular feature • 2.Positioning by benefit;Associating a product with a spl customer benefit • 3.positioning by use or application

• Example • A.”Master card is accepted at more restaurants than any other card” • B.”Head & Shoulders” is the best shampoo for people with dandruff. • C.”Chevy trucks outperform Ford trucks”

Matching-----• 4.Positioning by user;Associating a product with a user or class of users. • 5.Positioning by competitorIdentifying a product by using a competitor as reference • 6.Positioning by product category; • 7.Positioning by quality& price • D.“Timex watches take a licking but keep on ticking” • E“Preference by L’Oreal.It costs a little more, but I am worth it” • F.”7-UP is the UnCola.It’s lighter& more refreshing.” • G.”A box of Arm&Hammer baking soda in your refrigerator will keep it cleansmelling”

How do Co’s add superior value? In 3 ways
• 1By strategies adding value • 2,by strategies reducing cost & • developing more effective positionings. • Let us get into details of each.

Drivers of utility drivers of cost &repositionings
• 1.Drivers of utility. Utility,usefulness,perceived value orcustomer satisfaction is a combination of rational, economic factors and subjective image dimensions—4 drivers -----.Product,Service,Personal &Image drivers • A,Product drivers

Product drivers & service drivers
• • • • • • • • • Product drivers; 1,Performance 2.Features 3.Reliability 4.Conformance to specs expected 5.Durability 6.Seviceability 7.Operating costs 8.Aesthetics. • Service drivers;Become important as competition narrows down product differences. • 1Credit&Finance • 2.Ordering facility • 3delivery • 4Installation • 5Training&consultancy • 6 Aftersales-service • 7 Gaurantee • 8Operating support

Personal & image drivers
• Personal drivers. In service- oriented Co’s, personnel become a valuable source of “DA”since difficult to copy high quality person or service. Important traits; • 1.Professional skill, knowledge,talent • 2.Courtesy • 3.Trustworthiness,reliability,Positive attitude • 4.Initiative • 5.Communicability etc.

Image drivers
• Image drivers give customers the confidence in the product.This confidence value is in socio-psychological utility of the brand or it’s economic performance or both. • Ex.Youngsters see Coke, Levi’s jeans,Sony Walkman,Nike shoes as consistent with their life styles.

• • • • • • • • • • •

Typical P&L of a Co Revenue---100 Materials-----25 Manfacture---15 R&D-----------o5 Sales&Distrbn15 Corp.OHS-----20 Mrktng OHS---15 TOTAL COST—95 -------------------------Margin-----------05

2 drivers of cost Michael Porter’s 5 force theory& value chain

Cost drivers
• It is cost drivers that decide if a Co’s costs are lower or higher than it’s competitors.Eg. • 1.Economies of scale • 2.Learning curve or Experience curve • 3.Capacity utilisation • 4.Sharing of costs with group Co’s • 5.Vertical/horizontal integration • 6,First/leader in mrkt • 7.Location,Marktng strategy advantage.

Value chain

5 forces of porter

3.Repositioning strategies are you positioned adequately?
• • • • • • • Product X is positioned wrongly in between mass & premium mrktswhere the economy and luxury segments are at the 2 extremes of the markt. On the Quality VS Cost or price map, there could be 3 reasons of inadequate positioning of X. 1.Un-attractive segment-too small in size,declining,too competitive,or unprofitable. 2.Quality & features don’t match the target segment. 3.The product costs too high to allow it to be priced competitively. IN OTHER WORDS.PRODUCT X IS TOO COSTLY FOR THE MASS MRKT AND HAS INSUFFICIENT QUALITY TO APPEAL TO THE PREMIUM SEGMENT. Therefore it has TO REPOSITIOn itself

7 repositioning options real & psychological options
• 1.Introduce a new brand. In 1990,IBM , in the PC mrkt, introduced it’s own cheap clone under AMBRA brand name to have a foot - hold in the emerging mass or economy mrkt. • 2. Change existing brand. In contrast to IBM,Compaq solved the problem by cutting price & simplifying features offered to hold on to position in mass mrkt. • 3.Alter beliefs about brand.; Chivas Regal scotch repositioned itself from the mass mrkt to the premium segment thus rationalising it’s higher price and quality. • 4. Alter beliefs about competing brands; The BODY SHOP retail group has communicated that the beauty& personal care products of competitors are not environmentally friendly.

• 5. Alter attribute importance rates; VOLVO raised importance of safety as an attribute in choosing a car thus enhancing the value of it’s differentiation. • 6. Introduce new or neglected attributes;Unilever successfully introduced “RADION”, a new detergent that eliminated odour-a benefit previously considered not important.

• 7. Find a new mrkt segment; DUNHIL diversified from smoking accessories into mens’ clothing. Instead of getting into the crowded segments,created a new luxury segment of expensive high quality readyto-wear suits. As the only typically British competitor in the segment,it brought a unique brand with a strong appeal to affluent executives—especially the Japanese.

Creating brands & nurturing them
• Why brand technology products? • Purpose of any business? • How do we measure success?

The 3 secrets of business success & survival?

Secrets of---• Product image • Service image • Corporate image • Channel image

Right Business orientation needed for success?
• Production orientation • Product orientation • Selling orientation • Marketing orientation • Customer focus/orientation • The role of engineering/R&D in success

The elephantine electronics case
• What moral can we engineers draw from this story?

Differences between products &brands?
• Benefits of brands• to customers ? • to company ? • to society?

Purpose driven R&D-in commercial firms
• • • • What goals should we have? Market goals Financial goals People goals

Segmenting markts-how will we be different & better?
• • • • • • • • • • “all skills are subsidiary to the master skill of concentrated focus” FOCUS ON THE MARKT FOR SUCCESS 2 stages to undertake segmentation—Definition of potential segments & selection of target segments DEFINITION-in a lot of different ways; FOR INDUSTRIAL MARKETS, Geographic; ,Industry,Type of application,Customer size,Markt served,Channels of distribution, Demographic,Psychographic,Technographic, Behavioural etc. FOR CONSUMER MARKTS;_GEO,DEMO.ECONOMIC,Psyco,Techno,Behavioural— all can be used. When >2or3 variables are used, the process becomes complex. SELECTION—Is easier based on MA & DA.

A practical approach to segmenting markts-cascade method


Step3.Defining segments by sentence

Guidelines for cascading

Cascade-• 6.ANALYSE OBJECTIVELY.DON’T BE BIASED. • 7.SEPARATE SEGMENTS FROM SELECTION.SELECTION IS NEXT STEP. • 8.ALTERNATE THE “Q”s.ELIMINATE NON_USEFUL LREVELS. • • • • • • MYTHS OF SEGMENTATION “we segment our mrkts” ‘THERE IS ONE IDEAL SEGMENTATION VARIABLE” “segments are technologies or products” “Segments are forever” “WE want to be in all segments” ETC.

Assignment on cascade method of segmenting markts
• Tke any markt u like and do follow the above swtep by step process of cascade method, • Divide into segments, • Mention at least 3-4 segment statements,find out if thjose sedgments were already occupied by current players,if so who and if not check attractiveness of the niche u have just discovered. • HOW DID U DISCOVER THENICHE?

Plc strategies. ch- fig--

Product strategies-Ansoff diagram or directional policy matrix.
• 4 types of product strategies • BCG matrix –ch fig • GE or McKinsey matrix

Product strategies.HLL
• • • • • 1.product mix width strategy 2.product mix consistency satrategy 3.product line length strategy 4.product depth strategy PRODUCT MIX WIDTH measures the no of individual(INDEPENDENT) lines of products the co carries in its product portfolio. • For ex,HLL has roughly 3 dozens of lines of products— say,soaps,detergents,tooth pstes,toiletries,cosmetics,personal care products,ice creams,bread,shampoos,atta,salt,jams,jellies,tea,coffee etc,

Product stra---• • • • • • • • • • • • Advantages;wide mix helps 1,growth in bad times for some lines 2.good customer coverage 3.prevent competitor entry 4develop trade interest 5reduce overall cost 6synergy etc. DISADVANTAGES 1.resources scarcely distributed 2.lack of focus 3.Confusion if overlap 4.too much inventories.

What is optimum width?
• If mix is too narrow,vulnerability, competitors get strong if they discover & enter into new niches, and stake holders growth expectations not met, • Optimum width depends on • 1,co’s resource capability •’s ambitions for growth with matching capability • 3.ability to start a new line when the existing lines can survive & grow on their own merits,

2.Product mix consistency strategy
• • • • • • • • • • This measures how well each line is related to every other line in terms of 1,technical capability 2.manufacturing skill& capability, 3.distribution capability,4,employee talent and skills,5branding& commncn skills 6,customer mix etc. Advantages of high mix consistency 1.lower costs 2.quicker growth 3higher profit Disadvantages;1inability to venture into unrelated but high opportunity areas.ex reliance.

Product line length strategy
• Line length measures the no of independent products in a line. • For example,HLL’s soaps line has a dozen different soaps • Jay Lux Hamam • Breeze Liril Dove • Lifebuoy Fair&lovely • Rexona Pears

Long lines-advantages
• • • • • • 1different segments 2high sale,MS & profit 3.prevent competition first to open a swegment 5overal markt leadership 6.More satisfied customer groups7.synergies in marktng costs • 7.satisfied trade

Long line-disadvantages
• • • • • • Too long –unnecessary-wasted inventory Slow non-moving stocks Low ROI Confuse customer choice if overlap. Lack of focus Resources too thinly distributed.

• Lux is available in 2 formulations,3 siges,3 colors and 2 skin types • Therefore lux’s product depth is • Why product depth? • To cater to subsegmental needs • To retain customers • To meet needc fragmentation in evolving markts

product depth-no. of variants of same product-by sige,packing,colors,styles etc.

Plc strategies. ch- fig--

Branding strategies

Creating & Nurturing Them

The Agenda Today

• Why brand technology products? • Purpose of any business? • How do we measure success?

The 3 secrets of business success & survival?
• Product image • Service image • Corporate image • Channel image

Right Business orientation needed for success?
• Production orientation • Product orientation • Selling orientation • Marketing orientation • Customer focus/orientation

The role of engineering/R&D in success

The elephantine electronics case

What moral can we engineers draw from this story?

Differences between products &brands?
Benefits of brands To customers To company To society

Purpose driven R&D-in commercial firms
What goals should we have? 1. 2. 3. Market goals Financial goals People goals

The Kano Model
Delighting Features



Product features

Expected Features

Assumed Features

From Commodities to Brands
Low High

Cognitive Relationship


Strong Brands

ing rod E

ran B




Emotional Relationship

Name Awareness

Perceived quality

Brand Associations Proprietary Assets Provides value to firm by enhancing: •Efficiency and effectiveness of marketing programs. •Brand loyalty •Prices/margin •Brand Extension •Trade leverage •Competitive Advantage

Brand Loyalty

Brand Equity Name Symbol

Provides value to customer by enhancing Customer’s •Interpretation/processing of information •Confidence in the decision •Use satisfaction

Unique Me - Too
Depends On Sales Efforts

Well Known

80% Buy Decision Whisper

Supplying company


Un known

80% Not – Buy Decision

On Sales Efforts


Price Differentiation
Low High
Branded markets


Product Image



Commodity Market


Low High
Outstanding Success

Marketing Innovation




Commodity Marketing

Cost Leadership

“Developing Competitive Position Through Innovation and Or Productivity”

Low High
SWATCH Fashion Based Low cost Production

High Marketing Innovation

SWISS Luxury Watches


Low cost Volume Production

“In Watch Industry”

What is a successful brand?
3 Acid Tests & 1 Decisive Test 1. Leading share in it’s segment and distribution channel? 2. Commanding prices sufficient tp provide a high profit?

What is a successful brand?
Contd... 3. Will it sustain its strong share of profit against emerging competition? 4. Will it induce customers to pay preferentially compared to other brands available?

Brand equity
Brand loyalty Reduced marketing costs Trade leverage Attracting new customers Create Awareness Reassurance

Brand Aware ness Perceived quality Brand Associ ations proprietary asstes

Anchor to which other associations can be attached Familiarity –Liking Signal of substance/commitment Brand to be considered Reason to buy Differentiate/position Price Channel member interest Extensions Help process/retrieve information Differentiation/position Reason-to-buy Create +ve attitude/feelings Extensions Competitive advantage

Provides value to customers: *Interpretation/ *Processing of info Mation *Confidence in purchase * Use satisfaction

Provide value to firm By enhancing: *Efficiency/effectiveness Of marketing programs *Brand loyalty *Prices/margins *Brand extns *Trade leverage *Competitive advantage

Levitt’s Model
n tio la tal Ins


•F lex

ibi lity

ee nt ra ua

•System Approach

Basi c •Styling Core Benefit •Brand
name •Quality


•Re sponsiven ess

•Package •Operational efficiency

•N fa am m e e an •Consultancy d

g in in ra T

•Maintenance •Credibility


In a Project Sales
20% of Sales impacct

The Core Product 80% of price

80% of Sales impacct

The other three levels 20% of price

The essence Of marketing
Customer Wants Marketing MIX Variables Product Functional



Self image TMS Availability DA





Risk Avers ness


Definition of a brand
• A brand is a differentiated product with a name,a logo,a symbol,a trade mark and usually a combination of some or all of these used in communicating the superior value to the TMS and helping them percieve how the offer is more in value and why they should be preferring this product to all other substitute / competitive products. • A brand is a trust-mark which helps customers meet some of their self-image needs by rubbing off their images on to the users of the brand-thanks to the images they acqured over a period of time due to the brand builing investment and efforts put in by the mgnt.

4 branding strategies
• 1.Line extensions-product category same,brand name same with a suffix or prefix.ex.lUX,LUX INTERNATIONAL soaps • 2.BRAND EXTENSIONS-Product category different,brand name same with a suffix or prefix.ex.LUX SOAP,LUX SHAMPOO. • 3.MULTI BRANDS-product category same,brand name different.LUX,LIRIL,LIFEBUOY soaps • 4.NEW UNIQUE BRANDS-product category different brand name different.ex.LUX SOAP,KNORR ANNAPURNA SALT.

• 1.line extensions-product category existing and brand name existing.ex.LUX soap and LUX international soap • 2.brand extensions-product category new,brand name existing.ex.LUX soap,LUX shampoo • 3.multi brands-product category existing,brand name new.exLUX soap,LIRIL soap. • unique brands.-product category new,brand name new.ex.lux soap,kn orr annapurna salt.

4 Branding strategies based on product category/brand name existing or new?

Pros and cons of branding strategies
• Line extensions • Pros-possible when both products have3 similar image and are tasrgeted to similar and close markets/segments • Synergy in cost • Rub off effect • Quick success • Cons-failure also rubs • Confusing range • Overlap • Non moving stocks

• Brand extensions • Pros and cons similar to line extensions

Pros cons of multi brands/new unique brands
• • Multi brands Advs-possible when new product in same category meant for dissimilar or distant mrkts and images dissimilar.diff features appeal to diff markts.can protect major brands thro fighter or flanking brands 1.create new segments and enter first, 2.pre-empt competition 3.segmen t leadership& overall market leadership 4.costomer loyalty &CRM 5.failure no bad effect profits larger even if some cannibalism occurs. Disadvs-1.costly 2.Risky-high failure rate 3..line and brand extn possibilities4.resources too thinly spread. Newbrands pros &cons similar to MBS.

• • • • • • • •

Product mix decisions
• 1.add new product lines&widen the product mix ,new lines build on Co’s reputation in other lines. • 2.lengthen existing product line to become a more full-line Co. • 3.add more product versions of each product&deepen it’s product mix. • 4.pursue more product line consistency or less depending on whether it wants a strong reputation in a single field or in several fields.

Pricing decisions-why is price p is the most imp of all p’s of M.MIX?
Price higher Premium strategy higher quality lower Over charging strategy Economy strategy lower Good value strategy

Price is the only p that gets revenue all others add to cost!
• Prem strategy—High Q,High P—ROLEX • Economy Strategy—Low Q, LowP-Timex • Usually coexist,since markt consists of atleast 2 groups of buyers—Those seeking Q and those seeking P. • Good Value strategy---A way to attack premium pricer.”we have high Q but at a low P.If really true,and Q sensitive buyers believe this,they buy and save money.---Un less the premium product offers more status or snob appeal.

Over charging strategy
• Over price the product in relation to Q.In long run, customers may feel “taken”,will stop buying & may complain to others.So avoid this strategy. • PRICING AN INNOVATIVE PATENT PROTECTED PRODUCT.How to price first time? Choose between 1,Market-skimming pricing and 2,Market-penetration pricing. • MARKET SKIMMING PRICING • 1.Set a high price to skim maximum profit from the segment willing to pay the high price.Fewer but,more potential sales

Pricing an innovative patent protected product first time
• • • • • • • • Choose between skimming pricing penetration pricing skimming pricing.---set a high price to get a high profit per unit from the segment willing to pay a high price---fewer but more profitable sale. Conditions for success 1.quality & image must match the high price. 2.cost of production of small volume can not be so high as to cancel out the high price. 3.competitive entry barriers should be high—not to enter & under-cut.

2market penetration pricing
• Set a small price in order to attract a large number of buyers and a large market share deeply & quickly.Ex • 1.Dell & Gatreway used penetration pricing for high quality computers through lower cost mailorder channel.Their sales increased substantially when IBM,COMPAQ & APPLE sold thro retail stores & could not match their prices. • HOME-DEPOT & WALLMART & other discount retailers charge low prices for high volumes leading to low costs to allow keep prices low!

Conditions for setting low price
• 1.markt to be highly,low price leads to more sales and growth. • 2. production & distribution costs fall as sales volume increases. • 3.low price must help keep out competitionotherwise price advantage may be purely temporary.Dell & Gateway faced problems when IBM & Compaq established their own direct distribution channels.

3.skimming layer by layer
• Some firms that are highly innovative use a hybrid strategy whereby they set a high price to begin with to skim maximum profit from the top most segment and then reduce price continuously to skim profit layer by layer from the segments willing to pay the high price.Ex. • Intel charges the highest price for the computer chip “pentium”.When it first brought it out,they charged $1000 each so that computer producers priced first pentium computer at $3500,attracting innovative & serious first buyers • Later, Intel cut pentium prices by 30% per year to eventually allow the pentium PC prices to drop into the price range of home buyers. ..

Choice between penetration and skimming strategies.
• • • • • • Penetration 1.Objective-long run markt share;risk taking 2.demand-price elastic;few markt segments 3.competition-deter new competitors;few barriers to entry 4.product.-image seen as unimportant,long product life cycle 5.price-pressure for prices to fall,need to move fast • • • • SkimmingShort run profit Risk-avert Price elastic,multiple markt segments Accept new competitors,high barriers to entry Seeks prestige and image,short PLC Prices can be sustained,fewer pressures in markt.

• • •

Skim-penetrate------• Penetration • Promotion-customers understand product • Distribution-existing system • Production-high scale economies,experienc e curve effects • Skim strategy • Unfamiliar product • Unfamiliar channel • Few scale economies and experience curve effects.

Price problem
• • • • • • • • • • Case 1. A toaster marketer has the cost and pricing structure as below. Fixed cost;$300,000 Price/unit;$20 Variable cost/unit;$10 Q1.What is the break-even volume in units and value in $ Q2.The Co invested $10,00,000 and wants a 20% return on investment (ROI).How much should the Co sell in units and value? Q3.At an expected unit sale of 50’000 what is the total manufacturing cost per unit? Q4.At the above manufacturing cost per unit,what should be the selling price A,to earn a mark-up of 20% on cost? B,to earn a margin of 20% on selling price?

Price problem case-2
• Setting a price to Government A’c is quite tough.In a sealed-bid pricing,the firm needs to set a price based on how it thinks competitors will price rather than on its costs or demand.Both “high price “ & “low price”setting strategies are undesirable.One needs to strike a balance.Suggest your pricing strategy with following data.

What is the best price?
• Co’s bid & profit in $ • 9,500 &100 • 10,000 &600 • 10,500 &1100 • 11,000 &1600 • Assumed probability of winning • 0.81 • 0.36 • 0.09 • 0.01

• The markt leader is selling a machine tool (product X) at a price of Rs.30,000.The customer will also have to cover start-up costs of rs.20,000-(installation,initial training etc.)and post-purchase costs over the life of the machine with a present value of rs.50,000(labor,maintainance,power and other operating costs).Thus the total LIFE CYCLE COST of the m/c is Rs100,000.In other words,the price is under 1/3rd of the total cost of employing the m/c.

EVC-Economic value To Customer central concept in pricing in industrial products

By developing an offer with high EVC ,a Co can charge significantly higher prices and stll offer its •

Customers a superior value.The higher vpriced product may offer value because (a),it generates more output thanits competitor or • (b),because the operating costs associated with it (mint,labor,depreciation etc)are lower over its economic life. • If a competitor wants to dislodge the markt leader ,it must offer superior EVC.One way is simply to price-cut.But this is not likely to be a decisive strategy here,because,even if the m/c price is cut by 20%,the savings to customer of Rs.6000 is only 6% of total cost.

• By Rs.10,000 and post-purchase cost by Rs 20,000.What do u think is the highest price the customer will be willing to pay for product Y,assuming both X & Y would have the same life cycle cost and productivity?This represents the EVC that Y offers to the customer and below the EVC it would be rational for the buyer to switch to Y ,provided that all other things were equal between the 2 suppliers.

There are 2 other better ways.For ex,a new product Yis shown as reducing the start-up cost

Assume a new product Z is available which ,besides lowering
• The customer’s cost ,may enhance its revenues also.Z actually turns out more finished product for the customer or products with superior quality Product Z has the same start-up cost as X ,but post-purchase costs are Rs 10,000 lower and offers a NPV of Rs 30,000 extra contribution margin,arising from enhanced output of higher quality for which demand exists.Find out the EVC or the maximum price customers are willing to pay for Z?

Questions on evc case
• If you are the market leader with X and developed Y and Z for the first time what marketing strategy would u adopt for success? • If u are the unsuccessful competitor for the leader X and fortunately developed both Y and Z,what marketing strategy wd u adopt to challenge the leader and displace him?

Evc case solution
• Using the EVC concept, the firm can target those mrkt segments where the evc is the highest. • In such segments the product is more attractive and so here the firm can get the highest prices. • In this eg, it may pay the firm to launch 2 new products. • A high price brand Zto the quality-oriented customersand a low priced Y brand to the costoriented segment of the brand mrkt.

Firm’s pricing policy setting
• • • • • • • • 1.selecting pricing objectives Survival Max current profit Max current service Max sales grwth Max markt skimming Product-quality leadership Other pricing objectives

2.Determining demand-price elastic demand & price-inelastic demand
• 3.estimating costs;Demand sets the sealing & cost sets the floor for product pricing • 4.analysing competitors’costs prices &offers • 5.selecting aq pricing the price based on 3 C’s---Customers’ demand schedule,cost function & competitive prices. • LOW PRICE costs • competitors prices/substitutes • Customers assessmnt of unique product features • HIGH PRICES • If price is lower than cost, no profit • If price higher than customers’assessment of value,no possible demand exists.

Various pricing methods
• A.mark-up pricing • pricing • C.perceived value pricing---value in use price • D.value-pricing---fairly low price for a high quality product ex.Toyota LEXUS • E.going rate pricing • F.sealed-bid pricing

Perceived value pricing or value-inuse pricing
• Increasingly companies are basing prices on buyers’ perception of quality and value,not on the seller’s cost. • They use other marketing mix elements,such as advertising,packing,sales force,and promotion to build-up perceived value in buyer’s mind. • Eg.Dupont,when it developed its new synthetic fiber for carpets,it demonstrated to carpet makersthat they could afford to pay Dupont as much as $1.4 per pound for the new fiber and still make their target profit.

Dupont calls this $1.4 the value-inuse price.
• Dupont sets a price lower than $1.4 to induce carpet makersto adopt the new fiber,since at &1.4,the customers are indifferent. • Dupont didn’t use its manfng cost to set the price,but only to judge whether there was enough profit to go ahead in the first place.The key to perceived value pricing is to determine the markt’s perception of the offer’s value accuraely. • Sellers with an inflated view of their offer’s value will over-price their product.Sellers with an under estimated view will charge less than they could both are undesirable,

Perceived value pricing contd.
• When a customer asks Caterpiller’s dealer why he should pay$10000 more,the dealer answers; • $90k is the tractor’s price if it is only equivalent to the competitor • $7k is the price premium for Caterpiller’s superior durability. • &6k is the price premium for Caterpiller’s superior reliability • $5k is the premium for superior service • $2k is premium for larger variety on parts. • $110k is the normal price to cover Caterpiller’s superior value. • Minus $10k discount is equal to final price.

Value pricing
• • • • Here sellers chargea fairly low price for a high quality offering,such that the price should represent a high value offer to the consumers. Value pricing is not a matter of simply setting lower prices on one’s products compared to competitors. It is a matterof reengineering the co’s operations to become a low cost producer without sacrificing quality and lowering prices significantly to attract a large no of value-conscious customers. An imp type of value pricing is every day low pricing(EDLP) at the retail level.High-low pricing is resorted to by promotion oriented competitors. Here the retailer charges higher prices on every day basis but then runs frequent promos in which prices are temporarily lowered to below EDLP levels. As super mrkts face increasing compttn,from counterparts and alternate channels,the key to success is using a combination of high low and EDLP strategies with increased ad promos!

6.Selecting the final price consider addnl factors
• A.psychological pricing • B.influence of other MM elements on price. • pricing policies • D.impct of price on other parties.

• A variations in geographical demands/costs • B.markt segment requirements • C.purchase timing • D.order levels • frequency • F.guarantees • G.service contracts

Adapting the price.Co’s don’t set a single price,they follow a pricing structure that reflects

Price discounts & allowances
• • • • • Cash discounts-prepayment Quantity discounts Functional discounts Seasonal discounts Allownces-trade-in allowances

Promotional pricing stimulates early purchases
• • • • • • • • • • Loss-leader pricing Spl-event pricing Cash rebates Low-interest financing Longer payment terms Warranties & service contracts Psychological discounting-was $359, now $299 only. Promotional strategies are usually a zero-sum game! if they work,competitors copy easily. If they don’t work,waste of money!

Discriminatory pricing same product at diff prices
• Customer segment pricing-eg.museumslow price for students&sr citizens • Product form pricing-diff pack sizes • Image pricing-diff names,diff prices,diff images • Location pricing-Tagj charges differently at diff cities. • Time pricing-season,day or hour.

Product mix pricing
• Product line pricing-price steps one sneaker to another • Optional feature pricing • Captive product pricing-camera & films • 2-part pricing-fixed fee plus variable usage fee • Bye-product pricing • Product bundling pricing-season tickets. Total cost less than sum of individual products

• • • • • •

Ex; excess plant capacity Declining markt share Drive to dominate markt thro lower costs Risks of price cuts Low-quality trap Fragile-merkt share trap-high priced competitors may cut prices& can withstand due to deep pockets

Initiating & responding to price changes initiating price cuts

Initiating price changes
• Normally pressure exists on co’s to reduce prices.Experience curve,competition and rising customer price sensitivity as markets evolve,all encourage falling real price levels. • Inflation,stock markets expectations of growing profits and possibility of new and improved products/brands encourage enterprising managers to consider ways of increasing prices and margins. • Cost reduction is another obvious way of rising margins.But price increase has a better impact. •

Techniques to reduce customer sensitivity to price rise

6.REPOSITIONINg.Reposition a product to get higher prices.Eg.Chivas regal scotch.boost In early 80’s, scotch whiskey was increasingly sold on price to

• •

flagging volumesGuinness succeeded well in in repositioning many of the brands as premium products taking advantage of increasin g affluence and snob appeal of these established brand names. 7.Escalator clauses.with long term contracts and long gestation periods,escalation clauses will allow producers pass on cost increases to buyers. 8.Reduction in discount.Most Co’s erode their basic price with bcash discounts for pre payment,quantity trade discounts,seasonal and pomo allowances,or trade-in.Many of them can be dropped or reduced without significant customer dissatisfaction. 9.Cost plus price formuylas.Offer to meet new customer needs on basis of cost plus pricing.thus introduce enhanced products with the buyer guaranteeing the margin.

Product mix pricing
• 1.Product line pricing-a range of products at various prices for buyers to choose from.Castrol GTX at low price to more expensive GTX2,GTX3 so on uptoGTX7 to exploit different price elasticities amongst consumers and distributors and encourage customers to trade up to higher margin brands • Select price points to signal clear quality differences between the brands. • 2.FOLLOW ON PRODUCTS.Some products require subsequent and film. Computer and software.Initial product might be priced low to stimulate demand and make profit on subsequent products. • Supplier needs to be dominant or specialist to prevent competitor to enter wirh lower priced substitutes.

3.BLOCKING PRODUCTS.Sell at an economic price to block competitive entry. • Eg.cross-subsidise sales in one segment or geographical area to
• • •

dissuade competition. 4.BUNDLED AND OPTION PRicing.Advertise the product at a low stripped-down price and at POP,encourage to add high margin features.merc price Rs 20 lacs and Rs 5 lacs on options. In contrast Japanese competitors bundle a comprehensive range of features into the sticker price to offer superior value proposition. 5.PARALLEL IMPORTS.Increasingly pricing is becoming international problem with differences in living stds and distribution systems.countries differ in price responsiveness and therefore set prices differently in diff countries but legl restrictions and parallel imports are making such strategies difficult .

Product mix pricing strategies
• Product line pricing-diff products at diff prices in a range each offering more features than previous one.Kodak royal gold and kodak fun time –high and low price versions. • 2optional product pricing-Basic price+accessories • 3.Captive product pricing—In products razors,cameras and computers, in services,the strategy is 2 part pricinga fixed fee plus charges for the calls made beyond a numberas a variable vusage rate. • 4.By-product pricing.Set a price for byproduct to make the main product’s proice more competitive.

Customer types based on price and perceived value.VALUE OF MONEY vs VALUE OF DIFFRNCN. • 1.PRICE BUYERS OR CREDIT BUYERS OR
COMMODITY BUYERS-diff low and vom high.Suppliers develop multiple vendors and encourage them into kamikaze price wars.Scream loudest and dictate price,credit and selling strategies.Profits so low attn unjustified but provide volume sale. 2.VALUE BUYERS OR VALUE LOVERS Best position to be as customers.Want lower prices,longer credit where possible,more efficient operations,superior features or services And wd pay faster for superior value where justified. From marktg pt of view,firms that attract value customers get the loyal buyers as part of the bargainand sell to the price buyer only when profitable and reasonable,

• • • •

• LOYAL BUYERS_lovers of the care from suppliers. • Less concerned about price or credit.Often have a single supplier and don’t intend to qualify others. • COMFORT BUYERS –lovers of convenience • Don’t care who is supplying,what price,what credit,as long as readily available.Most profitable segment,but unfortunately have little brand loyaltyand offer no SDA.

Cost based vs value based pricing
• COST BASED PRICING-setting price based on buyers’perception of value. • Product---cost---price---value---customer • VALUE BASED PRICING-Setting price based on seller’s cost • Customers—value---price---cost---product

• Physical distribution/marktg logistics-Physical distribution is process of delivering product to marktng channels &consumers.Logistics has a higher scope –covers PD plus part of task of mrktg channels • PD takes care of transportation,ware housing and inventory mgmt to facilitate flow of product while channels connect the firm with its customers and thus bring in greater value addition in delivery chain • SCM has even higher scope encompassing the materials mgmt task as well. Has all 5 primary activities of value chain-both front end and back end of the process to spread value and develop competitive edge.

Place-the 3rd p of mmix physical distribution & channel mgmt

Physical distribution-importance
• • • • Ensures physical flow of product Confers place &time utility on products Helps build clientele Where production locations and markets are distanced,PD becomes crucial • A promising area of cost reduction.PD costs are high and second only to materials-a neglected area of cost control.

Component functions of PD/logistics
• Planning the overall PD system • In-plant warehousing • Transportation • Field warehousing • Receiving • handling • Secondarytransportation, secondary handling &subdistribition • Inventory mgmt at each level in chain • Order processing/execution • Accounting/record keeping • communication

Designing a physical distribution system-5 steps
• 1.articulate distrbn objectives,specify the minimum desirable service level in product delivery • 2.find out what customers want in product delivery • 3.Find out what competitors do • 4.Keep the costs of the system as low as possible,without sacrificing the guaranteed minimum service level • 5.keep the system sufficiently flexible.

Main tasks in transportation mgmt
• 1.Assessment of transportation requirement • 2.Choosing the mix of transportation modes • 3.Decide the routing • 4.Develop operational plans • 5.Implement/Review • 6.control transportation costs

Role &importance of warehousing
• • • • • • • • 1.Like transportation,warehousing too vests the product with time and place utility 2.In some commoddities,warehousing vests the product with form utility as well 3.A certain level of storage is inescapable in marketing of most products.Storage needed in large scale for seasonal products. 4.sub-distribution realities also necessitate extra storage. 5.Storage reduces the need for instant transportation which is difficult 7 costly. is a competitive adv ,since better storage leads to better servicing of channel and consumer. 7.Storage also helps in balancing demand and supply and ion stabilising prices 8In some products storage by itself acts as a stimulant of demand.

Elements of inventory costs
• • • • • • 1.Interest on capital tied up in the inventory 2.Warehouse rent,3.Staff salaries 4.Insurance,Rates and taxes,5.Stationery 6.Postage& cmmncn charges,7.Administrative OH’S 7,costs of handling,unloading & stacking 8.Loss of damages &deterioration on storage 9.Cost of order processing /record leeping/accounting • Optimum inventory is a compromisebetween cost & service.

Outsourcing logistics
• Volvo-GM outsourcesmarktg logistics tying up withFedEx. Dealers when requre spares in an emergency call FedEx on a toll fgree no and FedEx supplies parts by air the same night either at dealer’s shop or at roadside at the breakdown site.A central warehouse was set up andsome of traditionalregional warehouses&reduced overall inventory csotsby 15%. • In India AFL, Elbee,& Bluedart are some of the Airexpress Cos collaborating with manufacturers for outsourcing

Marketing channel magmt. Functions performed
• 1.Facilitate selling by being physically close to customers. • 2.Provide distribution efficiency by bridging the manufacturer with the user,efficiently and economically • 3.Break the bulk and cater to the tiny requirements of buyers • 4.Assemble products into assortments to meet buyers needs;match ‘segments of supply ‘ with ‘segments of demand’ • 5.look after a part of physical distribution/marktg logistics;subdistribution—a.Reselling,b,Retransport. C,Handling and d,Accounting---STOCK HOLDINGa,Providing warehouse space. B,Storing the stocks. C,bearing risks and d,Transforming static stocks intooperational stocks,thereby aiding the sales process

Channel functions---• 6.Share the financial burden of the principal;Provide deposits;Finance the stocks till they are sold to the ultimate consumers;Extend credit to retailers/consumers • 7.Provide salesmanship • 8.Provide pre and after sales service • 9.assist in sales promos • 10.Assist in merchandising

Channel functions--• 11.Assist in introducing new products • 12.Assist in implementing the price mechanism;assist in price negigotations • 13.Assist in developing sales forecasts/sales plans for the territory. • 14.provide markt intelligence & feedback. • 15.Maintain records,16,take care of laison needs17.Helpdiffuse innovationsamong consumers,act as ‘change agents’and generate demand

Alternative channel patteens
• • • • • • • • 1Manf----M’s salesmen---User 2.Manf—M’s showrooms/Depots—User 3.Manf—Retailer—User 4.Manf—Franchisees—User 5.M—Wholesaler(stockist)/Distributor—R—User 6.M—W(s)/D—Semi-wholesaler—R—U 7.Manf—Markter—W(S)/D—SW—R---U 8.M—Soleselling agent—W(S)/D---SW---R--U

Steps in designing channel system
• 1.Formulating channel objectives • 2.Identifying fubctions to be performedby the channel • 3.Analysing the product & linking the channeldesign to the product characteristics • 4,evaluatingthe distribution environment,including legal aspects • 5Evaluating competitor’s channel design • 6.Evaluating Co resourcesand matching channel design to resources • 7.Generating alternate designs,evaluating and selecting the one that suits the firm best.

Objectives firms seek from channels
• 1.Effective coverage of the target market • 2.Efficient & cost effective distribution • 3.ensuring that consumers incur minimum exertion in procuring the product. • 4.Helping the firm to carry on manufacvturing uninterrupted ,confident that channels will take care of sales • 5.Partnering the firm in financing and sub distribution tasks.

Types of marketing intermediates
• • • • • • • • • 1.Sole selling agent 2.Marketer 3.C&F Agent(CFA’s) 4.Redistribution stockists 5.Stockist/Whole saler/Distributor 6.Semi wholesaler 7.retailer/dealer 8.Broker 9.Franchisees 10Authorised reps 11Commission agents 12.jobbers

Linkage bet channel objectives & channel design
• Channel objectives • 1.Castrol india-Locational convenience,Choice of product &Strong reach;Speedy dely;Fill orders from outlets in 24 hrs. • textiles(VIMAL)-Create exclusive image for VIMAL,Cater to urban markts,as per position.Build barriers to comptn. • Channel design • Vast net work of outlets— backed by CFA’s/Stockists/warehou ses/delivery facility,1800 SKU’s,variety,packsizes.--Multi-tier design . • 2.Exclusive showrooms200nos-in all cities and jumbo showrooms in metros.outlet communicates.—

Channel design--• 4.Archies gifts &greetings— Proximity to customers,convert low involvement purchase inti HighIP,Make purchase an enjoyable experience. • 4.Outlets close to upper echelons of society,the TMS.Go for exclusive shops/shop-inshops;Trendy interior design and peppy ambience.—Wide range of appealing merchandise

Channel design---• 5,BBLIL(premerger with HLL)—Strong reach,Provide choice of brand,place&time utility— Fresh stocks to consumers always. • 5.embrace all types ofshops,super mrkts,grocery stores&kirana shops.A 3tier channel with CFA’s,RS’s and R’s.Provide for proper inventory/dely backup.At each level minimise distance bet issuing & receiving points.

Channel obj’s & design---• 3.Philips(appliances ,Pers care )—Cover mrkts intensively<extensively;Af ter sales servoice integral part of channels--,Build barriers to competitors. • 3.Have a 3-tier channel of CFA’s,distributors& retailers(22ooR’s).Authris ed Philips Service Centers(100 APSC’s) and 4 CRC’s(consumer response centers).60 engineers laise with APSC’s.—Motivate channel with guaranteed 30%ROI toAPSC’s.— Make all strong dealers philips dealers.

Channel design----• 6.Louis Philippe— Promote as a complete & premium wardrobe line,with shirts,trousers,ties,socks, blazers,belts etc. • Cover the TMS(well-to-do gents) adequately. • Maintain an edge over comptn by competing on quality,service,image & value. • 6.Go for exclusive show rooms,ensure full line at all outlets.Go for multi brand outlets and for shop-in-shop in super stores like Akbar alis where spl areas are provided as shop in shops.

Channel design-• 7.ITC tobacco division,ensure easy availability of cigarettes. • Build brands through advertising. • Go for CFA’s and wholesalers who distribute resell to retailers(8000) • Go for different types ofretailers,branded,traditi onal and non traditional. • Have branded retailers and franchisee retailers who sell only ITC cigarettes and not other brands

The promotion P—marketing communication
• • • • • • • • • The mrktng commncn mix Product communicates Price communicates Place,point of sale communicates Promotion communicates -----advertising communicates -----personal selling communicates -----sales promotion communicates ------publicity communicates

Product communicates
• Product personality as a whole communicates.produc t personality constitutes various elements such as • The physical features,the material,the size,shape,design,the finish etc • The package,its color,size,design &labeling • The brand name,the co name. • IN SHORT,THE PRODUCT SENDS OUT MULTI-PRONGED MESSAGES

Mrktng commncn through price cues
• • • • Price conveys something more than price Price-quality equation Price-status equation Price,an indicator of technological superiority • Consumers’ concept of a ‘reasonable price”

Place as a component in marktng commncn.
• “I buy only from X store” Why?---”they have a big choice”: “It is a lovely place to shop in”;”the service is good”;”it is cheap”;It has a good location”;”they sell quality products”. • THE STORE IMAGE • STORE LEVEL MERCHANDISING-display & service;store is a display unit attracting high consumer traffic. • STORE,A POWERFUL COMMNCN INSTRUMENT;particularly for image-led products and brands—aesthetic display of Baccarose Cosmetics in an aristocratic store environment –the color of the wood,the glass fittings.etc imp. • STORE CHOICE IS LINKED TO STORE IMAGE.

Promotion as a component in mrktng commncn.
• PS,ADV,SP AND PUBLICITY and DM • PERSONAL SELLING & its communicative role • Sales man and his qualities in his role as a communicator--• Product knowledge &technical expertise • Customer-salesman relatability in age,culture,language,dress style etc. • One who listens,communicates better • Right sa;les message leads to effective commncn.

Publicity-a potential tool of mrktng commncn.
• • • • • Oversee & influence the stories/news that appear in media and conduct publicity campaignsaround some innovations within co or some topics of public interest like environment,health,social welfare etc. SPONSORSHIP & EVENT MANGMNT are 2 most sought after tools for creating wide publicity. Sponsorship-when news worthy events take place,firms associate with such events as sponsors DIVERSE WAYS OF SPONSORING EVENTS Title sponsorship,cosponsorship,official supplier status for getting a host of benefits & rights. Such as signage,tickets,hospitality,product category exclusivity and the right to advertising,promotion & publicity.Intention is to remain part of the news –creating eventand reap the best of exposure to the firm.

Event management-a new addition to publicity tools
• Making an event spectacular through a variety of commncn and display techniquesis crux of event mangmnt. • The event can be product launch,an exhibition,a contest, a stage show,or a sport event.idea is to capitalise on the opportunity by converting the event itself into a grand display. • Event mngmnt firms do conceptualisation,program design,logistics planning,technical planning 7 venue mngmnt. • To make the event spectacular,lighting,sound and spl effects arte creatively nleave a lasting impression on the audience.

Pr-management of reputation
• Pr accomplishes the task of explaining to the outside world about the issues that are going on within the co. • Good corporate reputation makes selling easier & cheaper.It saves on advertising,and renders every activity easier. • Pr is more vigorous in in bad times ;for ex,in recession,large cos often cut the ad budjet and spend part of it on PR.

Advertising mangmnt
• “advertising” originates from the latin “adverto”which means to turn round. • Therefore advertising denotes the means used to draw attention to to any object or purpose. • In marktng, advertising is defined as “any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas,goods,or services by an identified sponsor” • Popularisation of products is basic aim of advertising and hence rests on a thorough understanding of the buying process-and influencing the purchase behaviour of consumers in a way favorable to the advertiser.--• ATTENTION<AWARENESS<INTEREST<DESIRE<ACT ION<SATISFACTION <LOYALTY.

How does advertising influence /persuade the buyer?
• 1.Should be of interest to the buyer • 2.The audience should interpret the message in the intended manner • 3.the advertisement should influence the audience/ change is a central theme in advertising. • Traditional theories of attitude suggest that it is made up of 3 interrelated componentscognitive,affective and conative.

Attitudes created by advertising--• 1cognitive component of attitude deals with cognition or knowledge.It is the faculty of knowing,or percieving or concieving ideas.It is the sphere dealing with knowledge. • 2.The affective component deals with affections /emotions.For ex feelings of likes and dislikes towards objects are dealt on the affective plane. • 3.The conative component deals with behavior or action.these 3 components together shape what is known as attitude.

Theories of attitude
• Consistency theory.Man seeks consistency ,balance or harmony in his belief system.He tries to resolve inconsistencies or imbalances because he cannot tolerate them for long. • When inconsistencies occur between existing belief system and new information,to which he gets exposed,the given attitude will tend to change, so that the inconsistency will get resolved.

Factors in advtng that accomplish audience persuasion
• 1.Source/endorser of message • 2The message structure and the message appeal • 1.THE SOURCE or THE ENDORSER • A)the credibility of source • B)Likability or attractiveness of source • C)The source’s approach to the views and disposition of audience.

2.The message in the ad.the message structure and the appeal
• • • • • • • • • • 1.Message structure A)the message sidedness B).order of presentation C)climax order,anti-climax order,pyramidal order D)message conclusion. 2.Message appeal-rational and emotional RATIONAL APPEALS. Physical feature-oriented,Function oriented,Brand to brand comparisons EMOTIONAL APPEALS LOVE,AFFECTION,ENJOYMENT<FUN &HUMOR<SENSE OF PRESTIGE<YEARNING FOR DISTINCTIVENESS &LUXURY<FEELING OF ENVY,FEAR OF UNCERTAINITIES etc.

Advertisements using celebrities as source/endorsers
• • • • • • • • Amitab bachhan-icici bank campaign,for its retail banking.”makes life easier” Mansoor AliKhan Pataudi for Gwalior suitings-well known cricketer Sachin Tendulkar for visa,Pepsi,and Philips Sunil Shetty endorses Colgate dental powder Sharukh Khan for Mayur suitings LUX uses film stars THE intention is to win over audience thro prestige and attractiveness of endorser. MRF uses names of famous cars that are users of its tyres.The copy showed Opel Astra,Ford Escort,and Fiat Uno.The message”These cars ride only on MRF radials,” MRF radials-India’s answer to world class cars.”

Rational appeal –ITC sundrop and Zodiac shirts
• SUN DROP;”New Sundrop super refined oil offers not just one but 4 imp health benefits-easy food absorption,energy,heart care and vitamins.Food cooked in Sundrop retains its natural flavour’.Copy highlighted each of the 4 benefits • Energy-9 k cals per gram • Food absorption-helps the body absorb food faster as the free fatty acid content is below 0.2%. • Heart care-Keeps the heart strong as it contains over 60%poly unsaturated fats. • Vitamins-Contains A, D and E.

Rational appeal-zodiac shirts.
• • • • • • • Why Zodiac makes the best shirts in india? 1.Fabrics-best,including,soft,light,long staple european 7 Egyptian cottons,in Chambrays,Oxfords and Twills 2.Stitching-computerised M/cs create an almost invisible 21 stitches per inch for max strength,others stop ay 16 3.Buttons-Genuine mother-of pearl,hand picked & matched.Others use plastic buttons. 4.Collars use imported lining for durability.State-of –the-art fusing eliminates warping & creasing 5.Style & comfort,6.collar/cuffs,7Button holes 8.Customer satisfactionEach Zodiac shirt reflects our chairman’s obsession with quality and carries his personal guarantee.AMONG THE BEST IN THE WORLD_ZODIAC.

Examples of rational appeal
• Sun drop,Zodiac • 2.Brand to brand comparisons to convince audience.highlight specialities,claiming superiority,name of competing brand may be specified or implied.Eg.New Pepsodent compared with Colgate.The claim is it is 102% SUPERIOR TO CDC.HLL compares its product with the “leading tooth paste”Colgate Ad jingle in the background sufficient to relate it to Colgate. • ASCI specifies that comparative advertising –direct and indirect, is permissible if 1.the aspects compared are clear,2.comparisons do not confer artificial advantages on the advertiser, is factual,can be substantiated,4.consumer is unlikely to be mislead and5. there is no unfair denigration of the competing products.

Examples of emotional appeal
• Jenson & Nicholson ad creates a romantic setting to drive home the elegance of J&N paints----Love at first sight,Love ever after,Colors are like love,----J&N colors---excitingly---beautifully---Give your home this wonderful romance through J&N colors— • Humour appeals-very common today,certainly attract imp clutter breaker.Pause,read,capture the current of fun and enjoythe message.Whether it brings about an attitude change is debatable.It may sometimes even distract from the central theme of message.In addn, people tend to take such messages too lightly.But many copywriters do use humour in their messages

Emotional appeal in ads
• Newsweek;Headline of a TIME magazine Ad reads .”If ur ad in TIME magazine,change your ad agency”.Headline of a subsequent Ad for NEWSWEEK;”if ur advertising doesn’t work in TIME magazine,don”t change ur agency,place it in NEWSWEEK” • FORD;Subtly takes a dig at Japanese car makers,highlighting the superiority of its,ofcourse,Japanese cars are excellent— AfterallFord motor Co taught them to make cars.In 1927,Ford started operations in Japan and installed the first conveyors assembly line in all Asia.In fact for many years,the Japanese word for automobiles is FORDO---”

Fear appeal in advertising
• • • • • Failure to use the advertised product might result in great loss/damages in terms of money,health ,prestige etc. This fear appeal serves as stimulus for the receiver,creating a favorable attitude towards the product. It may also induce the receiver to learn more about the product and encourage him to get more info about the issue.May also create a feeling of hostility in receiver . Be careful of 3 things;!Understand nature of product advertised 2,Understand attitudinal frame of target audience and 3,extent of fear in hidden in the copy, Banks and insurance cos use fear appeal to evoke concern.UNITED INDIA INSURANCE;”Today—a picture of safety---tomorrow---an invitation to disaster.UR protection is our concern,take cover under United India; Tonight—sleep better thsan ur neighbor.It costs so little to insure ur household belongings”

Ad objectives—models that link buyers attitude change and purchase with advertising
• • • Some useful models; 1.AIDA-the 4 stage model proposed in 1920’s for any impersonal sales presentation 2.5-stage & 6-stage models;proposed in 1930’s by rural socialogists studying the process of innovation-adoption.There are 5 stages in any adoption process-Awareness,Interest,Evaluation,trial and Adoption.Then came 6-stage model;Awareness,Knowledge,Liking,Preference,Conviction and Purchase.—divided into 3 main components;cognitive component(Knowledge component-First two),Affec tive component(emotions component-next two), and lastly conative component(Action component-last two) All these mod.els belong to a class called “hierarchy of effect”models 3.DAGMAR..Looks at advertising as performing a commncn task and not a sales task. What is required is a balancing act-advtng can not be loaded with the sales task making it totally responsible for bringing in sales; nor can it be totally exempted from a sales-related responsibility.

• • •

4 broad themes ad objectives revolve around
• 1.The behavioural constructs-generating trial purchase and store visits • 2.Attitude-ATTITUDE CHANGE AND ATTITUDE MEASUREMENT • 3.Awareness-Creating awareness of new products/brands/new ideas • 4.Product positioning and brand building

Main decision areas in advertising
1 deciding the advertising objectives 2.deciding the budget 3.deciding the copy 4.deciding the media. Deciding objectives—Should they include sales growth? Or should it have only commncn goals because ad is essentially a commncn task?

Areas where ad objectives can be set
• 1.introduction of new products • 2.expansion of mrkt for existing & new products • 3.building a long term consumer franchise for the firm • 4.countering competition • 5.reminding customers • 6.reassring customers by removing postpurchase dissonance. • 7.building up brand image and co image

Ad obj’s
• 8.aiding total selling function by taking customer thro steps in purchase process-from awareness to purchase • 9.closing an immediate sale-’clincher ads’ • 10.supporting other sales promotion activities • 11.stimulating ‘impulse buying’ • 12.enthusing the channel to stock the product • 13.supporting &supplementing sale’s selling effort and dealers’ selling effort.

Deciding ad budget
• • • • • • 1.Competitive parity 2.Affordability 3.A fixed % of turnover 4.Budget based on functions to be performed 5.Regression analysis;An advanced quantitative technique to arrive at budget.Done based on Historical data-either time series data or cross-se4ctional data Time series data are records of past ad expenditures and sales over time.Cross-sectional data are records of ad expenditure and sales for a specific period over different markets.The aim is to predict the dependent variable –sale or market share.Advertising expenditure level would be one of the independent variables.The regression coefficient crresponding to the advertising variable serves as a measure of the short-term response to advertising.

Ad budget-the adaptive control modeladds sophistication to budget decision
• Ad budget decisions need updating because the relation between advertising and sales changes over time with the changes in makt conditions. • The adaptive control model starts with a sales response curve and locates an optimum level of ad expenditure.The firm will now experiment advertising at non –optimum levels in selected test mrktsto get more knowledge about the sales response curve originally set.The new info coming out of the experimental marktng is added to the sales response function for arriving at the current optimal advertising expenditure rate.

The compromise in ad budget setting.consider basic q’s like
• • • • • • 1.Which is the audience intended to be reached by advertising? 2.What is its size,location etc? 3.What are the media available for delivering the ad message? 4.Of the available media,which combination of media is likely to be most cost effective? 5.To meet the given objectives,What kind of campaign is required? What are its features?What type of endorsers are required?What is the cost there of? 6.Does the campaigninvolve single release of an ad or repeat releases?What is the frequency of releases proposed?IN OTHER WORDS<BUDGET DECISION IS CLOSELY LINKED TO AD OBJS <MEDIA AND COPY DECISIONS.THESE 4 INTERACT AMONST THEM AND INFLUENCE EACH OTHER.One gets modified and reshaped by the other.

Deciding the copy-copy refers to all that appear in an ad –written matter,pictures,labels,logo,and designs
• To decide ‘copy platform’or a precise statement of the ‘ad story’, • 1,close interaction between advertiser and ad agency • 2,clear-cut ad objectives by advertiser • 3,knowledge of market & consumer characteristics, • 4,nature of competition • 5,profile of competing brands/products.

Major tasks in copy development1.fact finding stage and 2,idea finding stage –alex osborn
• ‘the big idea’ in Advertising • 1.All effective commercials have a ‘big idea’.Says Roser reeves;The big idea in itself is a USP.Get a big idea and say it in a simple style. • 2.David Ogilvy says;Unless ur campaign contains a big idea,it will pass like a ship in the night. • 3.Says Leo Burnett;Not only is great copy deceptively simple,so are great ideas.And if it takes a rationale to explain an ad,then it is too complicated---

Ad copy-keep message simple and short.Jack Trout
• • • • POSITIONING-How does the mind work as it takes in,stores or rejects ur message? The 5 elements to positioning process are 1.Minds are limited—too much info indigestion 2.Minds hate confusion.Best way to enter minds is to oversimplify ur message,so it can slice thro all noise.Powerful mrktng commncns focus on a single word;Crest-Cavities;Volvo-Safety. 3.Minds are insecure; So,use testimonials.Polls and panels create a ‘bandwagon effect’eg.Honda Accord advertises’In the 8 yrs Car & Driver magazine has presented its 10 best list,only one car has been chosen every time.’ 4.Think simple..Focus on onme idea and drive into the mind.Eliminate anything that others could claim as well as u can.Forget anything that requires a complex analysis to prove. 5.Never ignore the obvious;Obvious ideas tend to be powerful ideas,because they will be obvious to the markets as well.

• •

Testing the ad copy-2 types –post tests;after product launch and pre-tests before
• 3 copy testing methods-1,lab tests,2,tests that attempt to simulatethe natural reading or viewing environment and3,tests done in the real/natural environment,called market tests. • 1.lab tests-use phisiological measuring techniques with aids like eye-camera,polygraphs etc. • 2.simulated environment tests include intercept research,mobile trailers,fixed facility research,and in-home interviewing.

Ad copy testing-markt tests
• Markt tests also utilise several techniques.The folio test is normally used in print media.TV commercials are tested thro the in-home projector vtest ,or live telecasts/on-the-airtechniques • The DAR test for TV commercials-The Day-after Recall technique.The day after a TVC goes on air,in a normal viewing situation,a sample of thre viewers of the program is made.Those who saw the test commercial are interviewed to find out their ability to recall the commercial..Based on certain steps,a ‘recall score‘is also made

Testing criteria in copy tests
• When a copy is put to test what is actually tested?It’s ability to ensure a recall? Or its ablity to ensure ‘recognition? Or its ability to ensure ‘persuasion’? Or someother factors? • Same conflicts arise here as in ad objective setting. • A majority of tests centre on ‘attention’,’recognition’and ‘recall’ factors.The tests are mostly concerned with commncn effectiveness of the copy.

Deciding media-major ad media
• 1.print media • News papers,magazines,trade journals,direct mail • media • Radio,television,internet,cinema,cassettes -audio and video,outdoor.

Commonly used outdoor media vehicles
• • • • • • • • Hoardings ,posters Neon signs and other illuminations, Transit advertising(railways ,Other transport Fairs and exhibitions Amusement parks Dance,drama and puppet shows Loud speaker announcements Ballooons and sky writings

Internet advertising-unilever,revlon &pond’s
• • Unilever-had a 3yr vdeal with america Online Incto advertise scores of its brands online.It also signed a separate deal with microsoft Corp to advertise on Microsoft’s online servicesand to develop new interactive soft ware for advertising, Revlon;Its website has an interactive page;’Virtual faces-Try A new Look’where a customer can try out different shades(from Revlon’s latest Laven Dare and Fleshtones collections)on virtual faces on the screen and choose suitable shades.The person is then given a personal color consultation,a print out of which can be taken to the retail store and pick up the products recommended. Another web page is ;Revlon Give Aways.Customers fill in a questionnaire and offers coupons for select products.Revlon also offers self-care tips (on manicure etc )and info on fragrances.

Pond’s website
• Pond’s interactive site is positioned as a one-stop site for skin-care tips and Pond’s products.While other sites concentrate on co-specific product oriented info,pond’s attempted to give general info and advice on common skin-care problems to make it universal. • Pond’s took 1 yr and invested more than Rs 1 crore in the project to start with.

Advertising thro cassetteselectrolux’s venture with Venus Tapes
• The co tied up with music & film producing co Venus Tapes & Records for promoting its brands • Alwyn,Voltas,Maxclean,& Kelvinator. • The Rs 2.5 crore deal enables the co to advertise its brands thro audio,video cassettes & CD’s produced by VENUS • The tie-up will ensure insertion of E’s audiojingles in each and every Venus cassette..Venus will also insert E’s TVC in its video cassette and VCD’s for a total duration of 5 minutes • Scope wide since e’s Ads can be carried on a minimum of 40 mn cassettes & CD’s during the contract.

Measuring TV viewership(TRP)
• Television Rating Point (TRP) is ca measure of the viewership level of the program.It reveals % of audience tuned to a program. • TRP system involves collection of viewership data on a weekly basis from a panel of TV viewers in select market territories,Viewership figs are presented as % of total tv audience with 1 TRp representing 1% of audience. • EG.A serial on ZEE TV has a viewership of 11.5%among a sample of men of age 25 plus in Mumbai’s C&S homes While Zee News had just 0.2%viewership.That means the serial has a TRP of 11.5 and Zee News has a TRP of 0.2.

GRP=TRP*No of times the spot is aired
• • • • • • $ spots on a program with a TRP of 20 yield a GRP of 80.Programs are compared on basis of cost per rating point=ad tariff divided by TRP. TRP measurement; Diary system,people meter and Laser meter. Diary system is the most common,It is a system of program recall by panel members who are supposed to keep a diary on what they watch. The people meter is a mechanical device ,which records when the tV set is on and which member of the family is watching at a particular point.The viewer has to clock in by pressing a button. The Laser meter is a more advanced device.It automatically records the no of people present in aroom thro heat sensors Laser meter overcomes the limitations of both the previous devices.which demand the active and timely participation of panel members.If the viewer forgets to clock in or make timely notingsin the diary,then projections become unreliable in case of people meter and diary system respectively.

Competitive strategies-building competitive advantage/edge or differential advantage
• CA or CE is an advantage over competitors gained by offering consumers greater value,either through lower prices or by providing more benefits that justify higher prices. • Marketing strategies must consider (1) not only the needs of target consumers (2) but also the strategies of competitors

2 steps for building CA
• 1.competitor analysis-identifying and assessing key competitors • 2,developing competitive marketing strategies that strongly position the Co against competitors and give it the greatest possible competitive advantage. • COMPETITOR ANALYSIS-the process of identifying key competitors,assessing their objectives,strategies,strengthe and weaknesses and reaction patterns and selecting which competitors to select or avoid.

Steps in analysing competitors
• • • • 1,identifying the Co’s competitors 2,determining competitors’ objectives 3,identifying competitors’ strategies 4,assessing competitors strengths and weaknesses • 5,estimating competitors’ reactions • 6,selecting competitors to attack and avoid.

1.Identifying Co’s competitors
• A.Co’s offering similar products and services to same customers at same places and similar prices—Eg,Coca Cola vs Pepsi Cola; For Buick Ford is a major competitor not Mercedes • B.competition at a wider level-All firms making the same product or class of products.Eg.Buick competes with all other auto makers • C. competition at a more broader level—Even co’s that supply same service such as makers of trucks,motor cycles,even bicycles • D.Even more broadly,Competitors might include all Co’s that compete for the same consumer dollars.Eg Buick’s competitors can include all Co’s that sell major consumer durables ,new homes et

Well-behaved or disruptive competitors
• Benefits of competition-1.Increase total demand , 2.Share costs of market and product development 3,Legitimise new technology 4,May serve less attractive segments 5,lead to more product differentiation 6,Improve bargaining power against labor. • WELL –BEHAVED COMPETITORS—1,Play by rules 2,Favor a stable and healthy industry,3.Set reasonable prices in relation to costs 4,motivate others to lower costs & improve differentiation 5,Accept reasonable levels of MS & profits.

Disruptive competitors
• • • • 1.break the rules shre rather than earn3.take large risks 4,in general shake-up the industry Eg.American Airlines finds Delta & United to be well-behaved,but finds TWA,Continental & America westdisruptive since they de stabilise airline industry thro continued heavy price discounting and wild promotional schemes.

Competirive strategies-M Porter’s 3 winning competitive strategies
• • • Over-all cost leadership-Texas Instruments & Wall Mart 2.Differentiation-Highly different product line-IBM and Caterpiller 3.Focus.Serve a few markt segments well.Glass maker AFGIndustries makes 70% of glass for microwave oven doors,and 75% of glass for shower doors(TEMPERED AND COLORED GLASS) Cos pursuing a clear strategy (one of the above) perform well.Middle-of –the-roaders like Sears,Chrysler,& International Harvester suffered the worst as they didn’t stand out as 1,the lowest in cost,or 2,highest in percieved value Or 3,best in serving some market segments. Middle-of –the-roaders try to be good on all strategic counts but end up not being very good at anything.

• •

Disruptive competitors
• • • • • 1,Break the rules 2,Buy share rather than earn 3,take large risks 4.In general shake-up the industry. EG,American Airlines finds Delta & United to be well-behaved,but finds TWA,Continental & america West disruptive since they destabilise airline industry through continued heavy price discounting & wild promotional schemes

Competitive strategies-michael Porter’s 3 winning comp strategies
• 1.Over all cost leader ship-Texas Instruments and Wall mart • 2,Differentiation-highly differentiated product lines –IBM,Caterpiller,Lever etc. • 3,Focus-Serve few market segments well.Glass maker AFG Industries makes 70% of glass for micro wave oven doors,and 75% of glass for shower doors(tempered and colored glass)

Comp strategies--• Co’s persuing a clear strategy (one of the above) perform well.Middle-of-the-roaders like sears,Chrysler & International harvester suffered the worst because they didn’t stand out as the • Lowest in cost • Or highest in perceived value • Or best in serving some market segments. • Middle-of-the-roaders try to be good on all stategic counts but end up being not very good at anything.

Competitor myopia
• Kodak was worried of Fuji. But real competition was from film less cameras sold by Cannon & Sony that take video still pictures that can be shown on a TV set turned into hard copy • IDENTIFY COMPETITORS • BY linking industry • And by market analysis by mapping out product/maket segments • 1.From industry point of view-Coke’s competitors are Pepsi,7-Up,Dr pepper • 2.From market point of view-Coke’s competitors are “thirst quenchers” such as iced tea,friit juice,bottled water etc,

Customer segmentation
• children/teens • Plain tooth paste CP,P&G • Tp with fluoride-CP,PG • GEL-CP,PG,LEVER • STRIPED-Beecham • Smoker’s TP----------

• Age19-35 36+ • CP&P&G CP&P&G • CP&PG CP,PG

• CP,PG,LEVER andcp,pg,lever • Beecham beecham • Topol topol

Identifying competitors--• P&G with several versions of Crest & Gleam and CP with Colgate occupy 9 of the segments • Lever Bros with Aim occupy 3 segments,Beecham one(AquaFresh) and Topol two. • If Topol wants to enter other seg bments it must estimate the market size of each segment,the shares of current competitors,and their current capabilities,objectives and strategies. • Each product/Markt segment poses different competitive problems and opportunities.

2.Determine competitors’ objectives
• What drives each competitor’s behaviour? A,short term vs long term profits? B,satisfactory profits or maximise profits? • C what goals beyond profits? • Know relative impotance of each competitor for a,current profitability,b.MS growth flow, leadership.f.service leadership and other goals. • Judge competitive actions-Likely to pursue Lowcost production strategy?or Ad promotion strategy?

3.Identify competitors’ sytrategies
• Strategic group-A group of firms in an industry following same or similar strategy.Ex.GE,Whirlpool,Maytag in home appliances industry form a strategic group offering a full line of medium price appliances plus good sevices. • Sub-Zero and Kitchen Aid belong to a different groupoffering a narrow line of higher quality at a higher price.but with a higher level service. • If a Co enters one of the groups, it becomes a member of others key competitors, • It can succeed conly if it develops some strategic advantage over these competitors.GE now offers a premium quality premium price line to compete with Kitche Aid and Sub-Zero.

Look at all dimensions of competitors’ strengths
• • • • • • • • Know each competitors’ Product quality Features & mix. Customer services Pricing policy, Distrbution coverage Sales force strategy, Ad &sales promo programs.Also study each competitor’s R&D,Manufacturing,Purchasing,Financial,Manpo wer & other strategies.

4 assessing competitors’strengths & weaknesses
• What can our competitors do? Find their goals,strategies,& performance over last few years • Collect info from secondary data,personal experience & hearsay. • Bench mark compare vyr Co’s products ,services and processes to those of competitors or leading firms in other industries to find ways to improve Q and performance. • BENCH MARKING iS A POWERFULTOOL FOR INCREASING A CO’S COMPETITIVENESS.

5 estimating competitors’ reactions
• What will our competitors do? SWOT analysis can help us know their recations or actions. • Each has a philosophy,a culture,guiding principles and beliefs • Each competitor reacts differently • Some don’t react quickly/strongly.Some react only to price-cuts,others only to Ad promos! • Some competitors don’t show any predictable reaction pattern. • P&G is a fierce reactor.No new competitor wd like to fight directly with P&G,who doesn’t let a new comer into the detergent mrkt.

6,selecting competitors to attack and avoid.(A).Strong or weak (B)Close or distant competitors
• 1.Strong or weak.Assess strength by “customer value analysis”-what benefits target customers value and how they rate the relative valueof various competitors ‘offers. • The key to gaining competitive adv is to take each customer segment and examine how the the Co’s offer compares with that of its major competitor.If Co’s offer exceeds that of major competitor,on all key attributes,Co can charge higher prices and earn higher profits or charge same prices and get higher share,

2.Close or distant competitors
• Most want to compete with competitors who resemble them most.Eg.Chevrolet competes more with Ford than Jaguar • A Co may also want to avoid trying to destroy a close competitor.Eg. Bausch7 Lomb attacked othersoft lens manufacturers but these were forced to sell out to larger ones such as Revlon & Johnson& Johnson.B&L now faced larger competitors like J&J and faced the consequences.

Hypothetical market structure
• • • • • • Mrkt leader-40% Challenger-30% Follower-20% Nicher-10% MARKET LEADER STRATEGIES Competitors focus on the leader as a Co to challenge,imitate or avoid. • Leaders keep • A constant watch

Leaders’ strategies
• A product innovation may come along and hurt the leader .Ex.Tylenol’s non-aspirin pain killer took the lead from baeyer”s aspirin . • The leading firm might grow fat & slow ,losing against new & peppier rivals.Xerox’s share came down from 80% to 35%,when Japanese producers challenged with cheaper & more reliable copiers. • SOME BEST KNOWN LEADERS ARE • GM in autos,Kodak in photography,IBM in computers,COCA Cola in soft drinks,WaLL MART in retailing,Mc Donald’s in fast food,And Gillette in razors and blades.

3 actions for leader to remain no 1• • • • • 1.Expand total market 2.Protect MS thro defensive and offensive actions 3.Expand MS further even if mrkt size remains same or even declines. 1.EXPANDING THE TOTAL MARKET A.Find new users.Some customers are still unaware and some resist on price or features.Ex Revlon’s perfume.Opened virgin mrkt by convincing women who don’t use perfumes, and also looked at other demographics by producing cologne for men,and geographically by selling perfumes in other countries. Johnson’s baby shampoo Ad campaign aimed at adults and it soon became a leading brand total shampoo market.

Leader’s actions--• • • • • • • B.Find new uses.Eg.Dupont’s Nylon Fiber for parachutes Womens’ stockings Major matl in shirts/blouses Automobile tyres Upholstery and carpeting ARM&HAMMER baking soda as refrigerator deodorant-by heavily advertising to put an open box of baking soda in Fridge,

Leader’s 3 actions
• C.more usage;Convince people to use more often or more per occasion.Eg.Colgate tooth paste.Head & Shoulders shampoo;more effective with 2 applications instead of one per shampoo.

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