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Paper Number 2012-36-0122

LIQUID FUEL VAPORIZATION PROCESS


BUILT INSIDE 2-STROKE PISTON ENGINES

Horacio A. Trucco
ACENT Laboratories
Bohemia, New York 11716, USA
horacio.trucco@acentlabs.com

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ABSTRACT
The process takes place inside a vaporization chamber integrated within a piston
Vaporization chamber inlet/outlet is located on the piston skirt
Is sealed by the cylinder wall for two portion of the cycle
Injected liquid fuel evaporates inside vaporization chamber
Evaporated fuel is transferred into cylinder to form a quasi homogenous mixture
Combustion is triggered by compression-ignition of a pilot fuel spray
Combustion products enter vaporization chamber via a transfer port
Fuel injected into vaporization chamber during expansion phase of a prior cycle
Fuel droplets absorb heat from entrapped combustion products
At 6,000 RPM there is sufficient residence time to evaporate and superheat diesel
fuel droplets smaller than 200 microns
Concept reduces untreated emission levels of NOx, CO, soot and UH comparing to
SI, CI or HCCI engines. Improvement in engine fuel economy is expected
Fuel does not need to be rated for octane or cetane number
Effectively utilization of coal-water-slurry fuels



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INTRODUCTION
The concept shares similarities with both the hot bulb engine and the CI engine
Primary liquid fuel is injected into a small piston chamber during a preceding cycle
expansion stroke before piston reaches BDC
Its thermodynamic cycle develops two simultaneous pressure versus crank angle
diagrams
Its combustion process is comparable to the HCCI case
Less costly and simpler after treatment devices will suffice to comply with emission
standard regulations
Less costly and simpler fuel injection system is acceptable
The concept aims to conserve energy and to better protect the environment
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CONCEPT DESCRIPTION -1
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CONCEPT DESCRIPTION - 2
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CONCEPT DESCRIPTION - 3
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VAPORIZATION PROCESS -1
Initial vaporization chamber 800 K
Fuel injected at 1 atmosphere
Gasoline Diesel Methanol Ethanol Kerosene Fuel Oil
#6
JP 8
LHV, Btu/lb 18,676 18,394 8,637 11,585 18,540 18,500 18,700
Heat of Vaporization, Btu/lb 150 100 506 396 110 95 129
Liquid specific Heat, Btu/lb F 0.48 0.43 0.60 0.57 0.46 0.45 0.53
Saturation Temperature, K 325 480 413 416 520 533 488
Liquid Heating from 300 K, Btu/lb
21 139 122 119 182 116* 179
Superheating for a T
sh
=50
K=90 F and c
p
=0.35, Btu/lb
31 31 31 31 31 31 31
TH, Btu/lb 202 270 659 546 323 242 339
LHV /TH 92 68 13 21 57 76 55
Chamber temperature drop T
ch
, F
765 486 606 601 414 390 471
Stoichiometric air-fuel ratio 14.7 14.6 6.5 9.0 15.6 14.4 15.4
V
rel
=V
Chamber
/V
Cylinder
4.2 % 8.7 % 27.8 % 23.2 % 11.5 % 10 % 10.6 %
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VAPORIZATION PROCESS - 2
Residence time available for vaporization represents up to 180 of crankshaft
rotation

At 6,000 RPM corresponds to 5.1 milliseconds

Consider 700 K and 10 atmosphere entrapped combustion products

Diesel or gasoline fuel droplet no larger than 200 microns injected at U=50 m/s will
completely vaporize

That is a relatively coarse fuel spray




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VAPORIZATION PROCESS - 3
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VAPORIZATION PROCESS - 4
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VAPORIZATION PROCESS - 5
Fraction of evaporating fuel droplets may impinge vaporization chamber inner wall
developing a liquid film or floating over the wall (Leidenfrost effect)

Oscillating inertial forces affect heat transfer rate

An average size automobile may incorporate a 7.5 centimeter long vaporization
chamber

A U=50 m/s spray hits the vaporization chamber bottom in 1.5 milliseconds

Droplet larger than 100 microns hit the inner wall


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CHARGE FORMATION
Vaporized/superheated fuel species are transferred into the cylinder midway
through the compression stroke, see Figure 3

Fuel species mix with a fresh air charge developing into a quasi homogeneous fuel
lean charge

Charge is laden with inert combustion gases (CO
2
, H
2
O, CO, etc.) representing an
inherited internal combustion gas recirculation (ICGR) process

This fact plays an important effect on NO
x
reduction

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COMBUSTION PROCCESS - 1
A pilot fuel injected into the combustion chamber creates a multiple-jet spray
After an ignition delay each pilot fuel jet ignites as occurs inside a CI engine
Multiple ignition sources simultaneously develop inside the vitiated lean
homogeneous charge
Subsequent combustion is carried out in a manner resembling the HCCI process
Ignition is not controlled by chemical kinetics as occurs within HCCI engines
Ignition is controlled by pilot fuel injection timing and a quasi-spatial heat source
distribution
Because of that the primary liquid fuel is not required to be rated for octane
number
Each pilot fuel jet initially burns as a diffusion flame reacting at near stoichiometric
conditions producing significant amounts of discrete NO
x

Localized NO
x
formation is reduced by inducing turbulence, the pilot fuel burns
partially premixed thus the local flame temperature is reduced
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COMBUSTION PROCCESS - 2
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COMBUSTION PROCCESS - 3
Since combustible mixture is vitiated by ICGR, the heat release rate should be much
slower than that for HCCI reducing combustion-generated noise

This engine should exhibit a single heat release rate peak preventing diesel knock

The primary liquid fuel is not required to be rated for cetane number

Tolerates gasoline and diesel fuel without additive

Accepts low-cost petroleum derived fuels, biodiesel, bio-alcohol, vegetable oils and
biomass fuels
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COMBUSTION PROCCESS - 4
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COMBUSTION PROCCESS - 5
Figure 9 reveals that the engine has inherit potential to generate very low
emissions in term of soot and NO
x
levels

Combustion between point D and E develops as well-stirred lean-burn final
stage that is relatively long, about 120 of crankshaft rotation

Formation of non-methane organic gases and formaldehyde could be minimized
when compared to SI, CI and HCCI engines
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COMBUSTION PROCCESS - 6
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COMBUSTION PROCCESS - 7
In-cylinder swirl enhances mixing during pilot fuel combustion from points C to
D
Uniflow scavenged 2-stroke engines are able to generate intense in-cylinder swirl
motion that further reduce localized NO
x
formation by pilot fuel spray jets
In-cylinder swirl helps to attain a fully homogeneous charge prior to pilot fuel
injection
Described combustion process was qualitative, there is need to acquire detailed
knowledge via experiments and computational simulation
Analytical evaluation requires state-of-the-art computational modeling and
simulation
Three separate modeling efforts are required:
(1) vaporization process, spray wall impingement heat transfer, fuel distillation,
possible chemical breakdown, heat losses into chamber and cylinder walls as well
as possible fuel oxidation.


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COMBUSTION PROCCESS - 8
(2) fluid dynamic modeling for the transfering into cylinder of vitiated vaporized
fuel species and subsequent formation of a homogeneous charge
(3) fluid dynamic and chemistry formulation for the initial pilot fuel jet mass
diffusion flame throughout the final burn of the well-stirred vitiated lean
homogeneous charge
Experimental measurements are indispensable to fully understand the process and
to eventually fine tune any prototype
Engine cycle permits utilization of diesel-like or higher compression ratios
increasing efficiency when compared to SI engines
Engine can supply a wide power range because there are no flammability limit
constraints on a vitiated lean homogeneous charge spatially ignited by multiple
pilot fuel injection jets
Engine operates un-throttled
Power output is controlled by the amount of primary fuel injected into vaporization
chamber

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COMBUSTION PROCCESS - 9
In-cylinder average air/fuel ratio may vary from very lean to the highest
equivalence ratio limited by acceptable NO
x
formation

An important advantage when comparing this combustion process to the HCCI case

Combustion initiation is not controlled by chemical kinetics as in the HCCI case, but
by pilot fuel injection jets. Multi point pilot fuel injection allows burning within a
very wide equivalence ratio range while producing stable combustion
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COLD STARTING
Cold starting is accomplished in a CI engine mode

Only pilot fuel injection is supplied during warm-up

For low grade fuels (such as fuel oil #6 that requires preheating to attain pumping
ability) the primary fuel injector body can be briefly pre-heated by electric means
so that the fuel spray is injected pre-heated to attain partial flash atomization

A secondary primary fuel with high volatility will also assist starting when utilizing
low grade fuels
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GENERAL APPLICATION TO PISTON ENGINES
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UTILIZATON OF SPECIAL FUELS - 1
Large bore-low-speed engines utilizing residual fuel oils can benefit from this
proposed process

Improves emission and thermal efficiency and increase power density by running at
higher speed

A medium speed engine at 600 RPM will make available 51 milliseconds of
residence time

Entrapping 700 K combustion products and injecting at U=25 m/s will evaporate a
200 micron #6 fuel droplets in 8 millisecond.
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UTILIZATON OF SPECIAL FUELS - 2
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UTILIZATON OF SPECIAL FUELS - 3
Global reserve of crude petroleum may be exhausted during the next 100 years
Global coal reserves should still remain available for about another 300 years
We must utilize coal-water-slurry fuel (CWF) in large bore-low-speed and medium
size ICEs
That would delay the exhaustion of crude reserves and prepare technology, fuel
supply logistics and commercial market structure to feed a large percentage of
future ICEs with coal-derived replacement fuels
Efficient utilization of CWFs in diesel engines has been extensively demonstrated by
proof-of-concept R&D as well as commercial pilot projects
Utilization of CWF in direct injection diesel engines is highly efficient with low
emissions characteristics
CWF causes excessive engine wear that is more accentuated with smaller bore
engines
The need to solve this acute durability hurdle is mandatory prior to commercial
acceptance of ICEs operating with CWF

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UTILIZATON OF SPECIAL FUELS - 4
That wear mainly centers on CWF injector orifices
Atomization of CWF is more difficult than diesel fuel, a higher injection pressure is
required to attain faster injection velocity through the nozzle orifice
That implies smaller injection orifices for the same fuel injection rate
The abrasive erosion of CWF at high injection velocity reduces useful life of
injectors made from conventional materials to about one hour
Injectors orifice inserts made from sapphire or ceramic survive up to 100 hours
CWF spray should deliver droplet ranging from 20 to 40 microns SMD to attain
efficient burning
That fine spray demands a CWF velocity through injector orifices ranging from 250
to 400 m/s
The proposed process should solve the above injector wear issue because accepts
coarse droplet size, larger orifices and lower injection velocities that prolong
injector durability

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UTILIZATON OF SPECIAL FUELS - 5
Initial vaporization chamber 800 K


Coal
Water at
10 atm
CWF 60
wt % coal
LHV, Btu/lb 9,300 - 5,580
Heat of Vaporization, Btu/lb - 865 346
Specific Heat, Btu/lb F 0.42 1.0 0.625
Saturation Temperature, K - 458 458
Heating from 400 K to Saturation
Temperature, Btu/lb
- - 36
TH, Btu/lb - 865 382
LHV /TH - - 14.6
Chamber temperature drop T
ch
, F - - 975
Stoichiometric air-fuel ratio 11.4 - 6.84
V
rel
=V
Chamber
/V
Cylinder
- - 13 %
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UTILIZATON OF SPECIAL FUELS - 6
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UTILIZATON OF SPECIAL FUELS - 7
Engine running at 300 RPM will make available 102 milliseconds of residence time
A 200 micron CWF droplet injected into 700 K entrapped combustion products at
U=25 m/s could evaporate its water content in 17 milliseconds
The remaining 85 milliseconds could be utilized to thermally treat the dry coal
particles.
Intuitively, one may assume that such CWF injector is very durable. Experimental
data will confirm an injector useful lifetime
Largest cylinder bore today reaches 96 centimeters, found on engines used by large
ocean-going vessels.
A vaporization chamber 75 centimeters long can be accommodated inside such a
piston
A spray injecting at 25 m/s will hit that vaporization chamber bottom in 30
milliseconds
After interstitial water vaporization the dried coal particles could reach
devolatilization and fragmentation and possible chemical breakdown prior to
entering the combustion chamber

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UTILIZATON OF SPECIAL FUELS - 8
A dried coal particle still entraps water in its peripheral pore network
At 10 atm, water saturation is 458 K, a sufficiently large vaporization chamber will
cause the entrapped water to increase its pressure causing an initial fragmentation
of the coal particle outer shell
Subsequently, the coal particle fragmentation continues during devolatilization due
to a pressure build up of the volatile matter entrapped
Should this process be realized, less particulate matter would result from the
issuing combustion
Ash content percent cannot be reduced so consequently ultra-clean CWF is
required
The process may prevent undesirable ash particle agglomeration
The typical wear on cylinder wall, piston land and piston rings should be mitigated
in comparison to direct injection of CWF into diesel engines

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SUMMARY - 1
The HCCI engine is projected to have attractive low emission levels and high fuel
economy
The HCCI engine confronts five practical challenges that must overcome before it
can be widely used
The proposed combustion process should allow elimination of these five practical
challenges while retaining low emission levels of NOx and soot and the high fuel
economy characterizing the HCCI engine
The five HCCI engine challenges are:
(1) Controlling combustion auto ignition timing. Proposed process eliminates this
challenge by utilizing reliable multiple-jet fuel injection ignition source
(2) Expanding output capability, now limited to about 0.4, is structurally limited
by rapid combustion pressure rise. The process proposed safely operate at higher
because its heat release rate is slower than the HCCI case (see Figure 8)
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SUMMARY - 2
(3) The HCCI engine noise is a disadvantage caused by explosive type of auto
ignition combustion. At high load, the noise level can be damaging to human
hearing. The process proposed should generate lower noise levels because heat
release rate is slower than the HCCI engine (see Figure 8)

(4) It is difficult to cold start the HCCI engine, preheating of the intake charge is
usually required. An engine with the proposed process starts rapidly in a regular CI
mode via a pilot fuel injection system

(5) High level of unburned hydrocarbons and CO. Premixed charge that reaches
crevices and the cooler boundary layers on the engine walls is unable to burn. The
proposed engine fuel enters in contact with the upper-half of the cylinder where
the crevices and boundary layer are warmer. In-cylinder swirl motion refreshes the
boundary layer entraining warm fuel species. Vaporized fuel near the walls is
relatively hotter than the droplets in the HCCI charge thus should be able to burn
during the well-stirred final combustion phase

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CONCLUSIONS
The vaporization and vitiated-lean-homogeneous-charge combustion process
presented offers potential for substantial reduction of raw emission contaminants
and optimal fuel economy when compared to contemporary piston ICEs
Required fuel injection system is simpler, robust and less costly than those
currently utilized by ICEs
After-treatment of its raw exhaust requires simpler, robust and less costly devices
than those currently utilized by ICEs
This process can efficiently employ gasoline or diesel fuels without additives or
blends
As well as low-cost petroleum derived fuel, biodiesel, bio-alcohol and vegetable oil
The unavoidable exhaustion of petroleum derived fuels within a century could
reduce the utilization of contemporary ICEs since only alternative non-petroleum
liquid fuels would be available
However, the process presented should permit some of those ICEs to continue
delivering clean and efficient energy by fueling them with ultra-clean coal derived
CWF


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THANK YOU! MUITO OBRIGADO!
For more information contact

Horacio A. Trucco
ACENT Laboratories
80 Orville Drive, Suite 100
Bohemia, New York, 11716, USA

Telephone: +1-631-801- 2616
Skype: horacio.a.trucco
horacio.trucco@acentlabs.com

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