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Aug 01, 2014

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MOM

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MOM

© All Rights Reserved

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KEY OBJECTIVES

History

Introduction-Compression members

Elastic buckling of an ideal column

Strength of practical column

Concepts of effective lengths

Torsional and torsional-flexural buckling

HISTORY

LEONARD EULER, the most prolific mathematician introduced the term

buckling and derived the formula for it and popularly known as Eulers

Buckling Formula or EULERS FORMULA.

Later JOSEPH-LOUIS-LAGRANGE, mathematician developed a complete

set of buckling loads and the associated buckling modes.

Columns with eccentric loads and columns with initial curvatures were first

formulated and. studied by THOMAS YOUNG.

ANATOLE HENRI ERNEST LAMARLE, a French engineer, proposed

correctly that the Euler formula should be used below the proportional limit,

while experimentally determined formulas should be used for shorter columns.

F. ENGESSER, a German engineer, proposed the tangent modulus theory, in

which the elastic modulus is replaced by the tangent modulus of elasticity when

proportional stress is exceeded i.e. upto yield stress in which tangent modulus

is replaced by reduced modulus of elasticity or double modulus of elasticity.

The Euler buckling formula is still used from past three centuries, later for

column design and is still valid for long columns with pin-supported ends

Thats the power of Eulers Logical Thinking.

INTRODUCTION

Compression Members

Compression members are a type of axially loaded member in which the

external forces are working to make the object shorter.

Applications are

Columns in Building Columns supports

Compression Members in

Bridges

INTRODUCTION

Compression Members in Trusses-Struts

Compression Members in Towers

Compression members in equipment

Boom principal comp.

member

INTRODUCTION

7

INTRODUCTION

A long column fails

by predominant buckling

A short column fails by

compression yield

Buckled shape

Fig 1: short vs long columns

Buckling behavior - large deformations

developed in a direction normal to that of the

loading that produces it.

The buckling resistance is high when the

member is short or stocky (i.e. the member

has a high bending stiffness and is short)

Conversely, the buckling resistance is low

when the member is long or slender.

Traditional design - based on Euler analysis of ideal columns - an upper

bound to the buckling load.

Practical columns are far from ideal & buckle at much lower loads.

The first significant step in the design procedures for such columns was the

use of Perry Robertsons curves.

Modern codes advocate the use of multiple-column curves for design.

Although these design procedures are more accurate in predicting the

buckling load of practical columns,

Euler's theory helps in understanding the behaviour of slender columns

Only very short columns can be loaded upto yield stress basic mech. of

materials

For long columns buckling occurs prior to developing full material strength

Stability theory is necessary for designing compression members

Square and circular tubes ideal sections radius r is same in the two

axes

Compression members

Euler analysis-ELASTIC BUCKLING OF AN

IDEAL COLUMN OR STRUT WITH PINNED

END

Assumptions.

The material of which the strut is made is homogeneous and

linearly elastic (i.e. it obeys Hookes Law).

The strut is perfectly straight and there are no imperfections.

The loading is applied at the centroid of the cross section at the

ends.

Initially, the strut will remain straight for all

values of P, but at a particular value P = P

cr

, it

buckles.

Euler buckling analysis

Euler buckling analysis

Euler buckling analysis

The lowest value of the critical load is given by P

cr

=

2

EI / L

2

The strut can remain straight for any value of P. Under incremental loading, when P

reaches a value of P

cr

=

2

EI / L

2

the strut can buckle in the shape of a half-sine

wave; the amplitude of this buckling deflection is indeterminate.

At higher values of the loads given by n

2

2

EI / L

2

other sinusoidal buckled shapes

(n half waves) are possible. However, the column will be in unstable equilibrium

for all values of P >

2

EI / L

2

whether it be straight or buckled. This means that the

slightest disturbance will cause the column to deflect away from its original

position.

Elastic I nstability - a condition in which the structure has no tendency to return to

its initial position when slightly disturbed, even when the material is assumed to

have an infinitely large yield stress.

Thus P

cr

=

2

EI / L

2

represents the maximum load that the strut can usefully

support.

Euler buckling

Strength curve for an axially loaded initially

straight pin-ended column

A strut under compression can resist only a max. force given by f

y

.A, when plastic squashing

failure would occur by the plastic yielding of the entire cross section; this means that the

stress at failure of a column can never exceed f

y

, shown by A-A

1

A column would fail by buckling at a stress given by (

2

E /

2

). This is indicated by B-B

1.

The changeover from yielding to buckling failure occurs at the point C, defined by a

slenderness ratio given by

c

DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COLUMNS

The behavior of practical columns subjected to axial compressive loading:

Very short columns subjected to axial compression fail by yielding. Very long

columns fail by buckling in the Euler mode.

Practical columns generally fail by inelastic buckling and do not conform to the

assumptions made in Euler theory. They do not normally remain linearly elastic

upto failure unless they are very slender

Slenderness ratio (L/r) and material yield stress (f

y

) are dominant factors

affecting the ultimate strengths of axially loaded columns.

The compressive strengths of practical columns are significantly affected by (i)

the initial imperfection (ii) eccentricity of loading

(iii) residual stresses and (iv) lack of defined yield point and strain hardening.

Effect of initial out-of-straightness

The column will fail at a lower load P

f

when the deflection becomes

large enough. (P

f

<

P

cr

)

The corresponding stress is denoted as f

f

Theoretical and actual load-deflection response of a

strut with initial imperfection

For very stocky members, the initial out of straightness has a very negligible effect and the

failure is at plastic squash load.

For a very slender member, the lower bound curve is close to the elastic critical stress (fcr)

curve.

At intermediate values of slenderness the effect of initial out of straightness is very marked

and the lower bound curve is significantly below the fy line and fcr line.

Effect of eccentricity of applied loading

Strength curves for eccentrically loaded columns

Load carrying capacity is reduced (for stocky members) even for low values

of .

Effect of residual stress

As a consequence of the differential heating and cooling in the rolling and forming

processes, there will always be inherent residual stresses.

Only in a very stocky column (i.e. one with a very low slenderness) the residual

stress causes premature yielding

For struts having intermediate slenderness, the premature yielding at the tips

reduces the effective bending stiffness of the column; in this case, the column will

buckle elastically at a load below the elastic critical load and the plastic squash

load.

Distribution of residual stresses

Typical column design curve

Ultimate load tests on practical columns reveal a scatter band of results shown in

Fig. 1.

A lower bound curve of the type shown therein can be employed for design

purposes.

Robertsons Design Curve

MODIFICATION TO THE PERRY-

ROBERTSON APPROACH

- very stocky columns (e.g. stub columns) resisted loads in excess of their squash

load of f

y.

A

- column strength values are lower than f

y.

even in very low slenderness cases.

- by modifying the slenderness, to ( -

0

) a plateau to the design curve at low

slenderness values is introduced.

Buckling

class of

cross

sections

Different

column c/s

shapes

Simple

Compression

Members

Different

column c/s

shapes

Built-up Columns

Depends on

Material of the column

c/s configuration

Length of the column

Support conditions at the ends

Residual stresses

Imperfections

Strength of a column

Imperfections

The material not being isotropic and

homogeneous

Geometric variations of columns

Eccentricity of load

Possible failure modes

Local Buckling

Squashing

Overall flexural buckling

Torsional and flexural- torsional

buckling

Local Buckling

- Failure occurs by buckling of one or more individual plate elements

- Flange or web, with no overall deflection in the direction normal to the

applied load

- Prevented by selecting suitable width to thickness ratios of component

plates

Squashing

When length is small (stocky column) no local buckling

the column will be able to attain its full strength or squash load

Squash load = yield stress x area of c/s

Overall flexural buckling

This mode of failure normally

controls the design of most

comp. members

Failure occurs by excessive

deflection in the plane of the

weaker principal axis

Increase in length results in

column resisting progressively

less loads

Torsional buckling

Torsional buckling occurs

by twisting about the shear

centre in the longitudinal

axis

Torsional & Flexural buckling

A combination of flexural - torsional

buckling is also possible

Open sections

Singly symmetric and for section that have no symmetry flexural-

torsional buckling must be checked

Sections always rotate about shear centre

Shear centre lies on the axis of symmetry

Open sections that are doubly symmetric or point symmetric are not

subjected to flexural torsional buckling because their Shear centre and

centroid coincide

Open sections

Shear Centre

The shear

center (also

known as the

elastic axis or

torsional axis)

is an imaginary

point on a

section, where

a shear force

can be applied

without

inducing any

torsion

Built-up sections

Failure of a component

member may occur, if joints

between members are

sparsely placed

Codes specify rules to

prevent such failures

Compression Members

Short Intermediate Long

Failure stress = yield stress

No buckling occurs

L < 88.85 r

for fy = 250 MPa

No practical applications

Some fibers would have

yielded & some will still be

elastic

Failure by both yielding

and buckling

Behavior is inelastic

Eulers formula predicts

the strength

Buckling stress below

proportional limit

Elastic buckling

Behavior of Compression members

Elastic buckling

Elastic (Euler) Buckling

Inelastic Buckling

Slenderness Ratio

Actual Length

Effective Length

Appropriate Radius of Gyration

Design Compressive Stress and Strength

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