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mentor Dr.


Name Rahul singh
Roll no. 00310100613

An IR-UWB Transmitter for
Ranging Systems
 UWR is a continuous-time impulse radio ultra wideband transmitter.
 The transmitter is a part of a high-precision ranging single-chip transceiver
that measures the time-of-flight symbol propagation.

 The clock burst generator in the transmitter will initiate symbol transmission
in continuous time unbounded by any clock signal while maintaining an
accurate chip rate during symbol transmission.

 Using a mismatch. calibration circuit, the clock period can be programmed
precisely to compensate for device

 The transmitter is fabricated in Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing
Company 90-nm CMOS technology and occupies an area of 0.123 mm2.

 The programmable clock range is from 12.65 to 111 MHz

 The entire transmitter has a power consumption of 1.41 mW at the data rate
of 2 Mbit/s
 What is UWB?

 A series of very short baseband pulses with time duration in nano-
seconds that exist on ALL frequencies simultaneously, like a blast of
electrical Noise.

 Synonyms:
 Non sinusoidal Communication Technology
 Impulse Radio
 Baseband Pulse Technology

 Why is UWB attractive?

 Capacity: a channel is linearly proportional to its bandwidth. UWB can go
up to 2 Giga-Hz in bandwidth.

 Spread spectrum: transmission in which the data sequence occupies a
bandwidth in excess of the minimum bandwidth necessary to send it. It
uses only several frequencies, one at a time.

 Successor to spread spectrum: UWB uses every frequency there is,
use them all at same time.

 Simplicity: it’s essentially a base-band system (Carrier free), for which the
analog front-end complexity is far less than that for a traditional sinusoidal

 ULTRAWIDEBAND (UWB) wireless communication systems may be
categorized into two main groups: impulse radio UWB (IR-UWB) systems
and multiband orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing systems

 The IR-UWB uses the transmission of very short pulses with large bandwidth
and low duty cycles, enabling the implementation of a low power IR-UWB

 IR-UWB is well suited for short-range and low-power applications such as
radio frequency identification tags, sensor networks, biomedical electronics,
and localization applications

 all-digital IR-UWB transmitter based on the continuous-time binary-value
(CTBV) signal processing technique.
 In the CTBV technique, there is no running clock signal, and timing is based on
the inherent process-dependent gate delays.
 In the CTBV signal processing domain, the signal amplitude is a binary value of
either 1 or 0, and it is continuous in time.
 In the presented transmitter, the on-off keying(OOK) modulation scheme is used
because it is less complex and can be realized using simple digital circuits.

 transmitter has four main circuit blocks: a clock burst generator, a programmable
trigger delay, a symbol generator, and a pulse generator.

 The transmitter is triggered by the symbol detector, recovering the incoming
UWB signals.

 On the rising edge of the incoming trigger signal , the clock burst generator starts

 Before symbol transmission, a setup time is inserted for stabilization of the

 After the setup time, a pulse sequence is generated according to the
programmed symbol pattern.
 The rising edge of the symbol pattern will then initiate a higher order Gaussian
pulse for the antenna .

 When the symbol transmission is completed, a short pulse is generated on
Symbol Finished(F) to stop the clock burst generator.

 Due to the immediate start-up and stop time of the clock burst generator, the
transmitter always has a constant processing time, which is a key function of the
continuous-time ToF measurement system.

 There is simply no clock to wait for in continuous-time systems, so the start-up
time will always be constant.

 1) Clock Burst Generator: The clock burst generator generates a
finite sequence of clock cycles.

 The module consists of two main circuits: a calibration circuit and a clock
generator loop.

Transmitter Circuit Description
 The clock burst generator has two operation modes: manual and trigger. In the
trigger mode, the clock generator loop is enabled for clock signal generation
and in the manual mode, the clock period can be calibrated and programmed
precisely using the calibration circuit.

 First, the manual mode should be enabled for calibration of the clock period to
the desired value, and after that, the trigger mode is enabled and the clock
burst generator is ready to operate.

 2) Programmable Trigger Delay: The programmable trigger delay
is a coarse delay element with delay steps of one clock period.

 The required delay value is set by programming the Delay register.

 The circuit is triggered by the incoming trigger signal, which sets the
Running(F) signal high, and starts the counter . When the counter
increments up to the preset delay value stored in the Delay register, the
Running(F) signal goes low, and the trigger output signals will be
generated on Trig_Out(F) and Trig_Out(R).

 if the Delay register is set to n, then the Running(F) signal stays high for n
+ 1 and the counter counts to n + 1, so the actual delay value is n + 1.
 3) Symbol Generator: This circuit generates a sequence of trigger
signals according to the desired symbol pattern.

 The OOK modulation scheme is used in the presented transmitter, so for each
of the bits set in the symbol pattern, a trigger pulse will be generated for the
pulse generator.

 The symbol pattern can be programmed using the Symbol Template register,
and the symbol length can be set using the Delay register inside the
programmable trigger delay circuit.

 When the symbol generator is triggered, the symbol is sent serially on the
Template_Serial and PG_Trig signals according to the programmed symbol

 When the last bit of the symbol is sent on Template_Serial, a one-clock-cycle
pulse will be generated on Symbol_Finished(F).
 4) Pulse Generator: The pulse generator generates high-order
Gaussian pulses.
 Several loose triangular pulses are used to construct a first-order
Gaussian envelope.
 The bandwidth is determined by the envelope.
 The generated Gaussian pulse has a center frequency of about 4 GHz
and a bandwidth of about 2.3 GHz, which fits the Federal
Communications Commission (FCC) mask
• High data capacity.
– Multiple Access provided by time hopping scheme. Can support
close to 30,000 users at 19.2kbps with BER of 10
or a 6 users
system with a peak speed of 50mbps.
• Low power.
– Transmitting at microwatts (one tenth thousandth power of cell
phone) results in very low harmful interference to other radio
systems. Usually below the noise floor and undetectable.
– Longer battery life for mobile devices.
• Resilient to distortions and fading (Great for indoor usage).
– Spread spectrum property overcomes frequency selective fading.
– High information redundancy and frequency diversity provides
protection against multi-path distortion.
• Simplicity translate to lower hardware cost.
– No traditional sinusoidal carrier frequency translate analog front-end
has simpler implementation than radio.
• Security
UWB is inherently secure: Only a receiver that knows the schedule
of the transmitter can assemble the apparently random pulses into a
coherent message.

• Interference with GPS.
– Global positioning satellite currently have more than 10 million
users and it’s primarily applications are used for the safety of
public. (I.e. aircraft flight and approach guidance.) UWB presents a
problem to GPS because their frequency overlaps, and GPS signal
is particular sensitive to interference (It as SNR level around –164
• Limited on range
– Output power is limited in order to keep down the noise floor due to
its overlapping frequency bandwidth with other radio systems.
• One kilometer with high gain antenna.
• Ten to twenty meter with regular antenna.
• Affects on economy and current businesses.
– Speculations on UWB making current billion dollar FCC licensed
frequencies worthless.
– Increased competition for local cable or phone company. Making
their existent investments on cable and equipments obsolete.
 A novel calibrated transmitter for continuous-time symbol generation
in IR-UWB communication systems has been presented.
 The proposed transmitter is a simple delay-based circuit. There is no
continuous running clock, and a new calibrated clock burst generator
is used to generate a preset periodic pulse sequence for symbol
 The clock burst generator is initiated in continuous time for proper
operation of the high-precision ranging transceiver.
 The transmitter has been successfully demonstrated in ranging
 communication systems .With good power efficiency and minimal
standby power, the reported transmitter is suitable for battery-
operated wireless localization systems.
 [1] J. R. Fernandes and D. Wentzloff, “Recent advances in IR-UWB
transceivers: An overview,” in Proc. IEEE ISCAS, 2010, pp. 3284–3287.
 [2] H. A. Hjortland and T. S. Lande, “CTBV integrated impulse radio design
for biomedical applications,” IEEE Trans. Biomedical Circuits Syst.,vol. 3, no.
2, pp. 79–88, Apr. 2009.
 [3] S. Sudalaiyandi, H. A. Hjortland, T.-A. Vu, O. Naess, and T. S.
Lande,“Continuous-time high-precision IR-UWB ranging-transceiver in 90
nm CMOS,” in Proc. IEEE Asian Solid-State Circuits Conf., Nov. 2012, pp.
 [4] S. Gezici, Z. Tian, G. B. Giannakis, H. Kobayashi, A. F. Molisch, H. V.
Poor, and Z. Sahinoglu, “Localization via ultra-wideband radios:A look at
positioning aspects for future sensor networks,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag.,
vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 70–84, Jul. 2005.
 [5] M. Z. Dooghabadi, H. A. Hjortland, and T. S. Lande, “High precision
calibrated digital delay element,” Electron. Lett., vol. 47, no. 9, pp. 564–565,
Apr. 2011.
 [6] K. K. Lee, M. Z. Dooghabadi, H. A. Hjortland, O. Nss, and T. S. Lande, “A
5.2 pJ/pulse impulse radio pulse generator in 90 nm CMOS,” in Proc. IEEE
ISCAS, 2011, pp. 1299–1302.