WIRELESS LOCAL LOOP

AN OVERVIEW Mian Ahmed Yaser
DE (Computer & Data Services)

Definition
• WLL is a system that connects the subscribers to the PSTN using radio system as a substitute for the copper for all or part of the connection between subscriber and switch.

Wireless local loop
• Replaces:
– Traditional twisted pair

• Also called:
– Fixed wireless access

WLL alternatives
• Narrowband
– Replaces existing telephony services

• Broadband
– Provides high speed two way voice and data

WHY WLL?
• • • • • • Congested urban areas Far flung rural areas Fast installation Less maintenance Easy operation Less establishment problems

Role of WLL
• WLL services one or two cells • A cell has a base station antenna installed on the top of a tall building or a tower • Customers’ antennas are installed atop their houses or separate poles such that there is an unobstructed line of sight with the base station • Base station is linked to the switching center wirelessly or wired • An ISP is linked to the switch using a high speed link

Advantages of WLL
1. Cost of installation and maintenance of WLL is lower than cable network 2. Installation time is less in case of WLL 3. Selective installation: Installation for those who require connection at a certain time 4. Quality of wireless technologies have improved to nearly equal the contemporary wired options which do face problems like longer distances in xDSL and lack of infrastructure, so WLL offers tough competition 5. Cellular systems are too expensive with lesser signal quality than fixed broadband wireless which uses directional antennas

REQUIREMENTS FROM PTA
• Radio Frequency bands allocated by PTA
– 1.9 GHz – 3.4 to 3.6 GHz – 450 MHz – 479 MHz

Spectrum Block size (Transmit + Receive) MHz

Radio Spectrum Band Information sheet 1.9 GHz
Number of available blocks Maxim um blocks availab le per applica nt and affiliate s One time fee per block upon lisencing by Region (US $ and Pak Rs)

Annual Roll out Rollout renewal fee commitmen commitm per block t in region ent per region complian (US $ and ce Pak Rs)

5+5 1.25 x3+ 1.25 x3 1890-1895 1970-1975

1

1

Area 1

US $ 250,000 Area 1 or Pk Rs. 14,500,000 US $75,000or Pk Rs. Area 2 4,350,000

US $75,000or Pk Rs. 4,350,000 US $ 25,000 or Pk Rs. 1,450,000

Area 2

1.Atleast one base 1. Initially by station that is in 18 months ongoing operational as part from effective of licensee’s date. 2. On network an ongoing 2. One or more base stations basis providing service thereafter to atleastt 5 customers

1.9 GHz band
• 1880-1885 ; 1960-1965 MHz will be available if not used by CMTS
– AREA 1
• Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad

– AREA 2
• FTR, HTR, GTR, RTR, WTR, STR-I, STR-V, MTR, NTR-I, NTR-II and CTR

Radio Spectrum Band Information sheet 3.4-3.6 GHz
Spectrum Block size (Transmit + Receive) MHz Number Maximu of m available blocks blocks availabl e per applican t and affiliates One time fee per block upon lisencing by Region (US $ and Pak Rs) Annual renewal fee per block per region (US $ and Pak Rs) Roll out Rollout commitme commitment nt in compliance region

10.5+10.5 3.5 x21+ 3.5 x21 Blocks located within 3410-3497.5 3510-3597.5

7

1

Area 1 US $ 25,000 Area 1 US $ 25,000 1.Atleast onethat 1. Initially by 18 base station months from is in ongoing or Pk Rs. or Pk Rs. effective date. 2. 1,450,000 1,450,000 operational as On an ongoing part of licensee’s Area 2 US $10,000or Pk Rs. 580,000 US $10,000or Area 2 Pk Rs. 580,000
basis network 2. One or more base stations providing service to atleastt 5 customers thereafter

– AREA 1
• Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad

– AREA 2
• FTR, HTR, GTR, RTR, WTR, STR-I, STR-V, MTR, NTR-I, NTR-II and CTR

Radio Spectrum Band Information sheet 450 MHz
Spectrum Numbe Maximum Block r of blocks size availab available (Transmit le per + blocks applicant Receive) and affiliates MHz One time fee per block upon lisencing by Region (US $ and Pak Rs) Annual Roll out Rollout renewal fee commitm commitment per block ent in compliance per region region (US $ and Pak Rs)

5+5 1.25 x3+ 1.25 x3 452.5457.457; 462.5467.457

1

1

Area 1 US $ 75,000 or Area 1 Pk Rs. 4,350,000

US $50,000or Pk Rs. 2,900,000 US $ 25,000 or Pk Rs. 1,450,000

Area 2

US $37,500or Area 2 Pk Rs. 2,175,000

1.Atleast one base station that is in ongoing operational as part of licensee’s network 2. One or more base stations providing service to atleastt 5 customers

1. Initially by 18 months from effective date. 2. On an ongoing basis thereafter

– AREA 1
• Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad

– AREA 2
• FTR, HTR, GTR, NTR-I,RTR

– AREA 3
• WTR, STR-I, STR-V, MTR, NTR-II and CTR
– PTCL has been allocated 1.25 MHz band in this area 3, rest of the 3.75 MHz is available for new LL operators in area 3 – License fee given for area 2 will apply

Radio Spectrum Band Information sheet 479 MHz
Spectrum Number of Maximum Block size available blocks (Transmit + blocks available Receive) per applicant MHz and affiliates One time fee per block upon lisencing by Region (US $ and Pak Rs) Annual Roll out Rollout renewal fee commitm commitment per block per ent in compliance region (US $ region and Pak Rs)

5+5 1.24 x3+ 1.24 x3 479-483.48 489-493.48

1

1

1.Atleast one 1. Initially by 18 Area 1 US $ 75,000 or Area 1 US base station months from Pk Rs. $50,000or that is in effective date. 2. ongoing 4,350,000 operational as On an ongoing Pk Rs. basis thereafter 2,900,000 part of licensee’s network 2. One or Area 2 US $22,500or more base Pk Rs. stations Area 2 US $ 1,305,000 15,000 or Pk providing Rs. 870,000 service to atleastt 5 customers

SPECIFICATIONS FROM PTCL
• Technologies and Standards Wing PTCL HQ • No. T&S / TR-133B/03 • CDMA 2000 1x based on
– TIA/EIA/IS-2000 standard – 3GPP2 standard – ITU-RM 1457 standard

Requirements of Specifications
• To Provide
– Toll Quality Voice service – Wireless Pay Phone – Internet access – Maximum rate of 144 Kbps and at least 30 Kbps packet mode data – 14.4 Kbps of voice band data in circuit mode

Main Parts of the system
• • • • MSC- Main Switching Center BSC- Base Station Controller BTS- Base Transceiver Station FWT (Fixed Wireless Terminal) or Mobile terminal

Frequency Spectrum
• Rural Areas
– 450 MHz band i.e.
– 1-3 RF carriers

• 452.5-457.475 MHz :Uplink • 462.5-467.475 MHz :Downlink

1.25 MHz each

• Urban Areas

– 1900 MHz band (If available) i.e.
• 1890-1895 MHz : Uplink • 1970- 1975 MHz: Downlink
– 1-4 RF carriers 1.25 MHz each

Standards
• Air Interface Standard
– TIA/EIA/IS-2000

• Frame st. standard
– TIA/EIA/IS-2000

Compatibility
• Backward Compatibility
– IS-95

• Forward Compatibility
– CDMA 2000 1x EV DO
• 2.4 Mbps Multimedia

Vocoders
• • • • Codec (EVRC) (EIA/TIA ISO 127-2) 3GPP2 standard CS0014-0-2 13.4 Kbps QCELP (IS-733) vocoder SMV (Selective Multirate Vocoders)
– Dynamic allocation of Vocoders required – Should also be software configurable

Duplexing method

FDD/TDD Frequency division duplex/Time division duplex

Traffic Capacity of system
• In Erlangs/sector/MHz for 1% GOS with 98% active voice calls and 2% active data calls at 144 Kbps to be specified by the vendor:

Traffic Capacity of a BSC
• Capacity of BSC for an average traffic of 0.05 Er./Subscriber and 1%GOS. BHCA/sub shall be 4.

Capacity of Base Station
• Minimum 110 Erlang /FA / 3 sectors assuming all Remote Stations are FWTs using voice only.

Coverage Radius of BTS

• 20 to 25 Km, extendable to double this value

BTS sensitivity

-125 dBm

BSC
• The BSC should adopt ATM or IP platform. • Switching capability of BSC is in Gbps

Power Supply
• To BTS, BSC and MSC is -48 V (-44 V - -56.4 V)

Requirements from FWT
• • • • • Voice supporting RJ-11 Interface Group 3 fax at RJ-11 Interface Voice band data upto 14.4.kbps in circuit mode 144 kbps data in packet mode Subscriber’s Call Charge Meter (Home Meter)

Requirements from Handheld terminal
• Voice • Voice band data upto 14.4.kbps in circuit mode • 144 kbps data in packet mode • Extended antenna support • SMS • Address book

Generic Model of CDMA 2000 1x WLL
Packet Switched Core Network (PCN)
OMC-P NMC OMC-S

AAA

PDSN

IWF L

A10/A11 Um RS BTS Abis BSC

HLR

A1/A2

MSC

OMC-R

Core Network (CN)

Radio Network (RN)

WLL solution by Huawei

CDMA 2000 1x WLL Huawei solution
• Basically this is a complete solution for a PLMN: Public local mobile network • Only minor changes in the software can change this WLL network into a mobile system

Expected Network in Pakistan
• • • • • • Islamabad: Peshawar Lahore Quetta Karachi Multan Centralized control

Equipment to be available at sites
• • • • MSC: BSC : BTS : HLR/AuC : Mobile Switching center Base Station Controller Base Transceiver Station Home Location Register/ Authentication Center

Interfaces
• Between MSC and BSC: • Between BSC and BTS: V 5.2 E1

– No. of max. BTS that can be connected to a BSC: 14 – No. of BSC that can be connected to a MSC:

BSC Capabilty
• ATM broadband packet platform with switching capacity of 25Gbps • Convenient to upgrade to 1x EV only by upgrading the software of BSS and adding 1x EV channel board to BTS;

Evolution to EV-DO
• Patent radio resource management algorithm • Variable step length power control technique to improve receiving sensitivity and fulfill the performance requirements for future evolution to EV-DO

CDMA 2000 1x and EV-DO mixed Networking

CDMA IS-95 Standard
• • • • • • • • • Introduced in: Access Method: Uplink band: Downlink band: Forward rev. spacing: Channel Bandwidth: No. of duplex channels: Max. power of mobile: Users per channel: 1993 CDMA 869 to 894 MHz 824 to 849 MHz 45 MHz 1250 KHz 20 0.2 Watts 35

CDMA IS-95 Standard (Contd.)
• • • • • • Modulation: QPSK Carrier bit rate: 9.6 Kbps Speech coder: QCELP Speech coding bit rate: 8,4,2,1 Kbps Frame size : 20 m sec Error control coding: Convolutional1/2 rate forward; 1/3 rate reverse

Development of Mobile Communications
1st Generation 1980s (analog) 2nd Generation 1990s (digital) 3rd Generation current (digital)
GSM CDMA IS95 TDMA IS-136 PDC

AMPS TACS NMT OTHERS

UMTS WCDMA

Analog to Digital

Voice to Broadband

CDMA 2000 TDSCDMA

3G provides:  Complete integrated service solutions  High bandwidth  Unified air interface  Best spectral efficiency and ……………… a step towards PCS

Transmission Techniques
CDMA
Power
Tim
y nc ue q

e

e Fr

Traffic channels: different users are assigned unique code and transmitted over the same frequency band, for example, WCDMA and CDMA2000

TDMA
Power
Tim e
Fre y nc ue q

Traffic channels: different time slots are allocated to different users, for example, DAMPS and GSM

FDMA
Power

Us Us e r U e Us ser r er Us er
en qu e Fr cy

Us er
Tim e

Traffic channels: different frequency bands are allocated to different users,for example, AMPS and TACS

TDMA

user

user

user

Power

user

user

Tim

cy en qu Fre

e

3G Objectives
3G is developed to achieve: • Universal frequency band for standard and seamless global coverage • High spectral efficiency • High quality of service with complete security and reliability • Easy and smoothly transition from 2G to 3G, compatible with 2G • Provide multimedia services, with the rates: – Vehicle environment: 144kbps – Walking environment: 384kbps – Indoor environment: 2Mbps

Standards for 3G
CDMA2000 3GPP2
FDD mode

WCDMA 3GPP
FDD mode

TD-SCDMA

3G system

CWTS
TDD mode

A Comparison b/w 3G standards
WCDMA Receiver type Close loop power control Handoff Demodulation mode Chip rate (Mcps) Transmission diversity mode Synchronization mode Core network RAKE Supported CDMA2000 RAKE Supported TD-SCDMA RAKE Supported

Soft/hard handoff Soft/hard handoff Soft/hard handoff Coherent 3.84 TSTD, STTD FBTD Asynchronous GSM MAP Coherent N*1.2288 OTD, STS Synchronous ANSI-41 Coherent 1.28 No Asynchronous GSM MAP

Development of CDMA
CDMA2000 3X CDMA2000 307.2kbps IS95A 9.6kbps IS95A 115.2kbps

 

Heavier voice service capacity ; Longer period of standby time

CDMA2000 1X EV 1X EV-DO 1X EV-DV

1995

1998

2000 2003

• Higher spectrum efficiency and network capacity • Higher packet data rate and more diversified services • Smooth transit to 3G

CDMA2000 1X Network Structure
A1(Signaling) A2(Traffic)
Abis

A3(Signaling Traffic) A7(Singaling)

&

A11(Signaling) A10(Traffic)

• • • • • •

MS: Mobile Station BSC: Base Station Controller HLR :Home Location Register PCF: Packet data Control Function HA: Home Agent SCP: Service Control Point

BTS: Base Transceiver Station MSC: Mobile Switching Center VLR: Visitor Location Register PDSN: Packet Data Service Node FA: Foreign Agent Radius: Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service

Correlation
+1 -1 +1 -1 Correlation 100% so the functions are parallel

(a)

+1 -1 +1
Correlation 0% so the functions are orthogonal

(b)

Orthogonal Function
• Orthogonal functions have zero correlation. Two binary sequences are orthogonal if their “XOR” output contains equal number of 1’s and 0’s
EXAMPLE:

0000 0101 0101

1010 0101 1111

Information spreading over orthogonal codes
+1 -1 User Input Orthogonal Sequence Tx Data +1 -1 1 0 0 1 1

0110 1001

0110 0110

0110 0110

0110 1001

0110 1001

Information recovery
1001 Correct Function 0110 1111
+1 -1 1 Rx Data

0110 0110 0000
0

0110 0110 0000
0

1001 0110 1111
1

1001 0110 1111
1

Rx Data Incorrect Function

1001 0101 1100
?

0110 0101 0011
?

0110 0101 0011
?

1001 0101 1100
?

1001 0101 1100
?

Spreading and De-spreading
The improvement of time-domain information rate means that the bandwidth of spectrum-domain information is spread. S( f) information f0 f The spectrum before spreading S( f) information f0 f The spectrum before despreading information f0 S( f) information

f0 f The spectrum after spreading

S( f) Interference/noise

information Interference/noise f

The spectrum after despreading White noise

pulse interference

S(f) is the energy density.

Signal flow

Source coding

Convolution Interleaving & Interleaving

Scrambling

Spreading

Modulation

RF transmission

Source decoding

Decovolution deinterleaving & Unscrambling De-spreading Deinterleaving

Demodulation

RF receiving

Common Technical Terms
• Bit, Symbol, Chip:
– A bit is the input data which contain information – A symbol is the output of the convolution, encoder, and the block interleaving – A chip is the output of spreading

• Processing Gain:
– Processing gain is the ratio of chip rate to the bit rate. – The processing gain in IS-95 system is 128, about 21dB.

• Forward direction: Information path from base station to mobile station • Reverse direction: Information path from mobile station to base station

Source Coding
• Vocoder: – 8K QCELP – 13K QCELP – EVRC • Characteristics – Support voice activity

In a typical duplex call, the duty ratio is less than 35%. To achieve better capacity and low power consumption, base station reduces its transmission power.

Channel Coding
Convolution code or TURBO code is used in channel encoding Constraint length=shift register number+1. Encoding efficiency= (total input bits / total output symbols)

Input (bits)

Output (symbols)

convolution encoder

Turbo Code
Turbo code is used during the transmission of large data packet. • Characteristics of the Turbo code:
– The input information is encoded twice and the two output codes can exchange information with each other during decoding. – The symbol is protected not only by the neighborhood check bits, but also by the separate Check Bits.

The performance of a Turbo code is superior to that of a convolution code.

Interleaving
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 interleaving 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

The direction of the data stream

Scrambling (M) sequence
0 1 0 1 1 0

Out

• Two points are important here:
– Maximum number of shift register (N) – Mask

• The period of out put sequence is 2N-1 bits • Only sequence offset is change when the mask is changed • PN stands for Pseudorandom Noise sequence

Long Code
• The long code is a PN sequence with period of 242 -1chips • The functions of a long code:
– Scramble the forward CDMA channel – Control the insertion of power control bit – Spread the information on the reverse CDMA channel to identify the mobile stations

Short Code
• Short code is a PN sequence with period of 215 chips
– Sequence with different time offset is used to distinguish different sectors

PNc PNb

PNa
– Minimum PN sequence offset used is 64 chips, that is, 512 PN offsets are available to identify the CDMA sectors (215/64=512).

Walsh Code
Walsh Code is one kind of orthogonal code.

Walsh code W2n=

Wn Wn Wn Wn

W1=0 W2= 0 0 0 1

0 0 W4 = 0 0

0 1 0 1

0 0 0 1
1 1 1 0

64-order Walsh function is used as a spreading function and each Walsh code is orthogonal to other. A Walsh can be presented by Wim where ith (row) is the position and m is the order. For example, W24 means 0101 code in W4 matrix

Walsh Code
• In forward direction, each symbol is spread with Walsh code • Walsh code is used to distinguish the user in forward link • For IS95A/B, in the reverse, every 6 symbols correspond to one Walsh code. For example, if the symbol input is 110011,the output after spreading is W51 64 (110011=51). • For CDMA2000, in the reverse, Walsh function is used to define the type of channel (RC 3-9)

Variable Walsh codes
The different Walsh codes corresponding to different data rates
W08 =00000000 W04 =0000
64

( W016 ,W816) ( W416 ,W1216 ) ( W216 ,W1416 ) ( W616 ,W1416 ) ( W116,W916 ) ( W516 ,W1316 ) ( W316 ,W1116 ) ( W716,W1516 )

W02 =00

W48 =00001111 W28 =00110011 W68 =00111100 W18 =01010101 W14 =0101 W58 =01011010

32

W01 =0

W24 =0011

16 8 4 2 1

W38 =01100110 W12 =01 W34 =0110 W78 =01101001

9600 19200 38400

76800 153600 307200 614400

Data rate -bps-

Modulation-QPSK
I channel PN sequence 1.2288Mcps I A Q Baseband filter Sin(2pfct) Q channel PN sequence 1.2288Mcps Q(t) Baseband filter Cos(2pfct) I(t) s(t)

1.2288Mcps: the PN chip rate of the system
After being spread, all the forward channels in the same carrier are modulated by means of QPSK(OQPSK in the reverse), converted into simulation signals and transmitted after clustering.

.

CDMA mobile parameters

 Power Control  Handoff  Diversity and RAKE

Power Control
• Reverse power control
– Open loop power control – Closed loop power control
• Inner loop power control: 800 Hz • Outer loop power control

• Forward power control
• threshold transmission • periodic transmission

– Message transmission mode:

– Closed loop power control

Reverse Open Loop Power Control
• The transmission power required by the mobile station is determined by the following factors:

Distance from the base station

 Load of the cell  Circumstance of the code channels

• The transmission power of the mobile station is relative to its received power.

Reverse Open Loop Power Control

BTS BTS BTS

Mobile Transmitting Power

Reverse Closed Loop Power Control
Power Control Bit

Eb/Nt Value BTS

FER Value BSC Change in Eb/Nt Value

Inner Loop Power Control Outer Loop Power Control

Forward Power Control
Message Transmission Mode

 MS measures the frame quality and informs the base station to the result i.e. whether it is in the threshold or periodical mode. Base station determines whether to change the forward transmitting power or not.  In IS-95 system, the forward power control is slow but in CDMA2000 system it is fast.

Forward Closed Loop Power Control
• Compared with IS-95 system, CDMA2000 the forward quick power control isControl Bit Power fast.
Eb/Nt Value

BTS

Handoff
• Soft handoff –It is a process of establishing a link with a target sector before breaking the link with the serving sector • Softer handoff –Like the soft handoff, but the handoff is occurred between multisectors in the same base station • Hard handoff –Hard handoff occurs when the two sectors are not synchronized or are not on the same frequency. Interruption in voice or data communication occurs but this interruption does not effect the user communication

Soft/Softer Handoff

Multi-path combination in the BSC during soft handoff Multi-path combination in the BTS during softer handoffs

Power received from a single sector

Combine all the power from each sector

Pilot Set
the set of the pilots having same frequency but different PN sequence offset

Active Set Candidate Set Neighbor Set Remaining Set

The pilot set, corresponding to the base station being connected The pilot set, not in the active set but potential to be demodulated

Other pilot sets

T_ADD,T_DROP,T_TDROP
Sector A Sector B

Ec/Io
Guard Time(T-TDROP) Add Threshold (T_ADD)

DropThreshold (T_DROP)

Soft Handoff Region Time T_ADD, T_DROP and T_TDROP affect the percentage of MS in handoff. T_ADD & T_DROP is the standards used to add or drop a pilot. T_DROP is a timer.

Comparison Threshold

Pilot P2 T_COMP×0.5dB Pilot P1 T_ADD

t0

t1

t2

P0-Strengh of Pilot P0 in Candidate Set. P1,P2-Stength of Pilot P1,P2 in Active Set. t0-Pilot strength Measurement Message Sent, P0>T_ADD t1-Pilot strength Measurement Message Sent, P0>P1+T_COMP*0.5dB t2 -Pilot strength Measurement Message Sent, P0>P2+T_COMP*0.5dB

Transition Between Pilot Sets
Pilot strength Pilot 1 Pilot 2

T_TDROP

T_ADD T_TDROP

T_DROP

1
Neighbor Set

2
Candidate Set

3
Active Set

4 5 6

7 8
Candidate Set Neighbor Set

TIME

Transmit Diversity
• Time diversity
– Block interleaving, error-correction

• Frequency diversity
– The CDMA signal energy is distributed on the whole 1.23MHZ bandwidth.

• Space diversity
– The introduction of twin receive antennas . – The RAKE receivers of the mobile station and the base station can combine the signals of different time delay. – During a handoff, the mobile station contacts multiple base stations and searches for the strongest frame

Transmission Diversity
• The forward transmission diversity types in CDMA2000 1X are – TD (Transmit Diversity)
• OTD (Orthogonal Transmit Diversity)
– The data stream is divided into two parts, which will be spread by the orthogonal code sequence, and transmitted by two antennas.

• STS (Space Time Spreading)
– All the forward code channels are transmitted by the multiantennas. – Spread with the quasi-orthogonal code

–Non-TD

Transmission Diversity
Data stream 1 Data stream Transmission diversity processing
Pa th

1

Antenna 1

Restoring data stream

2 Path

Data stream 2
Antenna 2

The Transmission Diversity Technology enhances the receive performance of MS.

The Principle of RAKE Receiver
Correlator 1 Correlator 2 Receive set Correlator 3 Calculate the time delay and signal strength

Combiner

The combined signal

Searcher correlator

s(t)

s(t)

t

t

RAKE antennas help to overcome on the multi-path fading and enhance the receive performance of the system

A typical CDMA Network
EIR F MSC E MS Um BS A MSC C Q AC H HLR N SME M SME M MC M MC B D VLR G VLR Di SCP IP T9 T3 T8 HLR T2 SCP T1 Ai ISDN Ai IP T5 SSP PSTN Di ISDN

CDMA Interfaces
MC/VM Other MSCs IS-41 IS-41 SS7 Mobile Customer Service Center PSTN/ISDN SS7 SS7 Other PLMNs IOS4.0 BTS MSC/SSP/VLR IS-41 GMSC/SSP TCP/IP SDH BSC

OMC IS-41 SCP IS-41 INTERNET

MS

BTS

HLR/AC

STP

MSC: Mobile-service Switching Center MC: Short Message Center BTS: Base Transceiver Station VLR: Visitor Location Register AC: Authentication Center

BSC: Base Station Controller HLR: Home Location Register VM: Voice Mailbox OMC: Operation & Maintenance Center SCP: Service Control Point

Network Interface
BSSAP SCCP MTP Physical layer A1/A2
HLR/AuC

MSC/VLR

GMSC

PSTN

BSS
A10/A11
A11 signaling UDP IP Physical layer A10 service GRE IP Physical layer

SS7
PDSN
IP backbon GPRS IP 骨干网 e network

SCP

HA

Link layer Link layer

CN

CDMA Services
Schools, groups •Universal account number •Sectorized and timeshared charge •Broadcast news

Businesses, enterprises •Mobile virtual private network •Mobile high-speed network access •Advertising services •Free phone

Family •Familiarity number •Life & amusement

Individuals •Individualized services •Privacy

CDMA2000---Data Services
2,000 Video Streaming Remote Medical High-quality videoconference Service Sports, news and weather report on demand Still Imaging

Data rate in Kbps

384 Audio Streaming 144 Text Messaging Voice 64 Voice Mail Fax 9.6 Telephone (Voice) Electronic newspaper

128

Low-quality videoconference Mobile TV Image JPEG Electronic book Singing room Still Photos Video Surveillance, Video Mail, Travel E-commerce

32

E-Mail Data Mobile Radio

0

Weather, transportation, news, sports and securities

Locating Services
3GPP2 uses the following 3 standards for MS location: • GPS-aided measurement – Accuracy: suburbs---10m. City zone---30~70m. Indoor --unable to locate – Response time: 3~10s • Measurement of base station pilot phase – Accuracy: 50~200m – Response time: 3~6s • Locating of a cell ID – Accuracy: depends on the size of a cell – Response time: within 3s

Locating Services
110! Bandit!

• The system transfers the alarm to the nearest alarm processing center based on the location. • An emergency button can be set on a user’s mobile phone to so that an alarm can be reported without any conversation or delay.

Review
• • • • • • Chips rate: 1.2288Mcps IS-95A/B is a subset, RC1/RC2 Apply the coherent demodulation to the reverse pilot channel Forward transmit diversity: OTD and STS Forward quick power control at 800HZ rate Improve the standby time by introducing the quick paging channel. • Variable frames: 5ms, 20ms, 40ms and 80ms • Introduce TURBO code into channel encoding • The maximum rate of a physical layer is up to 307.2K

A Simple CDMA 1X BSS Network
BTS MS BTS BTS
A3/A7 CDMA2000 1X BSS A1/A2

BSC

MSC

PSTN

BTS MS
Um

BTS BTS
Abis

BSC
A8/A9

PCF

PDSN

A10/A11

Description of Interfaces
• • • • • Um interface carries all signaling & services between MS and BTS over radio links. Abis interface carries signaling & services between BTS and BSC. A1 interface carries call control signaling between MSC and BSC. A2 interface provides 64kbit/s PCM speech channels between MSC and BSC. A3 interface has two functions: Signaling and traffic. A3 signaling is used to control and allocate the transmission channels for user traffic.

Description of Interfaces
• A7 interface carries signaling between source BSC and target BSC. • A8 interface carries user traffic between BSC and PCF. • A9 interface carries signaling between BSC and PCF. • A10 interface carries user traffic between PCF and PDSN. • A11 interface caries signaling between PCF and PDSN.

A CDMA Network

BTS: Base Transceiver Station BSC: Base Station Controller PCF: Packet data Control Function

MSC: Mobile Switching Center PDSN: Packet Data Service Node MS: Mobile Station

Rack Distribution in BSC
Large capacity BSC is divided into following functional blocks. In general each block corresponds to single subrack. These are:

• • • • • •

CDMA Switch Subrack (CSWS) CDMA Integrated Processing Subrack (CIPS) CDMA Resource and Packet Subrack (CRPS) CDMA Packet Module Subrack (CPMS) CLocK processing Module (CLKM) CDMA Integrated Management System (CIMS)

Rack Distribution
To/from MSC E1 CIPS Optical fiber To / from NMS Ethernet CIMS LAN GE

To / from PDSN

CPMS

Optical fiber

CSWS

To / from PDSN

GE CRPS Optical fiber

CLKM

Configuration for 120,000 Subscribers
• • • • • BHCA: 240k Voice traffic volume: 2,400Erl Um interface: 54,000TCE (traffic channel element) A-interface: 38400CIC,1280E1 Abis interface: 960E1

•3840 Sector Carriers •1,200k Voice Subscribers(0.02Erl/sub) •70,000 PPP connections •5,000 active PPP connections •Total flow of packet data: 200Mbps

Power distribution box

Power distribution box

CSWS
Cable trough Fan box Air guide subrack LCD Lanswitch Cabling Through
Lanswitch Dummy Panel Keyboard CLKM

CIPS/ CPMS
Cable trough Fan box Air guide subrack

Overview

CBUR (CDMA BUsiness Rack)

CIPS/ CPMS
Cable trough Fan box Air guide subrack

BAM Server Cabling though

CCTR (CDMA Controller Rack)

BAM Server BAM Server

Air guide subrack

CRPS/ CRMS
Cable trough Fan box Dummy panel

CIPS/ CPMS
Cable Fan box trough Dummy panel

A Wireless Network

BTS3612 Cabinet & Functional Distribution
Power distribution room

Baseband subrack Fan subrack Pow subrack er
P S U BB C C I I MM BB B BBB BB C C C C C C RR P P P P P P DD MMM MMMMM B C K M B C K M B BB B BB BBB R RC C CC CC R D DP P P P P P D M MM M M M M M M B R D M

Fan box 1

Fan box 2

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

RF subrack
B H P A B T R M B H P A B T R M B H P A B T R M B H P A B T R M B H P A B T R M B H P A B T R M

CD U/RLD subrack U

RLDU

RLDU

RLDU

CDU

CDU/DFU

CDU

CDU/DFU CDU

CDU/DFU

RF subrack
B H P A B T R M B H P A B T R M B H P A B T R M B H P A B T R M B H P A B T R M B H P A B T R M

Interface Protocol Stack

Abis signaling TCP/IP Abis traffic AAL2 ATM

OML signaling TCP/IP IPOA

IPOA AAL5 ATM

Command line TELNET 802.3 IS-2000.2

AAL5 ATM

Abis signaling

Abis traffic

OML signaling

MMI command

Um

Introduction
• BTS antenna & feeder subsystem consists of two parts: RF antenna & feeder, and dual-satellite synchronization antenna & feeder. • RF antenna & feeder transmits the modulated RF signals and receives MS signals, while the dual-satellite synchronization antenna & feeder provides precise synchronization for CDMA system.

RF Antenna &Feeder
Sector ¦A

Antenna Jumper Feeder Jumper

Sector¦A

Sector¦A

Inner cable

RXD TX/RX MANT

BTS cabinet CDU/DFU

Dual-satellite Synchronization Antenna & Feeder
GPS/GLONASS receiving antenna Jumpe r Lighting arrester Lighting arrester Feeder Receiver on BCKM

Jumpe r

Lighting arrester Inner cable

BTS3612 cabinet

Note: BTS3612 receiver is provided by CLK on BCKM.

Resource Pool 、 Carrier 、 Sector and Frequency
BTS3612

SECTOR0

BTRM0 BTRM4 BTRM8

BTRM1 BTRM5 BTRM9

BTRM2 BTRM6 BTRM10

BTRM3 BTRM7 BTRM11

SECTOR1

SECTOR2

CARRIER1 Resource Pool1

CARRIER2 Resource Pool2

CARRIER 3 Resource Pool3

CARRIER 4 Resource Pool4

Cabinet Configuration Scheme-01 or S1
B s b n fa e ae a d r m
F AN
P S U
B H P A B T R X B H P A

Configuration Scheme
• • • • 1HPA + 1BTRM 1 DFU/CDU/DDU 1RLDU PSU 1+1 standby

F AN
P S U
B H P A B T R X B H P A B T R X

P S U
B T R X

P S U
B H P A B T R X

P S U
B H P A B T R X

RD LU

RD LU

RD LU

CU CU D CU D D /F D U /DU / FU D F

D CU CU CU D D DU / F /F DU / F DU

CU D /F DU

B H P A

B T R X

B H P A

B T H R P M A

B H P A

B T R X

B H P A

B T R X

B H P A

B T R X

B H P A

B T R X

Configuration Scheme
B s b n fa e ae a d r m
F AN
P S U
B H P A B T R X B H P A

Cabinet Configuration Scheme- S111
P S U P S U
B T R X B H P A B T R X

F AN
P S U
B H P A B T R X B H P A B T R X

P S U
B T R X

B H P A

RD LU

RD LU

RD LU

CU CU D D /F DU / F DU

CU CU CU CU D D D D /F DU / F DU / F / F DU DU

• • • •

3HPA + 3BTRM 3CDU/DFU/DDU 3RLDU PSU1+1 standby

B H P A

B T R X

B H P A

B T H R P M A

B H P A

B T R X

B H P A

B T H R P M A

B H P A

B T R X

B H P A

B T H R P M A

Sector 0

Sector 1

Sector 2

Configuration Scheme
Cabinet Configuration Scheme-S222
B s b n fa e ae a dr m
F AN
P S U
B H P A B T R X B H P A

F AN
P S U
B H P A B T R X B H P A B T H R P M A

P S U
B T H R P M A

P S U
B H P A B T R X

P S U
B H P A B T H R P M A

• • • •

RD LU

RD LU

RD LU

CU CU CU CU CU CU D D D D D D /F /F D U D U /D U / F F D U / F /D U DU F

6HPA+6BTR M 3CDU/DDU 3RLDU PSU 2+1backup

B H P A

B T R X

B H P A

B T H R P M A

B H P A

B T R X

B H P A

B T H R P M A

B H P A

B T R X

B H P A

B T H R P M A

Product Performance (1)
• Abis interface – Use the IMA technique and support the E1 interface (16E1s) – Support the E1 mode in SDH – Support ATM over SDH (compatible interface) The traffic and control bus adopt CELLBUS. – Switching bus – AAL2 transports the traffic data and AAL5 transports the signaling data – Bus clock is 25MHz External interfaces include: – RS485 power monitoring interface – RS485 interface to support the environment monitoring – External time reference interfaces (RS485 and RS232) – 10MHz, PP2S interfaces used for instrument testing

Product Performance (2)
Built-in GPS and GLONASS receiver Built-in testing functions Perfect heat dissipation: upper and lower ducts

Product Performance (3)
Technical Features of Power Supply subrack • Input voltage: -48V • Output voltage: +25V ± 0.5V ~ +29V±0.5V • Power modules: 1800W each module 9000W in total • Power efficiency: 85% • Heat dissipation: upper and lower grid with fans • Hot swappable • Provides RS485 monitoring interfaces

Product Performance (4)
Technical Features of RF Module
•Modular architecture •Each cabinet supports 12 antennas and 6-sectors application •BTRM supports the digital intermediate frequency technology •BTRM offers the fiber interface to support remote RF module •BTRM supports receiving and transmitting diversities •Each sub-module fulfills the blind mate •Provides the power monitoring RS485 interface which is used for remote RF modules

Product Performance (5)
Technical Features of RF Module • RF front end adopts the CDU/DFU+RLDU mode • Each cabinet supports 6 sectors • Each sector supports the 4FA/2 antenna and space receiving diversity • Supports the transmitting diversity • HPA and BTRM modules with fans follows the combination structure with front and rear ducts • Front cabling makes installation and maintenance convenient

Product Performance (6)
Thermal Design of Integrated Equipment
•The dissipation power of the integrated equipment is about 7000W. •Thermal design of large power module. •Front/rear duct and independent duct. •The distribution structure is adopted to reduce the heat generation density at certain point. •Holes at both the front and rear doors for ventilation. •The small power modules adopt upper and lower ducts to reduce the number of cascades. •Automatic speed controller to regulate the fans speed.

Frequency bands
• 15 frequency bands allocated by FCC • 2 GHz-40 GHz i.e. higher than cellular systems i.e. millimeter wave frequencies

Freq (GHz) 2.15-2.162 2.4-2.483 2.596-2.644 2.65-2.656 2.662-2.668 2.674-2.68 5.725-5.875 24-24.25 24.25-25.25 27.5-28.35 29.1-29.25 31-31.075 31.075-31.225 31.225-31.3 38.6-40.0

Usage Licensed MDS and MMDS, two bands 6MHz each Unlicensed ISM Licensed MMDS, eight bands of 6MHz each Licensed MMDS Licensed MMDS Licensed MMDS Unlicensed ISM-UNII Unlicensed ISM Licensed Licensed LMDS (Block A) Licensed LMDS (Block A) Licensed LMDS (Block B) Licensed LMDS (Block A) Licensed LMDS (Block B) Licensed

Propagation considerations
• Millimeter wave range used is defined as frequencies above 10 GHz up to 300 GHz • Because:
– Availability of wide unused frequency bands above 25 GHz – Wide channel bandwidths available for high data rates at higher frequencies – Small size transceivers with adaptive antennas can be used

Disadvantages of millimeter range
• Free space loss increases with the square of frequency • Attenuation due to rainfall and atmospheric absorption is significant after 10 GHz • Multi-path losses are high because:

Because:
• Reflection occurs when an EM signal encounters a surface larger relative to the wavelength of the signal • Scattering occurs if the size of obstacle is of the order of the wavelength of the signal • Diffraction occurs if wave front encounters the edge of the obstacle that is large compared to wavelength

Fresnel zone
• Space around the direct path between transmitter and receiver that should be clear of obstacles • Basis:
– Any small element of space in the path of EM wave may be considered as the source of a secondary wavelet. Radiated field is build up by superposition of these wavelets

Fresnel zone (contd.)
• Objects lying within a series of concentric circles around the direct line of sight between two transceivers have constructive or destructive effects on communication • Objects falling in the first circle have the most negative effect

Fresnel zone (contd.)
R= √ λSD S+D

S=Distance from transmitter D=Distance from receiver λ=Wavelength of signal S,R and D are in same units

or

Rm =17.3 Skm Dkm √ fGHz (Skm +Dkm ) S and D are distances in Km, R is in meters f is in Giga Hertz

Attenuation due to Fresnel zone is negligible if : • Obstruction does not lie within 0.6 times the radius of first Fresnel zone

ATMOSPHERIC ABSORPTION
• • • • Molecular absorption significant above 10 GHz Peak of water vapor absorption at 22 GHz Oxygen absorption peak is at 60 GHz So, favorable window is in between 28-42 GHz with attenuation of the order of 0.13dB/km • Another favorable window is between 75 GHz95 GHz with attenuation of the order of 0.4dB/km

Effect of rain
• Rain severely degrades the performance of communication links • It out-weighs all other factors • Depends upon drop shape, size, rain rate and frequency
A=aRb R= rate of rain A=attenuation measured in dB/km a & b depend upon distribution of drop sizes and frequency

Temperature dependency of air absorption at 28 GHz
Relative humidity

00 100
Temp (0C)

0% 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01

50% 0.05 0.08 0.12 0.2 0.33

100% 0.08 0.14 0.25 0.44 0.79

200 300 400

Values of a and b for horizontal and vertically polarized EM waves
Freq(GHz)

ah
.0000387 0.000154 0.00175 0.0101 0.0751 0.187 0.350 0.536

av
.0000352 .000138 0.00155 0.00887 0.0691 0.167 0.310 0.479

bh
0.912 0.963 1.308 1.276 1.099 1.021 0.939 0.873

bv
0.880 0.923 1.265 1.264 1.065 1.000 0.929 0.868

1 2 6 10 20 30 40 50

Effect of vegitation
• Trees can cause multipath fading due to diffraction and scattering • Attenuation of:
– Regularly planted orchards is 12-20dB – Deciduous trees up to 40dBs – Conifer trees 1 to 3dBs
• If foliage lies within 60% of first fresnel zone

Presence of trees does not preclude communication,
• So methods like forward error correction should be employed

WLL SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES
1. ANALOG CELLULAR 2. DIGITAL CELLULAR 3. PERSONAL COMMUNCATIONS SERVICES / NETWORK (PCS/PCN) 4. DIGITAL CORDLESS SYSTEMS 5. PROPRIETARY IMPLEMENTATIONS

1. Analog Cellular
• Three of its system types operating in the world, AMPS and NAMPS with 69% of subscribers, while TACS has 23% and NMT has only 8%. • These systems use conventional FM on either 25 or 30 kHz channels in 800 or 900MHz mobile bands. Most recently AMPS operate in 1800-2000MHz band. • Best suited to serve low or medium density markets, with long range up to 70km, with fixed units having high gain antennas. • • Narrow band analog transmission results in low speed. Since the access method is FDMA, the subscriber unit cannot support more than one line per radio tranceiver. • Relatively low capacity in terms of number of channels.

AMPS Parameters
• Base Station Transmission band • Mobile unit transmission band • Spacing between forward and reverse channels • Channel bandwidth • Number of full duplex voice channels • Mobile unit maximum power • Cell size, radius • Modulation voice channel • Modulation, control channel • Data transmission rate • Error control coding
• • • • • • • • • • • 869 to 894 MHz 824 to 849 MHz 45 MHz 30 KHz 790 3 watts 2 to 20 Km FM, 12 KHz peak deviation FSK, 8 KHz peak deviation 10 Kbps BCH (48,36,5) and (40,28,5)

2. Digital Cellular
• • Major worldwide digital cellular standards include GSM, D-AMPS (American) & GSM/DCS (European), TDMA and CDMA. It is forecasted that approximately one-third of the installed WLL will use digital cellular technology in the year 2000. • • • • • Digital cellular can support higher capacity and better functionality than analog cellular and wireline networks. Digital cellular systems are encrypted and provide high speech security with no impact on quality. Both DAMPS and GSM use TDMA and support multiple lines from a single subscriber unit. Some of these systems has general confusion over industry standards. GSM currently dominates mobile cellular industry, but there has been little activity in using GSM as a WLL platform.

TDMA and Point to Multipoint Systems
• These System are relatively well suited for rural use, because they provides service coverage over a wide area. • TDMA standards are IS-54 and IS-136, triples the capacity of cellular frequencies, by dividing a 30 kHz cellular channel into 3 timeslots. • • • Proven and reliable technology. Designed to support subscribers in sparsely populated rural areas. A typical base station has 30 or 60 traffic channels and could support 256 to 1800 residential subscribers respectively. • Relatively long range (over 70km) but requires a line-of-sight path between RBS and all subscriber units.

Digital Cellular
GSM Year Introduced Access Method Base Station Transmission band Mobile Station Transmission band Spacing between forward and rev. Channel bandwidth Number of duplex channels Mobile unit maximum power Users per channel Modulation Carrier bit rate Speech coder Speech coding bit rate Frame size Error control coding 1990 TDMA 935 to 960 890 to 915 45 MHz 200 KHz 125 20 W 8 GMSK 270.8 Kbps RPE-LTP 13 Kbps 4.6 ms Conv 1/2 IS-136 1991 TDMA 869 to 894 824 to 849 45 MHz 30 KHz 832 3W 3 Pi/4 DQPSK 48.6 Kbps VSELP 8 Kbps 40 ms Conv 1/2 IS-95 1993 CDMA 869 to 894 824 to 849 45 MHz 1250 KHz 20 0.2 W 35 QPSK 9.6 Kbps QCELP 8,4,2,1 K 20 ms
Conv 1/2f,1/3r

CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)
• • • • • • • • CDMA is a "spread spectrum" technology, it spreads the information contained in a particular signal over a much greater bandwidth than the original signal. A CDMA call starts with a standard rate of 9.6kb/s. This is then spread to a transmitted rate of about 1.23 Mb/s. It offers 3-6 times more capacity than the other digital standards and 10-15 times greater than analog cellular. Improved spectral efficiency in a multi-cell environment - mainly due to interferer diversity. Flexible cell sizes and service provisions - for a given data rate, range is increased as traffic density is reduced. Speech delay can be minimized - fast power control tracks and minimize fading. Multi-path fading is reduced due to inherent frequency diversity, which is common in mountainous terrain and dense urban areas. CDMA-WLL based on new US cdma-One (IS-95) standard is presently used.

3. Personal Communications Services/ Network (PCS/PCN)
• PCS starts to operate in the 1800 MHz frequency band. PCS/PCN incorporates elements of digital cellular and cordless standards as well as newly developed RF protocols. Its purpose is to offer low-mobility wireless service using low-power antennas. The main weakness of PCS/PCN is that it is not yet commercially available. The candidate standards are CDMA, TDMA, GSM, personal access communication systems (PACS), Personal handyphone system (PHS), and digital cordless telephone United States (DCT-U). PHS technology and terminal equipment reduces the WLL system cost as it uses 32kb/s ADPCM voice coding system. PHS-WLL system is superior in terms of speech quality and economy for urban and suburban applications. It also offers extensibility to mobile service in the future.

• • •

• •

4. Digital Cordless Systems
• • CT2 (Cordless telephone 2nd generation) and DECT (Digital Enhanced / European cordless telephone systems are its types. CT2 provides the user with a single 32kb/s duplex channel, but it has not been universally adopted. DECT is a picocellular wireless system for very dense subscriber environments where demand per km is high and cell coverage area is not a critical requirement. DECT supports ISDN services and also comprehensive security provisions including authentication and encryption. The DECT radio interface is based on TDMA technology. It operates over 10 radio carriers in the 1880 to 1900 MHz band. • It uses dynamic channel selection, an automated frequency-planning mechanism, which provides least interference from neighboring cells.

DECT
• • •

Comparison of DECT and PWT
• • • • • • • • • • DECT 20 MHz bandwidth 1.88 to 1.9 GHz band TDD/TDMA/FDMA 1.728 MHZ carrier bandwidth 10 number of carriers 12 channels per carrier Number of channels,120 Transmitted data rate: 1.152Mbps Speech rate:32 Kbps
• • • • • • • • • PWT 20 MHz bandwidth 1.91 to 1.92GHz band TDD/TDMA/FDMA 1.25 MHz 8 12 120 1.152

• 32 Kbps

Comparison of DECT and PWT
• Speech coding: ADPCM • Modulation: Gaussian FSK • Peak output power: 250 mW • Maximum cell radius: 30 to 100 meters • ADPCM • Pi/4 DQPSK • 90 mW • 30 to 100 meters

DECT
• • • • • • System has frequency reuse limitations, so the maximum number of voice channels available for a single cell site in a multi-cell environment is 60. DECT system transmits at low power using low antenna heights. DECT does not appear to be ideally suited for long range rural or low-density applications. Its normal range is 3-5 Km with a capacity up to 100,000 subscribers per km2. As compared to cellular technology, DECT is capable of carrying higher levels of traffic and data. The micro-cell architecture of DECT allows it to be deployed in smaller increments that more closely match the subscriber demand, with reduced initial capital requirements.

5. Proprietary Implementations
• These systems are considered proprietary because they are not available on public wireless networks and are typically customized for a specific application. • They generally do not provide mobility, and are most effective in terms of time and cost. • Proprietary systems like broadband CDMA and fixed radio access are designed from vendors like Interdigital, Ionica and NORTEL. Equipment providers include corporate giants such as Motorola, Ericsson, Lucent, Siemens, NEC, Qualcomm and Hughes Network Systems as well as many other smaller companies

OFDM
• • • • Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing Also called Multi carrier modulation Sending some of the bits on each channel All sub channels are dedicated to a single data source

Suppose we have:
• Data stream operating at R bps • Available bandwidth is N∆f centered at f0 • Entire bandwidth used to send data stream for which each bit duration is 1/R • Alternatively split the data stream to N sub-streams using serial to parallel converter • Each sub-stream has a data rate of R/N bps transmitted on a separate carrier • Spacing between individual sub-carriers is ∆f • Now the bit duration is N/R

Advantages of OFDM:
• Frequency selective fading only affects a few channels and not the whole signal so it can be easily handled by forward error correction techniques • OFDM can handle Inter-symbol interference in multipath environment
– ISI is more effective at higher bit rates as the distance between the bits is smaller – OFDM reduces the data rate by a factor of N thus symbol period increases by the factor N so effect of ISI is reduced – So equalizers do not remain essential

Modulation scheme for OFDM

• QPSK
– There are two bits representing one symbol

MMDS
• Multichannel multipoint Distribution service • Occupies 6 MHz made up of 512 individual carriers with carrier saparation of 12 kHz • Data transmitted in bursts • Cyclic prefix attached to each burst to reduce transients from previous bursts caused by multipath

MMDS (contd.)
• 64 symbols constitute cyclic prefix • Followed by 512 QPSK symbols per burst • So on each sub-channel, QPSK symbols are separated by a prefix of duration 64/512 symbol times • By the time prefix is over, the resulting waveform is independent of the previous burst • So ISI is nil

MMDS contd.
• Frequency range 2.15 GHz to 2.68 GHz
– 2.15-2.162 and 2.4-2.4835 GHz bands called Multipoint distribution service for 6MHz TV broadcast. – In 1996 FCC increased the allocation up to 2.68 GHz for MMDS – MMDS is used to provide TV service where broadcast TV or cable can not reach in rural areas – So, MMDS is also called wireless cable

MMDS contd.
• Range: 50km • MMDS also used for two-way broad band data services and Internet access

Disadvantages of MMDS
• Lesser bandwidth than LMDS • Data rates:
– 27 Mbps for up-stream per channel – 300kbps to 3 Mbps individual subscriber rates

Used by residential or small business customers

Advantages of MMDS over LMDS
• Larger wavelengths i.e.10cm or more, so travel farther, so larger cells • Less expensive equipment than LMDS • Signals more susceptible to rain absorption • Signals do not get easily blocked by objects

LMDS
• Local Multipoint Distribution service • TV and two way broadband communication • Millimeter frequencies • At 30 GHz in USA and 40 GHz in Europe

Advantages of LMDS
• High data rates i.e. in Mbps • Capability of video, telephony and data • Lower cost than cable alternatives

Disadvantage

• SHORT RANGE

Antenna coverage
• 600 to 900 coverage sector so 4 to 6 antennas required for full coverage • Typical radius of 2 to 4 km • Per customer data rates:
– 1 Mbps upstream – 36 Mbps down stream

• Buildings, trees and foliage affect the communication too much so overlapping cells or the use of repeaters and reflectors is required

FIXED WIRELESS BROADBAND ACCESS
• STANDARD

– IEEE 802.16
• Working group developed in 1999

CHARTER OF IEEE 802.16
• Use of microwave or millimeter wave radio for wireless links • Use of licensed spectrum • Standards of metropolitan scale • Provide public network service to fee paying customers • Point to multipoint architecture for roof top or tower mounted antennas • Efficient transport of heterogeneous traffic with QoS • Broad band capability i.e. >2 Mbps

IEEE 802.16 working groups
• IEEE 802.16.1:
• Air Interface for 10 to 66 GHz

• IEEE 802.16.2:
• Co-existance of Broadband wireless access systems

• IEEE 802.16.3:
• Air Interface for licensed frequencies 2 GHz to 11 GHz