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Large prefabricated pile foundation,

a solution for high-rise buildings in


Ha Noi and HoChiMinh city
Bao Viet NGUYEN
National University of Civil Engineering,
Hanoi, Vietnam
nbviet@sdh.nuce.edu.vn
A LOT OF BUILDINGS ARE RISING IN HANOI &
HOCHIMINH CITY
BORED PILE FOUNDATION
Bored piles
- Very high bearing
capacity
- A lot of mud &
construction trash
with a swampy site
- Cost Increased
because of
environmental
treatments
- Construction time
might be extended
Prefabricated piles
with large size
- High bearing
capacity up to
8000kN
- No construction
trash with clean
site
- Properly reduce
cost and
construction time
APPLICABILITY OF PREFABRICATED
PILES FOUNDATION
Where:
R
fea
= feasibility ratio
Q
aua
= Allowable bearing capacity
of pile foundation on area unit
p = total pressure acting on foundation
R
fea
= Q
aua
/ p / FS
fea

1.0 : high applicability
< 1.0 : low applicapility
APPLICABILITY OF PREFABRICATED
PILES FOUNDATION
Where:
P
a
= Allowable bearing capacity of a pile
d = pile size
Q
aua
= P
a
/ (3dx3d)
p = 15kPa x number of storeys
Distribution
maps of
soil types
in area of
old Ha Noi
Sub-soil
type
Name Description Distribution
A
Single
layer
A1
Clayed soils, up to 30m thick, PI=0.15~0.4, SPT=12~15,
E
0
=10Mpa
West T Lim;
ng Anh
A2
Clayed soils, up to 30m thick, PI=0.35~0.6, SPT=8~12,
E
0
=5~8Mpa
H Ni center
B
Two
layers
B1
Upper layer: Clayed soils, up to 10m thick, PI=0.15~0.4,
SPT=12~15, E
0
>10Mpa;
Lower layer: Medium sand, medium dense, up to 20m
thick, SPT30,E
0
>20Mpa.
North ng
Anh
B2
Upper layer: Clayed soils, 5~10m thick, PI=0.35~0.6,
SPT=9
Lower layer: small sand, medium dense, up to 20m
thick, SPT12, E
0
>10Mpa;
South ng
Anh and
Thanh Tr; Gia
Lm
C
Multi
layers
with
weak soil

C1
Upper layer: Clayed soils, up to 10m thick, PI=0.15~0.4,
SPT=12~15, E
0
=10Mpa;
Middle layer: Organic soils, up to 10m thick, PI>0.8,
SPT=5, E
0
=3~5Mpa;
Lower layer: Medium sand, up to 10m thick, SPT30,
E
0
20Mpa;
North ng
Anh
C2-3
Upper layer: Clayed soils, up to 10m thick, PI=0.35~0.6,
SPT=5~8, E0=6~8Mpa;
Middle layer: Organic soils, up to 15m thick, PI>1.2,
SPT=2~4, E0=3Mpa;
Lower layer: Sandy soil, up to 10m thick, SPT20,
E015Mpa;
ng Anh, Gia
Lm (small
area)
Thanh Tr,
South T Lim
Main soil strata types in the area of Ha Noi
Feasibility ratio of prefabricated square
piles for 15 storeys buildings Hanoi Area
Pile size (cm)
Feasibility ratio of prefabricated square
piles for 20 storeys buildings Hanoi Area
Pile size (cm)
Feasibility ratio of prefabricated square
piles for 25 storeys buildings Hanoi Area
Pile size (cm)
Feasibility ratio of prefabricated square
piles for 30 storeys buildings Hanoi Area
Pile size (cm)
Distribution
maps of
soil types
in area of
HoChiMinh
city
Sub-soil Description Distribution
A1
Upper layer: Clayed soils (CuChi, ThuDuc), up to
10m thick, PI=-0.25~0.25, E
0
13Mpa;
Middle layer: Clayed soild (Trang Bom), >10m thick,
PI=-0.23~0.4; E
0
8Mpa.
Lower layer: Medium sand, medium dense, large
thickness, E
0
>20Mpa.
Northern of
ThuDuc & CuChi
and a part at
central of the city
A2
Upper layer: Clayed soils (BInhChanh), up to 10m
thick, PI=-0.25~0.25, E
0
13Mpa;
Middle and Lower layer are the same as A1
North-western of
CuChi and most of
the central
B1
Upper layer: Organic layer (CuChi, ThuDuc), up to
10m thick, PI=1.0~2.5, E
0
1Mpa;
Middle layer: Clayed soild (Trang Bom), >10m thick,
PI=-0.23~0.4; E
0
8Mpa.
Lower layer: Medium sand, medium dense, large
thickness, E
0
>20Mpa.

NhaBe,
BinhChanh district,
southern of
ThuDuc, South-
Western of CuChi,
along SaiGon river
and coastal area.
B2
Upper layer: Organic layer (CuChi, ThuDuc), up to
20m thick, PI=1.0~2.5, E
0
1Mpa;
Middle and Lower layer are the same as B1
B3
Upper layer: Organic layer (CuChi, ThuDuc), up to
30m thick, PI=1.0~2.5, E
0
1Mpa;
Middle and Lower layer are the same as B1
Main soil strata types in HoChiMinh city
Feasibility ratio of prefabricated circle piles
for 15 storeys buildings HoChiMinh city
Pile size (cm)
Feasibility ratio of prefabricated circle piles
for 20 storeys buildings HoChiMinh city
Pile size (cm)
Feasibility ratio of prefabricated circle piles
for 25 storeys buildings HoChiMinh city
Pile size (cm)
Feasibility ratio of prefabricated circle piles
for 30 storeys buildings HoChiMinh city
Pile size (cm)
Case history of 20 storeys twin buildings
45x45cm of
piles with
bearing
capacity of
1800kN

Settlement
of about
2cm with
70% design
load
CONCLUSIONS - HANOI
- Large prefabricated pile foundation could be
applied to the high-rise buildings up to 30 storeys.
- In Ha Noi, soil types of A1 and B1 are most suitable
for prefabricated pile foundation of buildings up to
30 storeys.
- In case of B2, C1 soil types, the applicability of the
piles for buildings up to 25 storeys is highly
reliable.
- Buildings of 15 storeys and buildings of 20 storeys
could be settled on C2-3 and A2 soil types,
respectively, with large size of pile (45x45cm and
50x50cm).
CONCLUSIONS HOCHIMINH CITY
- In HoChiMinh city, soil types of A1 and A2 are most
suitable for prefabricated pile foundation of
buildings up to 30 storeys but a careful
consideration must be carried out for 30 storeys
buildings.
- In case of B1 soil types, the piles foundation could
be applied for buildings up to 20 storeys with high
reliability.
- Buildings of 15 storeys could be settled on B2 and
B3 soil types.
CONCLUSIONS
- To apply the large prefabricated pile, the
construction site must be large enough so that a
big driven/jacked rig could have a space to work.
- Using large prefabricated pile could save money
because of almost no environmental treatment
and using prestressed concrete.
- Last but not least, the construction site was pretty
clean therefore the construction works of
foundation could be carried out smoothly and the
construction time may be reduced.