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Sense organs

Perception
The receptors
Stimuli are things that affect
our behaviour, e.g. Light,
sound, temperature,
gravity, touch, pain and
chemical taste.
Sense organs have receptors
that detect these stimuli

The eye
The eyes receive light then
brings it to focus on the
retina.
Cells in the retina detects
colour, and light. The brain
interprets the impulses
passed to it by the eyes, then
produces the pictures we
see.
The eyes are protected by the
eye brows prevent sweat
and eyelids prevent dirt and
stones from entering the eye.
The eye ball is also in a
socket that protects it from
knocks.
Structure of the eye.
Sclera- the white of the eye.
Helps the eye to keep its
shape.
Conjunctiva- prevents grit
and other substances from
entering the eye.
Cornea the transparent part
of the sclera.
Iris - the muscle that controls
the size of the pupil.
Pupil- allows light to pass
through the eye.

Structure of the eye.
Virteous and aqueous
humour the jelly like fluid
that helps the eye keep its
shape. They also bend the
light that enters the eye.
Lens - focus light on the
retina.
Suspensory ligaments-
change the shape of the
lens.
The retina
The retina is a thin
layer of sensitive
cells that convert
light to electrical
impulses.
The retina sends
impulses via the
optic nerve to the
brain. The optic
nerve pass out of
the eye through
the blind spot (
the light sensitive
cells are absent).

The retina
The light sensitive cells in the
retina are of two kinds.
The cones are sensitive to
colour and are affected by
high intense light.
The rods are sensitive to
black and white.
The fovea is the centre of the
retina. It contains cones
that give really good
details.
Colour blindness
Colour blind persons only see
black, grey and white. This
occurs when the rods and
cones do not work
properly.
Red/green colour blind
persons cannot distinguish
between red and green .


The pupil
The pupil size gets smaller in
bright light and lager in
dim light.
This reflex action controls the
amount of light entering
the eye.
Images formed on the retina
are inverted (upside
down). The brain then turn
them right side up.

Accommodation
The way the lens focus is
called accommodation.
The lens can become long
and thin for viewing distant
objects and short and fat
for viewing objects closer.
Objects nearer than 25cm
cannot be seen clearly
because the lens cannot
focus, this distance is
called the near point.

Cause and correction of sight defects
Sight defects are made better
by using glasses.
Long sightedness occurs
when near objects cannot
be seen properly. A convex
lens is used to help correct
long sightedness.
Short sightedness occurs
when far objects cannot be
seen properly. A concave
lens is used to correct
short sightedness.

The ear
The ear is used for receiving
sound, detecting gravity and
assist in balance.
The outer air collect sound waves
and pass to through the
auditory canal.
The ear drum separates the
outer air from the inner ear.
Sound waves cause the ear
drum to vibrate. This vibration
is amplified by three small
bones called ossicles which
pass them to the inner ear.
The vibrations travel to
the inner air where
they are changed to
electrical impulses by
the COCHLEA. The
impulses are
transported to the
brain by the auditory
nerve.
The auditory centre of
the brain interpret the
impulses as sounds.

Gravity and Balance
The semicircular canals
are located in the
inner ear above the
cochlea.
Each movement of the
head cause fluids in
the ear to stimulate
the semicircular
canal to coordinate
which muscle is
needed to keep your
balance.

The tongue
Taste is detected by the taste
buds in the tongue. The
taste buds detect four
basic taste, sour, sweet,
salt and bitter.