Fractions
A number in the form
Numerator
Denominator
Or
N
D
Fractions
The denominator can never be equal to 0.
0
12
=
Does not
exist!
Fractions
A fraction with a numerator of 0 equals 0.
156
0
= 0
4
0
= 0
Fractions
If the numerator is larger than the denominator,
it is called an improper fraction.
Find the improper fraction
11
7
12
10
73
56
9
4
8
10
Math with Fractions
Four basic functions
Multiply
Divide
Add
Subtract
Multiplication
Multiply the numerators and put in
the numerator of the result
Multiply the denominators and put
in the denominator of the result
8 9
8 x 9 72
4 7
7 x 4 28
= =
x
Multiplication  Lets Try It!
9 2
1 7
=
x
5 3
1 7
=
x
7 11
9 4
=
x
4 14
7 30
=
x
18
7
15
7
77
36
56
210
56
210
These numbers get
pretty big!
What if we needed
to multiply again?
Lets make the fraction more simple,
so it will be easier to use in the future.
Simplification
Divide by the Greatest Common Factor
72
28
But what is a
Common Factor?
Factors
A factor is a number that can be divided
into another number with no remainder
8s factors are:
1 (8/1 =8)
2 (8/2 = 4)
4 (8/4 = 2)
8 (8/8 = 1)
3 is NOT a factor of 8, because 8 is not
evenly divisible by 3 (8/3 = 2 with R=3)
Common Factors
A common factor is a factor that
two numbers have in common
For example, 7 is a factor of both 21 and 105,
so it is a common factor of the two.
The greatest common factor is the largest
factor that the two number share
So lets go back to our simplification
problem from before
Simplification
Divide both numerator and denominator by
the Greatest Common Factor
72
28
Factors are 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, 28
Factors are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72
Greatest Common Factor is 4
28
72
4
4
=
=
7
18
So
72
28
=
7
18
Simplification  Lets Try It!
3
1
7
2
3
1
63
18
=
5
2
114
78
=
7
2
19
13
9
3
=
84
24
=
21
7
=
15
6
=
Division
Just like multiplication with one more step
Invert the second fraction and multiply
8 2
1 3
=
8 1
2 3
x
=
8
6
Division  Lets Try It!
9 2
1 7
=
=
5 3
1 7
7 11
9 4
=
=
4 10
7 20
9
14
5
21
63
44
7
50
Addition
To add two fractions, you must make
sure they have a Common Denominator
8
3
16
5
+
What is a
Common
Denominator?
Common Denominator
A common denominator is a number with which
both of the denominators share at least one factor
that is not the number 1
For example, if the denominators are 4 and 7, then
a common denominator is 28.
28 shares the factors 1, 2 and 4 with the number 4,
and the factors 1 and 7 with the number 7.
So lets go back to our simplification
problem from before
Addition
To add two fractions, you must make sure
they have a Common Denominator
What can you multiply each fraction by to give the
smallest common denominator?
8
3
16
5
+
The smallest number that has
both of these as factors is 16
8 goes into 16 two times 16 goes into 16 one time
16
6
8
3
2
2
x
=
16
5
16
5
1
1
x
=
16
6
16
5
+ =
16
11
Once you have a common
denominator, add the numerators.
Addition  Lets Try It!
4 2
1 1
= +
=
8 3
2 6
+
16 8
2 4
= +
=
16 4
3 13
+
4
3
12
17
2
1
16
25
Subtraction
To subtract two fractions, they also must
have a Common Denominator
What can you multiply each fraction by to
give the smallest common denominator?
8
3
16
5

The smallest number that has
both of these as factors is 16
8 goes into 16 two times 16 goes into 16 one time
16
6
=
8
3
2
2
x
16
5
=
16
5
1
1
x
16
6
16
5

=
16
1
Once you have a common
denominator, subtract the numerators.
Subtraction  Lets Try It!
=
8 2
1 7

8 2
1 6
=

=
16 8
3 9

4 16
7 5
=

8
3
4
1
16
3
16
13
Review
A fraction has a numerator and a denominator
The denominator can never be 0
You can multiply, divide, add and subtract fractions
A common factor is a number that both
denominators are evenly divisible by
A common denominator is a number that both
denominators share a factor with