WIRELESS LOCAL LOOP27mar04 | Code Division Multiple Access | Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

WIRELESS LOCAL LOOP

AN OVERVIEW Mian Ahmed Yaser
DE (Computer & Data Services)

Definition
• WLL is a system that connects the subscribers to the PSTN using radio system as a substitute for the copper for all or part of the connection between subscriber and switch.

Wireless local loop
• Replaces:
– Traditional twisted pair

• Also called:
– Fixed wireless access

WLL alternatives
• Narrowband
– Replaces existing telephony services

• Broadband
– Provides high speed two way voice and data

WHY WLL?
• • • • • • Congested urban areas Far flung rural areas Fast installation Less maintenance Easy operation Less establishment problems

Role of WLL
• WLL services one or two cells • A cell has a base station antenna installed on the top of a tall building or a tower • Customers’ antennas are installed atop their houses or separate poles such that there is an unobstructed line of sight with the base station • Base station is linked to the switching center wirelessly or wired • An ISP is linked to the switch using a high speed link

Advantages of WLL
1. Cost of installation and maintenance of WLL is lower than cable network 2. Installation time is less in case of WLL 3. Selective installation: Installation for those who require connection at a certain time 4. Quality of wireless technologies have improved to nearly equal the contemporary wired options which do face problems like longer distances in xDSL and lack of infrastructure, so WLL offers tough competition 5. Cellular systems are too expensive with lesser signal quality than fixed broadband wireless which uses directional antennas

SPECIFICATIONS FROM PTCL
• Technologies and Standards Wing PTCL HQ • No. T&S / TR-133B/03 • CDMA 2000 1x based on
– TIA/EIA/IS-2000 standard – 3GPP2 standard – ITU-RM 1457 standard

Requirements of Specifications
• To Provide
– Toll Quality Voice service – Wireless Pay Phone – Internet access – Maximum rate of 144 Kbps and at least 30 Kbps packet mode data – 14.4 Kbps of voice band data in circuit mode

Main Parts of the system
• • • • MSC- Main Switching Center BSC- Base Station Controller BTS- Base Transceiver Station FWT (Fixed Wireless Terminal) or Mobile terminal

Frequency Spectrum
• Rural Areas
– 450 MHz band i.e.
– 1-3 RF carriers

• 452.5-457.475 MHz :Uplink • 462.5-467.475 MHz :Downlink

1.25 MHz each

• Urban Areas

– 1900 MHz band (If available) i.e.
• 1890-1895 MHz : Uplink • 1970- 1975 MHz: Downlink
– 1-4 RF carriers 1.25 MHz each

Standards
• Air Interface Standard
– TIA/EIA/IS-2000

• Frame st. standard
– TIA/EIA/IS-2000

Compatibility
• Backward Compatibility
– IS-95

• Forward Compatibility
– CDMA 2000 1x EV DO
• 2.4 Mbps Multimedia

Vocoders
• • • • Codec (EVRC) (EIA/TIA ISO 127-2) 3GPP2 standard CS0014-0-2 13.4 Kbps QCELP (IS-733) vocoder SMV (Selective Multirate Vocoders)
– Dynamic allocation of Vocoders required – Should also be software configurable

Duplexing method

FDD/TDD Frequency division duplex/Time division duplex

Traffic Capacity of system
• In Erlangs/sector/MHz for 1% GOS with 98% active voice calls and 2% active data calls at 144 Kbps to be specified by the vendor:

Traffic Capacity of a BSC
• Capacity of BSC for an average traffic of 0.05 Er./Subscriber and 1%GOS. BHCA/sub shall be 4.

Capacity of Base Station
• Minimum 110 Erlang /FA / 3 sectors assuming all Remote Stations are FWTs using voice only.

Coverage Radius of BTS

• 20 to 25 Km, extendable to double this value

BTS sensitivity

-125 dBm

BSC
• The BSC should adopt ATM or IP platform. • Switching capability of BSC is in Gbps

Power Supply
• To BTS, BSC and MSC is -48 V (-44 V - -56.4 V)

Requirements from FWT
• • • • • Voice supporting RJ-11 Interface Group 3 fax at RJ-11 Interface Voice band data upto 14.4.kbps in circuit mode 144 kbps data in packet mode Subscriber’s Call Charge Meter (Home Meter)

Requirements from Handheld terminal
• Voice • Voice band data upto 14.4.kbps in circuit mode • 144 kbps data in packet mode • Extended antenna support • SMS • Address book

Generic Model of CDMA 2000 1x WLL
Packet Switched Core Network (PCN)
OMC-P NMC OMC-S

AAA

PDSN

IWF L

A10/A11 Um RS BTS Abis BSC

HLR

A1/A2

MSC

OMC-R

Core Network (CN)

Radio Network (RN)

WLL solution by Huawei

BSC Capabilty
• ATM broadband packet platform with switching capacity of 25Gbps • Convenient to upgrade to 1x EV only by upgrading the software of BSS and adding 1x EV channel board to BTS;

Evolution to EV-DO
• Patent radio resource management algorithm • Variable step length power control technique to improve receiving sensitivity and fulfill the performance requirements for future evolution to EV-DO

CDMA 2000 1x and EV-DO mixed Networking

CDMA IS-95 Standard
• • • • • • • • • Introduced in: Access Method: Uplink band: Downlink band: Forward rev. spacing: Channel Bandwidth: No. of duplex channels: Max. power of mobile: Users per channel: 1993 CDMA 869 to 894 MHz 824 to 849 MHz 45 MHz 1250 MHz 20 0.2 Watts 35

CDMA IS-95 Standard (Contd.)
• • • • • • Modulation: QPSK Carrier bit rate: 9.6 Kbps Speech coder: QCELP Speech coding bit rate: 8,4,2,1 Kbps Frame size : 20 m sec Error control coding: Convolutional1/2 rate forward; 1/3 rate reverse

Example IS-95

Lucent Airloop System

System Elements
.
LE WLT
CATU CTRU STRU

NIU
ITS

OMC

System Boundary
WLT: CATU: CTRU: Wireless Line Transceiver Central Access and Transcoding Unit Central TRansceiver Unit OMC: NIU: STRU: ITS: Network Interface Unit Subscriber TRansceiver Unit Intelligent Telephone Socket

Operations & Maintenance Centre

System elements
• Wireless Line Transceiver (WLT) .
Air Interface • Provides the interface to the local exchange (E1 links) non-concentrating • Provides connection to subscribers over air interface • Provides connection to OA&M facilities

WLT
E1 Links (Trunks)

OMC

Local Exchange

Wireless line transceiver
• .
The WLT comprises two sub-elements
Local Exchange
Up to 16 E1 Links

• Central Access and Transcoding Unit (CATU)
– Interface to the local exchange

CATU
Copper, fibre or microwave E1 link concentrating

• Central TRansceiver Unit (CTRU)
– Access to the Air Interface

CTRU

• .

Network Interface Unit (NIU)
• Provides the Subscriber interface to the telephone network over the Air Interface • Provides the interface to subscriber terminal equipment (telephones, faxes, modems, etc.)

NIU Air Interface

WLT
E1 Links

Local Exchange

.
The NIU comprises of two sub-elements
• Subscriber TRansceiver Unit
– Interfaces to the WLT via the Air Interface.

STRU

– Intelligent Telephone Socket
–Subscriber equipment interface

ITS

System elements
• .
Operations and Maintenance Centre (OMC)

• Provides all the management functions necessary to maintain the system

OMC
• The OMC LAN connects to AirLoop® via the CATU • The OMC provides OA&M functionality for up to 250 WLTs

CTRU

CATU
Up to 16 E1 Links

Local Exchange

System interfaces
LE

A

CATU

B

CTRU

C

STRU

F
OMC

G
LMT

D
ITS

E

System Deployment
OMC
4x2Mbps E1

PSTN

NIU
STRU ITS

Exchange

CTRU

Fixed Access System

4x2Mbps E1

CATU

System Features
• Wired-Equivalent Service • High Data Rate, 144kbps for ISDN , and 512 kbps and above for packet data • High-End Calling Services • Clear Connections, ensured by CDMA • Signal Security • Modular and easy to expand • Easy to use Graphical User Interface (GUI) for the Operation and Maintenance Center

System Services
• Analogue Services
– POTS – Voice band data up to 28.8 Kbps – Emergency calls – Supplementary services supported by hook-flash and DTMF

• Digital Services
– – – – EURO ISDN Circuit Mode CLIP CLIR

‘A Interface’ and Central Access & Transcoding Unit

LE

A

CATU

B

CTRU

C

STRU

F
OMC

G
LMT

D
ITS

E

Local Exchange
Standard Switch Interconnection Providing: Up to 16 E1 links to each CATU Transparency for all services offered by the Local Exchange All switching is carried out at Local Exchange
LE
CATU

WLT
CTRU STRU

NIU
ITS

OMC

The ‘A’ Interface
• • • • • Connects the CATU to the Local Exchange Supports CAS, V5.1, V5.2r1 & Q931 Protocols Subscriber concentration possible using V5.2 Subscriber capacity varies depending on which protocol is used V5.2r1 or V5.1* is Lucent proprietary

LE
CATU

WLT
CTRU STRU

NIU
ITS

OMC

CATU
19” or ETSI Rack Accepts - 48V DC Indoor Environment: -25°C to +55C ° Safety & EMC to European standards
LE WLT NIU

CATU

CTRU

STRU

ITS

OMC

CATU - Interfaces
• A The Central Access & Transcoding Unit Provides LE A CATU Router
WAN/LAN

B

CTRU

The Local Exchange Interface

The CTRU Interface

Router F
The OMC Interface

OMC

CATU - Hardware
LE WLT
CATU CTRU STRU

NIU
ITS

OMC

4 3 2 1

The rack houses the following:• Up to 4 VME Card Shelves (VCS) • Power and Alarm Distribution Shelf • Auxiliary Shelf

• SIC

• PSU • CPC

• HDU

• LIC - 1 to 5 • ARCC

CATU Shelf Comprises:-

CATU - Circuit Pack Layout

1/2
Power Supply Unit Control Processor Card Hard Disk Unit

• ETEC - 1 to 8

• CAS (optional)

3 4-6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
ETEC ETEC ETEC ETEC ETEC ETEC ETEC Line Interface Card Line Interface Card Line Interface Card Line Interface Card Line Interface Card

Fan 1 Module
OMC

LE
CATU

WLT

Cable Duct
Channel Associated Signaling Card Fan 2 Module

CTRU STRU

NIU
ITS

Alarm & Radio Control Card Signalling Interface Card

CATU - Card Architecture
Central

F
Interface (WAN/LAN)

Processing Card

Hard Disk Unit

Alarm and Radio Control

F
Interface (WAN/LAN)

Card

External Alarms

Control Bus

A
Interface (E1 Links)

Line Interface Card

Enhanced Transcoding and Encryption Card

Signalling Interface Card

Channel Associated Signalling Card

Line Interface B Card Interface
(E1 Link)

Traffic and Timing Bus

Summary
LE WLT NIU
CATU CTRU STRU ITS

OMC

• • • • •

Provides Interface to Local Exchange (A) Supports CAS, V5.1, V5.2r1 & Q931 Protocols Supports up to 16 x E1 Links Provides an Interface to the CTRU (B) Provides an Interface to the OMC (F)

• B Interface and Central TRansceiver Unit

System Interfaces
LE

A

CATU

B

CTRU

C

STRU

F
OMC

G
LMT

D
ITS

E

B Interface
• • • • • Proprietary Interface 1 x E1 Link 128 x 16 kbps channels 13 channels reserved for system use 115 channels available to support subscriber traffic
LE WLT NIU

CATU

CTRU

STRU

ITS

OMC

B Interface - E1 Structure
16kb = 1 Time Slot Channel 128 TSCs / E1

64Kb

= 1 Timeslot

32 Timeslots / E1

13 TSCs Reserved for System Use 115 TSCs Available for User Traffic

System Capacity
• • • • • • • • • • • Single Transceiver Traffic/Subscriber 0.2E 0.1E Blocking/GoS 0.1% 1.0% Coding Bandwidth Circuits Subs LD-CELP 16kbps 115 443 ADPCM 32kbps 57 191 A-Law 64kbps 28 76 ISDN (B+D) 80kbps 23 58 ISDN (2B+D) 144kbps 12 21 0.1E 2.0% Subs Subs 982* 1025* 442 468 186 201 145 158 59 66

• Systems supporting more than 480 subs/ transceiver need V5.2 or V5.1*

CTRU - Features
Central TRansceiver Unit Outdoor Environment: -45° to +55°C 19” or ETSI rack, req’s 90V-264V AC @ 50/60Hz Safety & EMC to European Standards Floor, wall, or pole mounted
LE
CATU

WLT
CTRU STRU

NIU
ITS

OMC

CTRU - Function
The CTRU provides the following functionality:• • • • • Terminates the B interface from the CATU Provides the Air Interface “Base Station” Demodulation of all reverse link bearers Allows use of the Local Maintenance Terminal
LE WLT NIU

CATU

CTRU

STRU

ITS

OMC

CTRU - Hardware
LE WLT
CATU CTRU STRU

NIU
ITS

OMC

CTRU Outdoor cabinet comprises:• VME Shelf • CTRU Radio • Optional E1 radio • Power & Alarm distribution shelf

• LIC • CPC
CTRU Shelf comprises:-

• SMC

• CMC

Power Supply Unit

• DMC (up to 8) • PSU ( 90-264vAC)

• ARCC
1-4
Control Processor Card Blank VME Faceplate Blank VME Faceplate Demodulator Card Demodulator Card Demodulator Card Demodulator Card Sampling & Measurement Card Common Modulator Card Demodulator Card Demodulator Card Demodulator Card Demodulator Card Blank VME Faceplate Blank VME Faceplate Line Interface Card Alarm & Radio Control Card
STRU CATU OMC

Fan 1 Module

CTRU - Circuit Pack Layout

5 6/7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

LE WLT
CTRU

Cable Duct
Fan 2 Module

NIU
ITS

CTRU - Card Architecture
Local Maintenance Terminal G Central Processing Card External Alarm

Control Bus

B

Line Interface Card

Demodulator Card

Common Modulator Card

Sampling & Measurement Card

Alarm & Radio Control Card

Traffic and Timing Bus Radio Module

C

Summary
Proprietary B Interface (1 x E1 ) 128 x 16 kbps time-slot channels CTRU = Outdoor cabinet Supports - Air, B and G interfaces Provides demodulation for all reverse link bearers • Allows use of the Local Maintenance Terminal • • • • •

AirLoop→ System

The Air Interface
The C Interface

Air Interface Objectives Air Interface Objectives

Describe:
 An introduction to CDMA  The function of the Air Interface  The Air Interface protocol

AirLoop : System Interfaces
®
LE

A

CATU

B

CTRU

C

STRU

F
OMC

G
LMT

D
ITS

E

Multiple Access Techniques
LE WLT
CATU CTRU STRU

NIU
ITS

OMC

Time

Time

Time

Frequency

Frequency

Frequency

FDMA
Broadcast Early cellular (TACS)

TDMA
Digital cellular (GSM)

CDMA
Latest cellular (IS-95) AirLoop®

C

od e

Why CDMA ?
• Flexible
– ability to support multiple basic rate users: (16, 32, 64Kbps)

• High performance
– Inherent resistance to narrow-band interference & fading

• High Security
– Spreading PN code, with Random Assignment – Proprietary Interface

• Low Frequency Re-use
– N=2

• Range/Capacity Tradeoff
– Larger Cells In Low Capacity Areas

The Air Interface
• Wideband CDMA
– 4096 kchips, 5MHz bandwidth – Inherent resistance to narrowband fading & RF interference – Power control in simple 2dB steps – Error correction using advanced algorithm

• 2 Frequency Bands • Physical
– Base station: – Subscribers:

1.9 GHz - 3.4 GHz

90° sectors narrow beam antenna

• Designed after UK propagation trial
– Urban, sub-urban & rural environments

CDMA Technology - Transmit
Source and Channel Coding Digital Signal (Bits) Multiplier X Frequency Spectrum f Code Bits (Chips) Code Generator “Spread” Frequency f Spectrum RF Modulator

• Information signal is multiplied by a unique, high rate digital code which spreads its bandwidth before transmission. Code bits are called “Chips”. • At the base station, many signals can be combined in one radio transmitter, since all users have same frequency channel.

CDMA Technology - Receive
Correlator RF Demodulator “Spread” Frequency f Spectrum Code Bits (Chips) Code Generator X Digital Signal (Bits) Channel and De-Spread Source Decoding Signal f

• •

At the receiver, the spread signal is correlated again by a synchronised replica of the same code, and is “de-spread” and recovered Even if multiple users share the channel, the signal can be recovered since the other codes are different:
G

Other Users

{

Recovered Signal G = processing gain = number of chips per information bit f

DS-CDMA (Spread Spectrum)
• Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access
Transmitter Receiver
16kbps data multiplied by 1 of 128 wideband spreading codes gives low power, wide band RF signal multiply the received signal with the same, synchronised, spreading code 16kbps data and spreads other signals & interference

CDMA
LE WLT
CATU CTRU STRU

NIU
ITS

OMC

• AirLoop DS-CDMA uses:
– Rademacher-Walsch code to differentiate between the 128 bearers – Pseudo-noise (PN) to differentiate between WLTs

CDMA
LE
OMC

WLT
CATU CTRU STRU

NIU
ITS

128 x 16kbps channels (bearers) • 115 available for user traffic
• centrally configured 115 circuits 57 circuits 28 circuits 23 circuits

aggregated to give required subscriber capacity hard channel limit ensures low Bit Error Rates (BERs)

982 lines POTS 442 lines POTS 186 lines POTS 145 ports

LD-CELP ADPCM PCM

@ 16kbps @ 32kbps @ 64kbps

ISDN B+D @ 80kbps

(1% blocking, 0.1Erlang/ line)

CDMA: AirLoop® and IS-95
AirLoop Fixed Access No 5MHz 115 x 16kbps 10-6 16-144kbps
target services mobility RF bandwidth traffic channels BER data bandwidth

IS-95 Mobile Yes 1.25MHz soft limit 10-3 8-13kbps

RF Frequency Band • 2 RF Frequencies in Development
• 5 MHz Forward & Reverse inks • ETSI TM4 Wireless Access Bandplan
Frequency Transmit 3.4 GHz 34525-34975 Duplex 100 Receive 35525-35975 RF Channels 10

Reverse Link

Guard Band 50MHz

Forward Link

3.400GHz

3.450GHz

3.500GHz

3.550GHz

• Other Frequencies
Frequency Transmit Duplex 1.9 GHz 18525-19075 80 Receive RF Channels 19325-19875 12

Frequency Re-Use
• Base assumption:
2 x 5MHz up link 2 x 5MHz down link 4 x 90° sectors 1 WLT/ sector

f2 f1

f1

f2

•Additional spectrum
lower cell count
within area coverage constraints

higher final capacity/ cell lower initial cost simplifies backhaul 1 WLT/ sector/ frequency

Bit Error Rate Effects
Range and Capacity versus BER 9 8.5 8 7.5 Range 7 6.5 6 5.5 5 4.5 4 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Number of Bearers 90 100 110 120 1 E-6 BER 1 E-5 BER 1 E-3 BER 1 E-4 BER

• • • •

Square or Hexagonal Grid 4 x 90º 1 WLT/sector 4 WLTS/cell
– or n x 4 depending on frequency allocations rural suburban urban 5.2 3.4 2.1 km km km

Cell Patterns

•Cell radius

Based on: 95% coverage, 10-6 BER, L-o-S not mandatory, ‘typical’ environment.

Full RF planning should ALWAYS be used to define actual coverage in required areas.

Summary
• • • • • DS-CDMA Proprietary Interface Rademacher-Walsch codes Pseudo Noise codes Available in 2 frequency bands

AirLoop System

The Subscriber Interface

The Network Interface Unit

NIU Objectives
Describe: The function of the ‘D’ and ‘E’ Interface  The function of the Subscriber Transceiver Unit  The function of the Intelligent Telephone Socket

AirLoop : System Interfaces
®
LE

A

CATU

B

CTRU

C

STRU

F
OMC

G
LMT

D
ITS

E

NIU
LE WLT
CATU CTRU STRU

NIU
ITS

The Network Interface Unit consists of 2 Sub-assemblies

OMC

The Subscriber TRansceiver Unit (STRU)

and
The Intelligent Telephone Socket (ITS)

STRU - Features
LE WLT
CATU CTRU STRU

NIU
ITS

Subscriber TRansceiver Unit

OMC

– Outdoor Unit (environment: -45 to +55C) – Wall, or pole mounted

Houses:
– Integrated flatplate antenna – Modem – Transceiver – Interface to the ITS - ‘D’ Interface

STRU - Function

• The function of the STRU
– is to receive and transmit signals at the subscriber’s premises
LE WLT
CATU CTRU STRU

NIU
ITS

OMC

STRU - Modes of Operation
The STRU has 2 modes of operation;

Idle Mode & Call Mode
LE WLT NIU
CATU CTRU STRU ITS

OMC

STRU - Modes of Operation
LE
CATU

WLT
CTRU STRU

NIU
ITS

• Idle Mode

OMC

– the STRU enters idle mode when no calls are being handled. Whilst in this state, the STRU constantly monitors channels to determine if action is required

• Call Mode
– the STRU will enter call mode when calls are being processed

ITS Features
LE WLT
CATU CTRU STRU

NIU
ITS

Intelligent Telephone Socket:

OMC

– Requires 90-264V @ 50/60Hz – Offers battery backup 2hrs Standby/1hr Talk Time (optional unit provides 8hrs standby) – Provides STRU with 54Vdc – Has smartcard facility – Can be Wall or Table Mounted – Offers LED Control/Status Indication

ITS - Function
LE WLT
CATU CTRU STRU

NIU
ITS

• The function of the ITS
– is to provide the subscriber with either analogue or ISDN access to the local exchange via the STRU, Air Interface and the WLT

OMC

ITS - Status Indications
The ITS has 3 Status LED’s ;

ITS - Modes of Operation
The ITS has 3 modes of operation; Installation Mode Minimum Configuration Mode Fully Operational Mode
LE WLT
CATU CTRU STRU

NIU
ITS

OMC

ITS - Modes of Operation
LE WLT
CATU CTRU STRU

NIU
ITS

OMC

• Installation Mode
– is entered when the ITS is powered up during installation. After successful installation the ITS goes into fully operational mode

ITS - Modes of Operation
LE WLT
CATU CTRU STRU

NIU
ITS

OMC

• Minimum Configuration Mode
– is entered if during installation an error is detected or if a major alarm is reported during normal operation.

During this mode no call processing takes place.

ITS - Modes of Operation
LE WLT
CATU CTRU STRU

NIU
ITS

OMC

• Fully Operational Mode
– in this mode the ITS is fully functional, performing maintenance tasks and call processing

Other Features
LE WLT
CATU CTRU STRU

NIU
ITS

The ITS Also Provides;
– – – – –

OMC

2 x POTS Subscriber Lines (RJ11) 1 x ISDN BRA Interface (RJ45) 8 POTS Subscriber Lines (R3) Group 3 Fax Capability 28.8Kbps Modem Capability

Security
LE WLT
CATU CTRU STRU

NIU
ITS

• Subscriber authentication
– Cell & WLT sector – Range (± 40m) – NIU i/d

OMC

• Air interface traffic protection
– CDMA inherently difficult to intercept

Smartcard
LE WLT
CATU CTRU STRU

NIU
ITS

OMC

Engineers Smartcard
• Contains the following information
– NIU i/d - assigned to the smartcard – PN Code Index – Frequency Band Channel

NIU Summary
STRU
• Integrated flatplate antenna • Modem • Transceiver • ‘D’ Interface to the ITS • Wall or Pole Mounted

ITS
• ‘E’ Interface - 2 x POTS or
• • • • 1 x ISDN BRA LED Control/Status Indication Modem and Fax Capability Smartcard Facility Battery Back-Up

AirLoop® System

Operations and Maintenance
Centre & Local Maintenance Terminal

OMC and LMT Objectives
 Identify the Main OMC Applications  Describe the functions achieved by the software applications on the OMC  Describe the function of the LMT

AirLoop : System Interfaces
®
LE

A

CATU

B

CTRU

C

STRU

F
OMC

G
LMT

D
ITS

E

AirLoop System

The Operations, Administration and Maintenance of the AirLoop System is performed primarily at the

Operations and Maintenance Centre using the ‘F’ Interface

OMC
There are 2 Main Applications at the OMC
Service Provisioning

Network Management & Alarm Monitoring

OMC
LE WLT
CATU CTRU STRU

NIU
ITS

OMC

The Operations & Maintenance Centre provides:-

– – – – –

Configuration of Equipment and Software Subscriber Service Provisioning Alarm Monitoring Security Management Performance Monitoring

OMC Software Platform
• UNIX (HP-UX) • HP - Common Desktop Environment • ObjectStore • OpenView (SNMP) • Network Node Managers • MIB (Managed Information Base)

OMC
LE WLT
CATU CTRU STRU

NIU
ITS

• Service Provisioning Allows the user to:-

OMC

– Create, Modify or Delete a service group – Create, Modify or Delete subscribers – Create, View or Delete E1 links on ‘B’ Interface • Network Management and Alarm Monitoring enables the user to: – Develop and maintain the AirLoop System Access Network using a Graphical User Interface

OMC Network Architecture
The server can either be a workstation or a full size business server. The OMC server holds the database used by the applications software, and supports multiple users using XTerminals. The user interfaces connect via a hub to the Main OMC Server, the number of which depends on the Network Operator’s requirements of the AirLoop System.

Network Size
• Depends on the customer’s requirements and the size of the AirLoop System Network to be managed

The Network is scaleable
• The OMC can provide OA&M facilities for up to 250 WLT’s, each supporting up to 480 subscribers

Local Maintenance Terminal
• Portable PC that connects directly into the CTRU via an RS232 interface.
7

LE

WLT
CATU CTRU STRU

NIU
ITS

‘G’ Interface

LMT

• Provides on-site diagnostics and maintenance functions for the CTRU

LMT
• The LMT software is held within the CTRU • Activity on the RS232 port activates a local maintenance process • The LMT provides 2 levels of Functionality • Password Protection allowing:– View only – View and Configure
LE WLT
CATU CTRU STRU

NIU
ITS

LMT

LMT
The Top Level Menu provides options to:– Configure Equipment – Data Menu – Display Alarms – CTRU Board Config – Commit Changes – Connect to CATU – Enable ‘Pilot only’

7

LE

WLT
CATU CTRU STRU

NIU

ITS

LMT

Summary
• OMC:– Service Provisioning
– Network Management & Alarm Monitoring – Performance Monitoring

• LMT:– On-site diagnostics and maintenance functions for the CTRU

Frequency bands
• 15 frequency bands allocated by FCC • 2 GHz-40 GHz i.e. higher than cellular systems i.e. millimeter wave frequencies

Freq (GHz) 2.15-2.162 2.4-2.483 2.596-2.644 2.65-2.656 2.662-2.668 2.674-2.68 5.725-5.875 24-24.25 24.25-25.25 27.5-28.35 29.1-29.25 31-31.075 31.075-31.225 31.225-31.3 38.6-40.0

Usage Licensed MDS and MMDS, two bands 6MHz each Unlicensed ISM Licensed MMDS, eight bands of 6MHz each Licensed MMDS Licensed MMDS Licensed MMDS Unlicensed ISM-UNII Unlicensed ISM Licensed Licensed LMDS (Block A) Licensed LMDS (Block A) Licensed LMDS (Block B) Licensed LMDS (Block A) Licensed LMDS (Block B) Licensed

Propagation considerations
• Millimeter wave range used is defined as frequencies above 10 GHz up to 300 GHz • Because:
– Availability of wide unused frequency bands above 25 GHz – Wide channel bandwidths available for high data rates at higher frequencies – Small size transceivers with adaptive antennas can be used

Disadvantages of millimeter range
• Free space loss increases with the square of frequency • Attenuation due to rainfall and atmospheric absorption is significant after 10 GHz • Multi-path losses are high because:

Because:
• Reflection occurs when an EM signal encounters a surface larger relative to the wavelength of the signal • Scattering occurs if the size of obstacle is of the order of the wavelength of the signal • Diffraction occurs if wave front encounters the edge of the obstacle that is large compared to wavelength

Fresnel zone
• Space around the direct path between transmitter and receiver that should be clear of obstacles • Basis:
– Any small element of space in the path of EM wave may be considered as the source of a secondary wavelet. Radiated field is build up by superposition of these wavelets

Fresnel zone (contd.)
• Objects lying within a series of concentric circles around the direct line of sight between two transceivers have constructive or destructive effects on communication • Objects falling in the first circle have the most negative effect

Fresnel zone (contd.)
R= √ λSD S+D

S=Distance from transmitter D=Distance from receiver λ=Wavelength of signal S,R and D are in same units

or

Rm =17.3 Skm Dkm √ fGHz (Skm +Dkm ) S and D are distances in Km, R is in meters f is in Giga Hertz

Attenuation due to Fresnel zone is negligible if : • Obstruction does not lie within 0.6 times the radius of first Fresnel zone

ATMOSPHERIC ABSORPTION
• • • • Molecular absorption significant above 10 GHz Peak of water vapor absorption at 22 GHz Oxygen absorption peak is at 60 GHz So, favorable window is in between 28-42 GHz with attenuation of the order of 0.13dB/km • Another favorable window is between 75 GHz95 GHz with attenuation of the order of 0.4dB/km

Effect of rain
• Rain severely degrades the performance of communication links • It out-weighs all other factors • Depends upon drop shape, size, rain rate and frequency
A=aRb R= rate of rain A=attenuation measured in dB/km a & b depend upon distribution of drop sizes and frequency

Temperature dependency of air absorption at 28 GHz
Relative humidity

00 100
Temp (0C)

0% 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01

50% 0.05 0.08 0.12 0.2 0.33

100% 0.08 0.14 0.25 0.44 0.79

200 300 400

Values of a and b for horizontal and vertically polarized EM waves
Freq(GHz)

ah
.0000387 0.000154 0.00175 0.0101 0.0751 0.187 0.350 0.536

av
.0000352 .000138 0.00155 0.00887 0.0691 0.167 0.310 0.479

bh
0.912 0.963 1.308 1.276 1.099 1.021 0.939 0.873

bv
0.880 0.923 1.265 1.264 1.065 1.000 0.929 0.868

1 2 6 10 20 30 40 50

Effect of vegitation
• Trees can cause multipath fading due to diffraction and scattering • Attenuation of:
– Regularly planted orchards is 12-20dB – Deciduous trees up to 40dBs – Conifer trees 1 to 3dBs
• If foliage lies within 60% of first fresnel zone

Presence of trees does not preclude communication,
• So methods like forward error correction should be employed

WLL SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES
1. ANALOG CELLULAR 2. DIGITAL CELLULAR 3. PERSONAL COMMUNCATIONS SERVICES / NETWORK (PCS/PCN) 4. DIGITAL CORDLESS SYSTEMS 5. PROPRIETARY IMPLEMENTATIONS

1. Analog Cellular
• Three of its system types operating in the world, AMPS and NAMPS with 69% of subscribers, while TACS has 23% and NMT has only 8%. • These systems use conventional FM on either 25 or 30 kHz channels in 800 or 900MHz mobile bands. Most recently AMPS operate in 1800-2000MHz band. • Best suited to serve low or medium density markets, with long range up to 70km, with fixed units having high gain antennas. • • Narrow band analog transmission results in low speed. Since the access method is FDMA, the subscriber unit cannot support more than one line per radio tranceiver. • Relatively low capacity in terms of number of channels.

2. Digital Cellular
• • Major worldwide digital cellular standards include GSM, D-AMPS (American) & GSM/DCS (European), TDMA and CDMA. It is forecasted that approximately one-third of the installed WLL will use digital cellular technology in the year 2000. • • • • • Digital cellular can support higher capacity and better functionality than analog cellular and wireline networks. Digital cellular systems are encrypted and provide high speech security with no impact on quality. Both DAMPS and GSM use TDMA and support multiple lines from a single subscriber unit. Some of these systems has general confusion over industry standards. GSM currently dominates mobile cellular industry, but there has been little activity in using GSM as a WLL platform.

TDMA and Point to Multipoint Systems
• These System are relatively well suited for rural use, because they provides service coverage over a wide area. • TDMA standards are IS-54 and IS-136, triples the capacity of cellular frequencies, by dividing a 30 kHz cellular channel into 3 timeslots. • • • Proven and reliable technology. Designed to support subscribers in sparsely populated rural areas. A typical base station has 30 or 60 traffic channels and could support 256 to 1800 residential subscribers respectively. • Relatively long range (over 70km) but requires a line-of-sight path between RBS and all subscriber units.

CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)
• • • • • • • • CDMA is a "spread spectrum" technology, it spreads the information contained in a particular signal over a much greater bandwidth than the original signal. A CDMA call starts with a standard rate of 9.6kb/s. This is then spread to a transmitted rate of about 1.23 Mb/s. It offers 3-6 times more capacity than the other digital standards and 10-15 times greater than analog cellular. Improved spectral efficiency in a multi-cell environment - mainly due to interferer diversity. Flexible cell sizes and service provisions - for a given data rate, range is increased as traffic density is reduced. Speech delay can be minimized - fast power control tracks and minimize fading. Multi-path fading is reduced due to inherent frequency diversity, which is common in mountainous terrain and dense urban areas. CDMA-WLL based on new US cdma-One (IS-95) standard is presently used.

3. Personal Communications Services/ Network (PCS/PCN)
• PCS starts to operate in the 1800 MHz frequency band. PCS/PCN incorporates elements of digital cellular and cordless standards as well as newly developed RF protocols. Its purpose is to offer low-mobility wireless service using low-power antennas. The main weakness of PCS/PCN is that it is not yet commercially available. The candidate standards are CDMA, TDMA, GSM, personal access communication systems (PACS), Personal handyphone system (PHS), and digital cordless telephone United States (DCT-U). PHS technology and terminal equipment reduces the WLL system cost as it uses 32kb/s ADPCM voice coding system. PHS-WLL system is superior in terms of speech quality and economy for urban and suburban applications. It also offers extensibility to mobile service in the future.

• • •

• •

4. Digital Cordless Systems
• • CT2 (Cordless telephone 2nd generation) and DECT (Digital Enhanced / European cordless telephone systems are its types. CT2 provides the user with a single 32kb/s duplex channel, but it has not been universally adopted. DECT is a picocellular wireless system for very dense subscriber environments where demand per km is high and cell coverage area is not a critical requirement. DECT supports ISDN services and also comprehensive security provisions including authentication and encryption. The DECT radio interface is based on TDMA technology. It operates over 10 radio carriers in the 1880 to 1900 MHz band. • It uses dynamic channel selection, an automated frequency-planning mechanism, which provides least interference from neighboring cells.

DECT
• • •

Comparison of DECT and PWT
• • • • • • • • • • DECT 20 MHz bandwidth 1.88 to 1.9 GHz band TDD/TDMA/FDMA 1.728 MHZ carrier bandwidth 10 number of carriers 12 channels per carrier Number of channels,120 Transmitted data rate: 1.152Mbps Speech rate:32 Kbps
• • • • • • • • • PWT 20 MHz bandwidth 1.91 to 1.92GHz band TDD/TDMA/FDMA 1.25 MHz 8 12 120 1.152

• 32 Kbps

Comparison of DECT and PWT
• Speech coding: ADPCM • Modulation: Gaussian FSK • Peak output power: 250 mW • Maximum cell radius: 30 to 100 meters • ADPCM • Pi/4 DQPSK • 90 mW • 30 to 100 meters

DECT
• • • • • • System has frequency reuse limitations, so the maximum number of voice channels available for a single cell site in a multi-cell environment is 60. DECT system transmits at low power using low antenna heights. DECT does not appear to be ideally suited for long range rural or low-density applications. Its normal range is 3-5 Km with a capacity up to 100,000 subscribers per km2. As compared to cellular technology, DECT is capable of carrying higher levels of traffic and data. The micro-cell architecture of DECT allows it to be deployed in smaller increments that more closely match the subscriber demand, with reduced initial capital requirements.

5. Proprietary Implementations
• These systems are considered proprietary because they are not available on public wireless networks and are typically customized for a specific application. • They generally do not provide mobility, and are most effective in terms of time and cost. • Proprietary systems like broadband CDMA and fixed radio access are designed from vendors like Interdigital, Ionica and NORTEL. Equipment providers include corporate giants such as Motorola, Ericsson, Lucent, Siemens, NEC, Qualcomm and Hughes Network Systems as well as many other smaller companies

Scope of WLL System application in terms of the Subscriber density

WLL Technologies by Market Segment

Developed Urban/Suburban Digital Cellular DECT PHS Proprietary Rural Digital Cellular Proprietary

Emerging DECT PHS Digital Cellular Proprietary Digital Cellular Analog Cellular Proprietary

OFDM
• • • • Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing Also called Multi carrier modulation Sending some of the bits on each channel All sub channels are dedicated to a single data source

Suppose we have:
• Data stream operating at R bps • Available bandwidth is N∆f centered at f0 • Entire bandwidth used to send data stream for which each bit duration is 1/R • Alternatively split the data stream to N sub-streams using serial to parallel converter • Each sub-stream has a data rate of R/N bps transmitted on a separate carrier • Spacing between individual sub-carriers is ∆f • Now the bit duration is N/R

Advantages of OFDM:
• Frequency selective fading only affects a few channels and not the whole signal so it can be easily handled by forward error correction techniques • OFDM can handle Inter-symbol interference in multipath environment
– ISI is more effective at higher bit rates as the distance between the bits is smaller – OFDM reduces the data rate by a factor of N thus symbol period increases by the factor N so effect of ISI is reduced – So equalizers do not remain essential

Modulation scheme for OFDM

• QPSK
– There are two bits representing one symbol

MMDS
• Multichannel multipoint Distribution service • Occupies 6 MHz made up of 512 individual carriers with carrier saparation of 12 kHz • Data transmitted in bursts • Cyclic prefix attached to each burst to reduce transients from previous bursts caused by multipath

MMDS (contd.)
• 64 symbols constitute cyclic prefix • Followed by 512 QPSK symbols per burst • So on each sub-channel, QPSK symbols are separated by a prefix of duration 64/512 symbol times • By the time prefix is over, the resulting waveform is independent of the previous burst • So ISI is nil

MMDS contd.
• Frequency range 2.15 GHz to 2.68 GHz
– 2.15-2.162 and 2.4-2.4835 GHz bands called Multipoint distribution service for 6MHz TV broadcast. – In 1996 FCC increased the allocation up to 2.68 GHz for MMDS – MMDS is used to provide TV service where broadcast TV or cable can not reach in rural areas – So, MMDS is also called wireless cable

MMDS contd.
• Range: 50km • MMDS also used for two-way broad band data services and Internet access

Disadvantages of MMDS
• Lesser bandwidth than LMDS • Data rates:
– 27 Mbps for up-stream per channel – 300kbps to 3 Mbps individual subscriber rates

Used by residential or small business customers

Advantages of MMDS over LMDS
• Larger wavelengths i.e.10cm or more, so travel farther, so larger cells • Less expensive equipment than LMDS • Signals more susceptible to rain absorption • Signals do not get easily blocked by objects

LMDS
• Local Multipoint Distribution service • TV and two way broadband communication • Millimeter frequencies • At 30 GHz in USA and 40 GHz in Europe

Advantages of LMDS
• High data rates i.e. in Mbps • Capability of video, telephony and data • Lower cost than cable alternatives

Disadvantage

• SHORT RANGE

Antenna coverage
• 600 to 900 coverage sector so 4 to 6 antennas required for full coverage • Typical radius of 2 to 4 km • Per customer data rates:
– 1 Mbps upstream – 36 Mbps down stream

• Buildings, trees and foliage affect the communication too much so overlapping cells or the use of repeaters and reflectors is required

FIXED WIRELESS BROADBAND ACCESS
• STANDARD

– IEEE 802.16
• Working group developed in 1999

CHARTER OF IEEE 802.16
• Use of microwave or millimeter wave radio for wireless links • Use of licensed spectrum • Standards of metropolitan scale • Provide public network service to fee paying customers • Point to multipoint architecture for roof top or tower mounted antennas • Efficient transport of heterogeneous traffic with QoS • Broad band capability i.e. >2 Mbps

IEEE 802.16 working groups
• IEEE 802.16.1:
• Air Interface for 10 to 66 GHz

• IEEE 802.16.2:
• Co-existance of Broadband wireless access systems

• IEEE 802.16.3:
• Air Interface for licensed frequencies 2 GHz to 11 GHz

IEEE 802.16 system architecture
• Provision of communication path between core network and subscriber’s premises • IEEE 802.16 is concerned with the air interface

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