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to change the shape or the size of an

object by applying external forces.

However, internal forces in the object

resist deformation.

Stress and Strain:

Stress: is a quantity that is proportional to

the force causing a deformation. Stress is

the external force acting on an object per

unit cross sectional area.

Strain: is a measure of the degree of

deformation. It is found that for

sufficiently small stresses strain is

proportional to stress.

The constant of the proportionality

depends on the material being deformed

and on the nature of deformation

We call this proportionality constant the

elastic modulus.

The elastic modulus is therefore the ratio

of stress to the resulting strain.

Elastic Modulus=Stress/Strain

In a very real sense it is a comparison of

what is done to a solid object (a force is

applied) and how that object responds (it

deforms to some extent)

We consider three types of deformation

: and define an elastic modulus for each

1. Youngs Modulus: which measures the

resistance of a solid to a change in its

length

2. Shear Modulus: which measures the

resistance to motion of the planes of a

solid sliding past each other

3. Bulk Modulus: which measures the

resistance of solids or liquids to changes

in their volume

Youngs Modulus:

Consider a long bar of cross sectional

area A and initial length Li that is

clamped at one end. When an external

force is applied perpendicular to the

cross section internal forces in the bar

resist distortion stretching but the bar

attains an equilibrium in which its

length Lf is greater than Li and in which

the external force is exactly balanced

by internal forces.

In such a situation the bar is said to be

stressed. We define the tensile stress as

the ratio of the magnitude of the external

force F to the cross sectional area A. the

tensile strain in this case is defines as the

ratio of the change in length L to the

original length Li.

Y=tensile stress/ tensile strain

Y=(F/A)/(L/Li)

The Elastic Limit:

The elastic limit of a substance is defined as the

maximum stress that can be applied to the substance

before it becomes permanently deformed. It is possible to

exceed the elastic limit of a substance by applying

sufficiently large stress, as seen in in the figure

Initially a stress strain curve is a straight

line. As the stress increases, however the

curve is no longer a straight line.

When the stress exceeds the elastic limit

the object is permanently distorted and it

does not return to its original shape after

the stress is removed.

What is Youngs modulus for the elastic solid

whose stress strain curve is depicted in the

figure ??

Youngs modulus is given by the ratio of stress to

strain which is the slope of the elastic behavior

section of the graph in slide 9 reading from the

graph we note that a stress of approximately

3x10N/m results in a strain of 0.003. The

slope, and hence Youngs modulus are therefore

10x10N/m.

: Shear Modulus

Another type of deformation occurs when

an object is subjected to a force

tangential to one of its faces while the

opposite face is held fixed by another

force. The stress in this case is called a

shear stress.

If the object is originally a rectangular

block a shear stress results in a shape

whose cross section is a parallelogram. To

a first approximation (for small

distortions) no change in volume occurs

with this deformation.

We define the shear stress as F/A, the

ratio of the tangential to the area of A of

the force being sheared.

The shear strain is defined as the ratio

X/H where X is the horizontal distance

that the sheared force moves and H is the

height of the object.

In terms of these quantities the shear

modulus is

S= shear stress/ shear strain

S= (F/A)/ (X/H)

Bulk Modulus:

Bulk modulus characterizes the response

of a substance to uniform squeezing or to

a reduction in pressure when the object is

placed in a partial vacuum. Suppose that

the external forces acting on an object are

at right angles to all its faces, and that

they are distributed uniformly over all the

faces.

A uniform distribution of forces occur

when an object is immersed in a fluid. An

object subject to this type of deformation

undergoes a change in volume but no

change in shape. The volume stress is

defined as the ratio of the magnitude of

the normal force F to the area A.

The quantity P=F/A is called the pressure.

If the pressure on an object changes by

an amount P= F/A the object will

experience a volume change V.

The volume strain is equal to the change

in volume V divided by the initial volume

Vi

B= volume stress/volume strain

B=-(F/A)/( V/Vi)

B=- P/(V/Vi)

When a solid is under uniform pressure it undergoes a change in

volume but no change in shape. This cube is compressed on all

sides by forces normal to its 6 faces.

: Prestressed Concrete

If the stress on a solid object exceeds a

certain value, the object fractures. The

maximum stress that can be applied

before fracture occurs depends on the

nature of the material and on the type of

applied stress.

For example concrete has a tensile

strength of about 2 x 106 N/m, a

compressive strength of 20 x 106 N/m,

and a shear strength of 2 x 106 N/m.

It is common practice to use large safety

factors to prevent failure in concrete

structures.

Concrete is normally very brittle when it is

cast in thin sections. Thus concrete slabs

tend to slab and crack at unsupported

areas as shown in figure A.

The slab can be strengthened by the use

of steal rods to reinforce the concrete as

illustrated in figure B. Because concrete is

much stronger under compression

squeezing than under tension

stretching or shear, vertical columns of

concrete can support very heavy loads,

whereas horizontal beams of concrete

tend to sag and crack.

However, a significant increase in shear

strength is achieved if the reinforced

concrete is prestressed as shown in figure

C. As the concrete is being poured the

steal rods are held under tension by

external forces.

The external forces are released after the

concrete cures this results in a permanent

tension in the steel and hence a

compressive stress on the concrete. This

enables the concrete slab to support a

much heavier load.

Viscosity:

The term viscosity is commonly used in

the description of fluid flow to characterize

the degree of internal friction, or viscous

force is associated with the resistance

that two adjacent layers of fluid have to

moving relative to each other. Viscosity

causes part of the kinetic energy of a fluid

to be converted to internal energy.

Units of Measure

Dynamic viscosity and absolute viscosity are synonymous. The

IUPAC symbol for viscosity is the Greek symbol eta (), and

dynamic viscosity is also commonly referred to using the Greek

symbol mu (). The SI physical unit of dynamic viscosity is the

Pascal-second (Pas), which is identical to 1 kgm1s1. If a

fluid with a viscosity of one Pas is placed between two plates,

and one plate is pushed sideways with a shear stress of one

Pascal, it moves a distance equal to the thickness of the layer

between the plates in one second.

The name Poiseuille (Pl) was proposed for this unit (after

Jean Louis Marie Poiseuille who formulated Poiseuille's law

of viscous flow), but not accepted internationally. Care

must be taken in not confusing the Poiseuille with the poise

named after the same person.

The cgs physical unit for dynamic viscosity is the poise (P), named

after Jean Louis Marie Poiseuille. It is more commonly expressed,

particularly in ASTM standards, as centipoise (cP). The centipoise

is commonly used because water has a viscosity of 1.0020 cP (at

20 C; the closeness to one is a convenient coincidence).

1 P = 1 gcm1s1

The relation between poise and Pascal-seconds is:

10 P = 1 kgm1s1 = 1 Pas

1 cP = 0.001 Pas = 1 mPas

Example 1

A solid brass sphere is initially surrounded

by air, the air pressure exerted on it is 1.0

x 10 N/m (normal atmospheric

pressure) the sphere is lowered into the

ocean to a depth which the pressure is

2.0 x 10 N/m . The volume of the

sphere in air is 0.50 m. By how much

does this volume change once the sphere

is submerged ?

From the definition of bulk modulus, we have

B= - P / (V/Vi)

V = - (Vi P) / B

Because the final pressure is so much greater

than the initial pressure, we neglect the

initial pressure and state that

P = Pf Pi Pf = 2.0 x 10 N/m

Therefore

V = - (0.5 m) (2.0 x 10 N/m)

6.1 x 10 N/ m

= 1.6 x 10 m

The negative sign indicates a decrease in

volume.

Example 2

We analyzed a cable used to support an

actor as he swung onto the stage. The

tension in the cable was 940 N. what

diameter should a 10-m-long steel wire

have if we do not want it to stretch more

than 0.5cm under these conditions?

From the definition of Youngs modulus,

we can solve for the required cross-

sectional area. Assuming that the cross-

sectional is circular, we can determine the

diameter of the wire.

Y=(F/A)/(L/Li)

A=(F Li)/(Y L)

= (940N)(10m) .

(20 x 10N/m)(0.005m)

= 9.4x10(-6) m

The radius of the wire can be found from

A=r

r= (A/ )

= (9.4x10(-6) m/ )

=1.7x10m =1.7mm

D=2r = 2(1.7mm) = 3.4mm

To provide a large margin of safety, we

should probably use a flexible cable made

up of many smaller wires having a total

cross-sectional area substantially greater

than our calculated value.

References:

Physics For Scientists and Engineers

(Serway . Beichner).

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