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UMTS Channel

UMTS Channel
Physical Layer
Channel Mapping
Transport Channel Format
Cell Synchronisation
OSI Model
OSI Model
Transmitting RAW bits over communication channel
raw transmission of the physical layer into a line that appears free from transmission errors
controls the operation of the subnet. The key issue here is to determine how packets are
routed from source to destination (congestion issues such as delay, transmit time and jitter)
true end-to-end layer all the way from source to destination

users on different machines to establish sessions between them

concerned with the syntax and semantics of the information

lot of protocols that are commonly needed by users (HTTP/FTP.)

OSI Model / UMTS Protocol
OSI Model / UMTS Protocol
The physical layer is the radio signals, frequencies and channels.

The data link layer is divided into radio link control, RLC and medium access
control, MAC.

The network layer is the internet protocol, IP.

The transport protocol is one of the transport control protocol, TCP or the user
datagram protocol, UDP.
OSI Model / UMTS Protocol
The Physical Layer
Part I
Channel Mapping
In GSM, we distinguish between logical and physical channels. In UMTS there are three
different types of channels:
1. Logical
2. Transport
3. Physical

Logical Channels
Logical Channels were created to transmit a specific content.
There are for instance logical channel to transmit the cell system information, paging
information, or user data.
Consequently, logical channels are in use between the mobile phone and the RNC.

Transport Channels (TrCH)
The MAC layer is responsible to organise the logical channel data on transport
channels. This process is called mapping.
In this context, the MAC layer is also responsible to determine the used transport
The transport of logical channel data takes place between the UE and the RNC.
Radio Interface Channel Organisation
Physical Channels (PhyCH)
The physical layer offers the transport of data to the higher layer.
When we transmit information between the RNC and the UE, the physical medium is
Between the RNC and the Node B, where we talk about the interface Iub, the
transport of information is physically organised in so-called Frames.
Between the Node B and the UE, where we find the WCDMA radio interface Uu, the
physical transmission is described by physical channels.
A physical channel is defined by the UARFCN and the a spreading code in the FDD
Radio Interface Channel Organisation
Logical Channels
content is organised in separate channels, e.g.
System information, paging, user data, link management
Transport Channels
logical channel information is organised on transport channel
resources before being physically transmitted
Physical Channels
(UARFCN, spreading code)
Iub interface
Radio Interface Channel Organisation
There are two types of logical channels (FDD mode):
1) Control Channels (CCH):

Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)
System information is made available on this channel.
The system information informs the UE about the serving PLMN, the serving cell,
neighbourhood lists, measurement parameters, etc.
This information permanently broadcasted in the downlink.
Paging Control Channel (PCCH)
Given the BCCH information the UE can determine, at what times it may be paged.
Paging is required, when the RNC has no dedicated connection to the UE.
PCCH is a downlink channel.
Common Control Channel (CCCH)
Control information is transmitted on this channel.
It is in use, when no RRC connection exists between the UE and the network.
It is a bi-directional channel, i.e. it exists both uplink and downlink.
Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH)
Dedicated resources were allocated to a UE.
These resources require radio link management, and the control information is
transmitted both uplink and downlink on DCCHs.
Logical Channels
Slot 0
Slot 1
Slot 2 Slot 14
10 ms Frame
Pilot bits
carries PCH and FACH
Multiplexing of PCH and FACH on
one S-CCPCH, even one frame
with and without TFCI (UTRAN set)
SF = 4..256

Secondary Common Control Physical
Channel (S-CCPCH)
The transport channel Forward Access Channel (FACH) is used, when relatively small amounts of data
have to be transmitted from the network to the UE.

The FACH is only transmitted downlink.

In-band signalling is used to indicate, which UE is the recipient of the transmitted data (see MAC PDU
with UE-ID type).

This common downlink channel is used without (fast) closed loop power control and is available all
over the cell.

FACH data is transmitted in one or several S-CCPCHs.

FACH and PCH data can be multiplexed on one S-CCPCH, but they can also be be transmitted on
different S-CCPCHs.

The FACH is organised in FACH Data Frames via the Iub-interface.
Each FACH Data Frames holds the Transmission Blocks for one TFS.
The used TFS is identified by the TFI.
A TFI is associated with one Transmission Time Interval (TTI), which can be either 10, 20, 40 or 80
The TTI identifies the interleaving time on the radio interface.
FACH Data Frame has header fields, which identify the CFN, TFI, and the Transmit Power Level.
The Transmit Power Level gives the preferred transmission power level for the FACH and
for the TTI time.
The values specified here range between 0 and 25.5 dB, with a step size of 0.1 dB.
The value is taken as a negative offset to the maximum power configured for the S-
CCPCHs, specified for the FACH.

The pilot bits and the TFCI-field may have a relative power offset to the power of the data
field, which may vary in time.
(The offset is determined by the network.)
The power offsets are set by the NBAP message COMMON TRANSPORT CHANNEL
SETUP REQUEST, which is sent from the RNC to the Node B.
There are two power offset information included:
PO1: defines the power offset for the TFCI bits; it ranges between 0 and 6 dB with
a 0.25 step size.
PO3: defines the power offset for the pilot bits; it ranges between 0 and 6 dB with
a 0.25 step size.

Another important parameter is the maximum allowed power on the FACH: MAX FACH
Part V
Physical Random Access
In the random access, initiated by the UE, two physical channels are involved:

Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)
The physical random access is decomposed into the transmission of preambles in the uplink.
Each preamble is transmitted with a higher output power as the preceding one.
After the transmission of a preamble, the UE waits for a response by the Node B.
This response is sent with the physical channel Acquisition Indication Channel (AICH),
telling the UE, that the Node B as acquired the preamble transmission of the random access.
Thereafter, the UE sends the message itself, which is the RACH/CCCH of the higher layers.
The preambles are used to allow the UE to start the access with a very low output power.
If it had started with a too high transmission output power, it would have caused
interference to the ongoing transmissions in the serving and neighbouring cells.
Please note, that the PRACH is not only used to establish a signalling connection to
UTRAN, it can be also used to transmit very small amounts of user data.

Acquisition Indication Channel (AICH)
This physical channel indicates to the UE, that it has received the PRACH preamble and is
now waiting for the PRACH message part.
Random Access
Node B
No response
by the
Node B
No response
by the
Node B
I just detected
a PRACH preamble
Random Access the Working Principle
The properties of the PRACH are broadcasted (SIB5, SIB6).
The candidate PRACH is randomly selected (if there are several PRACH advertised in the cell) as well as
the access slots within the PRACH.

The UE sends one preamble in uplink access slot n.
It expects to receive a response from the Node B in the downlink (AICH) access slot n,
chips later
If there is no response, the UE sends the next preamble
chips after the first one.
The maximum numbers of preambles in one preamble access attempt can be set between 1 and 64.
The number of PRACH preamble cycles can be set between 1 and 32.
Random Access Timing
RACH Sub-channels
RACH sub-channels were introduced to define a sub-set of uplink access slots.
A total number of 12 RACH sub-channels exist, numbered from 0 to 11.
Access Classes (AS) and Access Service Classes (ASC)
Access Service Classes were introduced to allow priority access to the PRACH resources, by
associating ASCs to specific access slot spaces (RACH sub-channels) and signatures.
8 ASC can be specified by the operator; The UE determines the ASC and its associated
resources from SIB5 and SIB7.
The mapping of the subscribers access classes (1..15) is part of the SIB5 cell system
RACH Sub-channels and Access Service Classes
When it comes to the random access, two questions have to be asked:
What kind of output power does the UE select for the first preamble?
And how does the output power change with the subsequent preambles and the message part?

Open Loop Power Control
The output power for the first PRACH preamble is based in parts on broadcasted parameters (SIB6, if
missing, from SIB5; and SIB7).
The UE acquires the Node Bs Primary CPICH TX Power, a Constant Value, and the UL
Interference level.
The UE also determines the received CPICH RSCP (variable CPICH_RSCP).
Then, it calculates the power for the first preamble:
Preamble_Initial_Power = UL interference
+ Primary CPICH TX power CPICH_RSCP
+ Constant Value
The Constant Value is determined by the UTRAN side and can range between 35 and 10
The UL Interference can range between 110 and -70 dBm. The UE must constantly
recalculate this value.
The power ramp steps from one preamble to the next can be set between 1 and 8 dB (step size 1dB).
The power offset between the last PRACH and the PRACH control message can be set between 5 and
10 dB (step size 1dB).
PRACH Power Setting
Summary of RACH procedure
1- Decode from BCCH
Available RACH spreading factors
RACH scrambling code number
UE Access Service Class (ASC) info
Signatures and sub-channels for each ASC
Power step, RACH C/I requirement = Constant, BS interference level
2 Calculate initial preamble power
3 Calculate available access slots in the next full access slot set and select randomly one of
4 Select randomly one of the available signatures
5 Transmit preamble in the selected access slot with selected signature

Part VI
Dedicated Physical Channel Downlink
The downlink DPCH is used to transmit the DCH data.
Control information and user data are time multiplexed.
The control data is associated with the Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH), while the user
data is associated with the Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH).
The transmission is organised in 10 ms radio frames, which are divided into 15 timeslots.
The timeslot length is 2560 chips. Within each timeslot, following fields can be found:
Data field 1 and data field 2, which carry DPDCH information
Transmission Power Control (TPC) bit field
Transport Format Combination Indicator (TFCI) field, which is optional
Pilot bits
The exact length of the fields depends on the slot format, which is determined by higher layers.
The TFCI is optional, because it is not required for services with fixed data rates.
The pilot sequence is used for channel estimation as well as for the SIR ratio determination within the
inner loop power control.
The number of the pilot bits can be 2, 4, 8 and 16 it is adjusted with the spreading factor.

The spreading factor for a DPCH can range between 4 and 512. The spreading factor can be changed
every TTI period.

Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel (DPCH)
Slot 0
Slot 1
Slot 2 Slot 14
10 ms Frame
Pilot bits
Data 2 bits Data 1 bits
Radio Frame
Radio Frame
Radio Frame
Radio Frame
Superframe = 720 ms
Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel (DPCH)
Following features are supported in the downlink:

Discontinuous transmission.
Rate matching is done to the maximum bit rate of the connection. Lower bit rates are
possible, including the option of discontinuous transmission.
Please note, that audible interference imposes no problem in the downlink.

Multicode usage:
Several physical channels can be allocated in the downlink to one UE.
This can occur, when several DPCH are combined in one CCTrCH in the PHY layer, and
the data rate of the CCTrCH exceeds the maximum data rates allowed for the physical
Then, on all downlink DPCHs, the same spreading factor is used.

One DPCH carries DPDCH and DPCCH information, while on the remaining DPCHs, no
DPCCH information is transmitted.

But also in the case, when several DPCHs with different spreading factors are in use, the
first DPCH carries the DPCCH information, while in the remaining DPCHs, this information is
omitted (discontinuous transmission).

Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel (DPCH)
maximum bit rate
discontinuous transmission with lower bit rate
Multicode usage:
Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel (DPCH)
Inner loop power control is also often called (fast) closed loop power control.
It takes place between the UE and the Node B.
We talk about UL inner loop power control, when the Node B returns immediately after the reception
of a UEs signal a power control command to the UE. By doing so, the UEs SIR ratio is kept at a certain
level (the details will be discussed later on in the course).
DL inner loop power control control is more complex. When the UE receives the transmission of the
Node B, the UE returns immediately a transmission power control command to the Node B, telling the
Node B either to increase or decrease its output power for the UEs DPCH.
The Node Bs transmission power can be changed by 0.5, 1, 1.5 or 2 dB. 1 dB must be supported by the
equipment. If other step sizes are supported or selected, depends on manufacturer or operator.
The transmission output power for a DPCH has to be balanced for the PICH, which adds to the power
step size.
One reason for the UE to request a higher output power is given, when the QoS target has not been
It requests the Node B to transmit with a higher output power, hoping to increase the
quality of the connection due to an increased SIR at the UEs receiver.
But this also increases the interference level for other phones in the cell and neighbouring
The operator can decide, whether to set the parameter Limited Power Increase Used.
If used, the operator can limit the output power raise within a time period.
Downlink Inner Loop Power Control
Part VII
Dedicated Physical Channel Uplink
The uplink dedicated physical channel transmission, we identify two types of physical channels:
Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH),
Which is always transmitted with spreading factor 256.
Following fields are defined on the DPCCH:
pilot bits for channel estimation. Their number can be 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8.
Transmitter Power Control (TPC), with either one or two bits
Transport Format Combination Indicator (TFCI), which is optional, and a
Feedback Indicator (FBI). Bits can be set for the closed loop mode transmit diversity
and site selection diversity transmission (SSDT)
6 different slot formats were specified for the DPCCH. Variations exist for the compressed
Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH),
Which is used for user data transfer.
Its spreading factor ranges between 4 and 256.
7 different solt formats are defined, which are set by the higher layers.

The DPCCH and DPDCH are combined by I/Q code multiplexing with each multiframe.
Multicode usage is possible. If applied, additional DPDCH are added to the uplink transmission, but no
additional DPCCHs! The maximum number of DPDCH is 6.
The transmission itself is organised in 10 ms radio frames, which are divided into 15 timeslots. The
timeslot length is 2560 chips.
Uplink Dedicated Physical Channels
Slot 0
Slot 1
Slot 2 Slot 14
10 ms Frame
Pilot bits
TFCI bits
Data 1 bits
Radio Frame
Radio Frame
Radio Frame
Radio Frame
Superframe = 720 ms
FBI bits
7 different
slot formats
6 different slot formats
Compressed mode slot
format for changed SF &
changed puncturing
Feedback Indicator for
Closed loop mode transmit diversity, &
Site selection diversity transmission (SSDT)
Uplink Dedicated Physical Channels
The subscriber is mobile. The distance of the UE from a Node B is changing over time.
With growing distance and a fixed output power at the UE, the received signals at the Node B
become weaker.
UE output power adjustment is required.
But the UEs received signal strength can change fast Rayleigh fading in one phenomena, which
causes this event.
As a consequence, a fast UL power control is required.
This power control is called UL inner loop power control, though many experts also call it (fast)
closed loop power control.

At each active set cell, a target SIR (SIR
) is set for each UE. The active set cells estimate SIRest on
the UEs receiving uplink DPCH. Each active set cell determines the TPC value. If the estimated SIR is
larger than the UEs target SIR, then the determined TPC value is 0. Otherwise it is 1. These values are
determined on timeslot basis and returned on timeslot basis.

The UE has to determine the power control command (TPC_cmd). The higher layer control protocol
RRC is used to inform the UE, which power control algorithm to apply. This informs the UE also how
to generate a power control command from the incoming TPC-values.
There are power control algorithm 1 (PCA1) and 2 (PCA2), which are described in the figure following
the next one. Given the power control algorithm and the TPC-values, the UE determines, how to
modify the transmit power for the DPCCH:
stands for the transmission
power step size.
(continued on the next text slide)
UL Inner Loop Power Control
UL Inner Loop Power Control