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Transformers
Part 1
Understand the principle of transformer action
Learn the parts of an electric transformer
Know the classification of transformers
Know the cooling methods used in a
transformer
Learn the transformation ratio
Know the emf equation of an ideal transformer



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A device that transfers electric power from one
circuit to another without change in frequency
and accomplishes this by electromagnetic
induction
Arrangement of two electrically isolated coils
in such a way that the time-varying flux due to
one of them causes an electromotive force
(emf) to be induced in the other
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A simple transformer
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Different transformers:
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Different transformers:
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Primary winding
winding to which the energy of the alternating
current is delivered
made of copper or aluminum wire or strips
Secondary winding
winding from which energy is received
also made of copper or aluminum wire or strips
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Laminated core
to increase the coupling between the coils, the coils are
wound on a common core
used to support the windings in the transformer
it also provides a low reluctance path to the flow of
magnetic flux
made of laminated sheets of steel

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Transformer Oil
serves as an insulator and coolant of the core and
the coil
Normally hydrocarbon mineral oils are used as
transformer oil
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Conservator
conserves the transformer oil
it is an airtight metallic cylindrical drum which is
fitted above the transformer
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Breather
Transformer breather is a cylindrical container
which is filled with silica gel
Silica gel breather is acts like an air filter for the
transformer and controls the moisture level inside a
transformer
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Tap changer
used to balance the voltage variations
can be either on load tap changer or off load tap
changer
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Cooling tubes
used to cool the transformer oil
transformer oil is circulated through the cooling
tubes
Buchholz relay
used to sense the faults occurring inside the
transformer
simple relay which is operated by the gases
emitted due to the decomposition of transformer oil
during internal faults
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Explosion vent
used to expel the boiling oil in the transformer
during heavy internal faults in order to avoid the
explosion of the transformer
it is normally maintained above the level of the
conservatory tank
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Container for the assembled core and
windings
Medium for insulating the core and its
windings from each other and from the
container
Transformer oil
Insulating paper
Pressboard
Bushings for bringing the terminals out of the
case

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Typical power transformer
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Buchholz relay construction
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According to application
Step up transformer - These transformers raise
the input voltage to a higher voltage level
Step down transformer - These transformers
reduce the input voltage to a lower voltage level
According to construction
Core type transformer - the core is in the form of
rectangular frame with the windings wound on the
limbs of the core.
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Shell type transformer - the core has three limbs: a
central limb and two side limbs. The windings are made
around the central limb. The width of the central limb is
twice that of the side limb. Both the HV and LV windings
are divided into number of coils and are arranged
alternately.
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Comparison between core and shell type :
In terms of construction

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Core Shell
Simpler in Design Little complex than
core type
Permits easy assembly
and insulation of
windings
Sandwiched structure
make the process
difficult
Easy to dismantle Difficult to dismantle
In terms of fault withstand capacity

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Core Shell
Core type construction
has poor mechanical
strength since the
windings are not
supported externally
Shell type windings
withstand the forces
produced during short
circuit conditions
More susceptible to
damage under short
circuit conditions
Less susceptible to
damage under short
circuit conditions
In terms of leakage reactance

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Core Shell
Leakage reactance will
be more due to more
spacing between the
windings
Leakage reactance will
be less
In terms of repair and maintenance

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Core Shell
The windings of a core
type transformer are
completely accessible
except for small
portion of window,
hence the coil can be
made easily inspected
Since windings are
surrounded by the core
it is difficult to
dismantle and repair
the coils
In terms of cooling

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Core Shell
In core type
transformers, the
windings surround the
core and have better
cooling than the core
In shell type
transformer, the core
surrounds the windings
and has better cooling
than the windings
According to number of phases:
Single phase
Three phase
According to method of cooling:
Self-aircooled (dry type)
Air-blastcooled (dry type)
Liquid-immersed, self-cooled
Oil-immersed, combination self-cooled and air-blast
Oil-immersed, water-cooled
Oil-immersed, forced-oilcooled
Oil-immersed, combination self-cooled and water-cooled
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Let a no-load transformer be given:




Assume that the transformer is ideal:
Core is highly permeable
Core has no losses
No leakage flux
Winding resistance is negligible
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According to Faradays law of induction, the
magnetic flux , in the core induces an emf e
1

in the primary winding that opposes the
applied voltage v
1

We can write the induced emfs as:

1
=
1

and
2
=
2


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In ideal case: e
1
= v
1
and e
2
= v
2


Transformation ratio is given as:

2
=

2
=

2
= a
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Let an ideal transformer under load be given:




In ideal case: N
1
I
1
= N
2
I
2
Hence,

2
=

1
=
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If the flux varies sinusoidally,
=

sin
then,

1
= 4.44
1


and
2
= 4.44
2



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The core of a two-winding transformer is
subjected to a magnetic flux variation as
indicated in figure. What is the induced emf in
each winding?
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An ideal transformer has a 150-turn primary
and 750-turn secondary. The primary is
connected to a 240-V, 50-Hz source. The
secondary winding supplies a load of 4 A at a
lagging power factor (pf ) of 0.8. Determine
(a) the a-ratio, (b) the current in the primary,
(c) the power supplied to the load, and (d) the
flux in the core.
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The core of 100 kVA, 11000/550 V, 50 Hz, 1-
phase core type transformer has a cross
section of 20 cm x 20 cm. Find a) the number
of HV and LV turns per phase and b) the emf
per turn if the maximum core density is not to
exceed 1.3 T. Assume a stacking factor of 0.9.
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The magnetic flux density in the core of a 4.4-
kVA, 4400/440-V, 50-Hz, step-down
transformer is 0.8 T (rms). If the induced emf
per turn is 10 V, determine (a) the primary and
secondary turns, (b) the cross-sectional area of
the core, and (c) the full-load current in each
winding
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A 200-turn coil is immersed in a 60-Hz flux
with an effective value of 4 mWb. Obtain an
expression for the instantaneous value of the
induced emf. If a voltmeter is connected
between its two ends, what will be the reading
on the voltmeter?
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END
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