Conversation Messages

By

Ayman Saleh, Vanity Duquet, Daphne Anne Gopo & Mathew Valle

5 Steps in a Conversation:
1. 2.

Opening Feed forward
   

Open the channels of communication Preview future messages Alter cast Disclaim

Feed Forward Example: Jacobs-Rosenbaum Levin Thorne Hayes Ohman

5 Step of a Conversation
1. 2.

Business Feedback
– – – – – Positive or negative Person Focused or Message Focused Immediate or Delayed Low Monitor or High Monitor Evaluative or Supportive

3.

Closing

Managing Conversations
 Opening

conversations
 Maintaining

conversations
 Repairing

conversations
 Closing

Opening Conversation
 Self

references references

 Other

 Relational

references references

 Context

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SLubGooyRpc

The opening line
 Cute

flippant openers

 Innocuous

opener

 Direct

opener

Opening and closing conversations
some scenes may be graphic 

How to communicate powerfully by email
 Subject

Lines are Headlines  Make One Point per Email  Specify the Response You Want  Be a Good Correspondent  Avoid spamming  Proofread  DON’T TYPE IN ALL CAPS! IT LOOKS LIKE YOU’RE YELLING AT THE READERS!

Repairing conversations

Types of excuses
 “I

didn’t do it”

 “It

wasn’t so bad” but…”

 “Yes,

Five elements of a good excuse:
1.

Demonstrate that you really see the problem, and that your partner’s feelings are legitimate and justified

Five elements of a good excuse:
1.

Acknowledge your responsibility for doing what you did

Five elements of a good excuse:
1.

Say that you regret what you did

Five elements of a good excuse:
Request forgiveness

1.

Five elements of a good excuse:
1.

Make it clear that it will not happen again

Maintaining Conversations
Principle

of Cooperation Principle of Dialogue Principle of Turn-taking

Principal of Cooperation
a. Principal of Cooperation b. Conversational maxims

The four conversation maxim rules
1. Quantity maxim 2. Quality maxim 3. Relation maxim 4. Manner maxim

The four conversation maxim rules
-

Please note that the four maxims just discussed describe most conversations as they take place in much of the United States.  - However, these maxims may not apply to all cultures.  - Some cultures even have their own

According to Koppelman and Goodhart…….
“Differences in cultural norms can cause misunderstandings” Some examples: -Business men and how they conduct meetings -Us direct approach VS Other Cultures indirect

More examples
Arab cultures: They stand closer in conversation - French culture: Anything but handshake is rude - In Ecuador: Greeting someone without a handshake is a sign of respect
-

Principal of Dialogue
a. Monologue –one person speaks and the other listens. *Not surprising, effective communication is based not on monologue but on its opposite dialogue.

Principal of Turn Taking
a. Conversational turns  Speaker Cues c. Listener Cues d. Backchanneling cues

According to the text Understanding Human Communication
Keep the following in mind….. 1) Communication is not always a good thing 2) It will not solve all problems 3) More Communication is not always better 4) Meanings rest in people not in words

Closing Conversations
1) Reflect back on the conversation and briefly summarize it.

Closing Conversations
2) State the desire to end the conversation

Closing Conversations
3) Refer to future interaction

Closing Conversation
4) Ask for closures

Closing Conversations
5) Say you enjoyed the interaction

EFFECTIVE CONVERSATIONAL SKILLS

Stuttering: A Communicative Disorder
 Communicative

disorders can cover a broad area of disorders which includes, but might not be limited to voice, fluency, language, speech/articulation and a host of other subcategories.  Stuttering: Defined as a difficulty in the conception and planning of coordinated motor speech movements of respiratory and phonatory systems.

True or False 1
 If

someone has a stuttering problem, it will be helpful if we help him/her finish their sentences.

FALSE

True or False 2
 We

should avoid giving directions like “slow down” or “relax” to people with speech disorder

TRUE

True or False 3

When talking to a person with speech disorder we should try to minimize eye contact time, so that we don’t cause them embarrassment

FALSE

True or False 4
 We

should treat people who have language problems like our little siblings

False

True or False 5
 We

should NEVER ask people who stutter to repeat what they said

FALSE

True or False 6
 If

you have a stuttering problem, you should let others know what your special needs are

TRUE

True or False 7
 Encourage

those who stutter to use tricks such as substituting words or tapping a foot, to help her/him get through a moment of stuttering.

FALSE

True or False 8
 People

who stutter usually have more difficulty controlling their speech on the telephone

TRUE

True or False 9
 Stuttering

is a speech problem, and not an emotional or psychological one

TRUE

True or False 10
 Stuttering

is a disease that could be genetically inherited from one generation to the other.

TRUE

Facts about Stuttering
   

Parents do not cause stuttering Treatment during childhood is preferred  Early intervention is best Stuttering should not be ignored "Ignore it and it will go away" is a bad advice.

References:

Ayman: – Stanley Fish, Is There a Text in This Class? (Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1980). ISBN 0-674-46726-4. http://academic2.american.edu/~dfagel/Class%20Readings/Fish/HowToRecognizeAPoem.htm , accessed online on 10/13/07 – Bowen, Carolie “Stuttering: What can be done about it ?” 2001. Online resource: http://members.tripod.com/Caroline_Bowen/stuttering.htm Mathew: – Adler, Ronald B, Rosenfeld, Lawrence B, and Proctor II, Russell. INTERPLAY. New York: Oxford University Press – “Jung Typology Test.” 1998-2007<www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/JTypes2.asp>. Vanity: – Koppelman, Kent and R. Lee Goodhart. Understanding Human Differences Multicultural Education For a Diverse America. Boston: Pearson Education Inc, 2005. – Rodman, George and Ronald B. Adler. Understanding Human Communication. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. Daphne – et Talking.” Professional Safety. 52.8(2007):56. Academic Search Premier. 3 October 2007. <http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN =26116422&loginpage=login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site>. – Dowling, Ellen. “10 Tips for Effective E-mail.” MindTools. 3 October 2007. <http:// www.mindtools.com/email.html>.