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POWER PLANT EQUIPMENTS & ITS LUBRICATION

1x100% TDBFP (No startup MD BFP) for a


1000 MW unit at SHANGHAI, CHINA
View of the 600 MW Hirono No.5 steam turbine
Continuous ship unloader
This unloader realizes continuous unloading from iron ore bulk carriers or coal bulk
carriers. IHI has delivered the world's largest continuous ship unloader with a
capacity of 4,000 t/hour for iron ore carriers, and also has the world's top
technologies and delivery record.
IHI also offers belt-type unloaders and pneumatic unloaders for various food and
feed such as soybeans, wheat grains, and corns. Designs of unloaders will be
adjusted to regional characteristics of delivery destinations. For example, the latest
seismic isolating device will be used in the unloaders to be delivered to regions
where anti-earthquake measures are required.
Rotary or Regenerative Air Pre-Heater
Turbine Installation.
High and intermediate pressure turbine rotor setting on the casing. The 40-inch blade
low-pressure turbine with inner casing and 586-MVA generator are shown behind it.

The biggest pump set has a drive rating of 18,000kW
and generates a discharge pressure of 320 bar.
JOURNAL BEARING
Primary Requirement of
Lubrication
Lubrication is required to reduce the
Friction and Wear between two
surfaces Moving against each other
Regimes of Lubrication
BOUNDARY

MIXED

HYDRODYNAMIC

ELASTO-
HYDRODYNAMIC
decreasing
severity
HYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION
Fluid Film Lubrication
Surfaces separated by bulk
film formed due to motion
between surfaces
Affected by viscosity, load and
speed
Film Thickness 20 microns
e.g Journal Bearings,
Ring/Liner

FULL SPEED CONDTION
JOURNAL BEARING
MIXED LUBRICATION
Mixed film lubrication
Both bulk oil film and
boundary film play a role
e.g. Gear, Valve train ,Ring
liner


INTERMEDIATE SPEED
BOUNDARY LUBRICATION
Surfaces separated by film of
few molecular length
Protection essentially
depended on boundary film
e.g. Heavily loaded gears,
Ring/liner, Valve train

START STOP
SHOCK LOAD CONDITIONS
GEAR CONTACTS
GEAR GEOMETRY DETERMINES CONTACT DYNAMICS
LUBRICATION IN GEARS
FILM THICKNESS IS AFFECTED BY LOAD, SPEED AND VISCOSITY
ELASTO HYDRODYNAMIC
LUBRICATION
Surfaces separated by
very thin oil film
contacting surface
elastically deformed.
Film Thickness .25 to
2 microns
Roller bearings,lightly
loaded gears

FILM THICKNESS IN EHD CONTACTS
Lambda = Film
Thickness/surface
Roughness

Proper Film Thickness
Begins when Lambda is
greater than 1.5
Secondary functions of a Lubricant
Corrosion Inhibition
Cooling
Cleaning
Sealant
Power Transmission


Properties the Lubricant should have to
perform its functions
Proper Viscosity
Low viscosity dependency on Temperature
Viscosity Index
Oxidation and Thermal Stability
Anti Corrosion
Nil foaming tendency
Detergency
Dispersancy


LIQUID LUBRICANTS
SOLID LUBRICANTS

Lubricants can be
Composition of a Lubricant
Base Oil
Performance Enhancing additives
Base Oil
Mineral Oil obtained from Petroleum
Base Oil Imparts basic properties like viscosity,
viscosity index, oxidation stability to lubricant
The percentage of base oils varies from 80 to 95 %
Turbine Oils
TURBINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM
REQUIREMENTS FROM
A TURBINE OIL
CUSTOMERs NEED OIL FEATURES REQUIRED

MAXIMUM EQUIPMENT LIFE
LEAST MACHINE DOWNTIME GOOD OXIDATION AND
EXTENDED OIL LIFE (10-20 YEARS) THERMAL STABILITY


RUST INHIBITION OF THE SYSTEM GOOD ANTIRUST PROPERTY


NO SYSTEM CORROSION GOOD METAL COMPATIBILITY

EXCELLENT SURFACE ACTIVITY
ADEQUATE WATER / AIR SEPARATION OF THE OIL TOWARDS ANTIFOAM
OF SYSTEM OIL DEMULSIBILITY & AIR RELEASE
PROPERTIES


MINIMAL WEAR GOOD ANTIWEAR PERFORMANCE



REQUIREMENT OF A TURBINE OIL

LUBRICATION OF BEARINGS, GEARS, SEALS ETC.

PROTECTION OF THE SYSTEM FROM CORROSION, RUST
AND OTHERS.

TO ACT AS A SEALING MATERIAL FOR DUST AND DIRT.

ALLOW RAPID SEPERATION OF WATER AND AIR.

COMPATIBILITY WITH METALS.

TO ACT AS A COOLANT.

RETENTION OF ORIGINAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES FOR
LONG PERIOD OF TIME.


DESIRABLE PROPERTIES OF TURBINE OIL

APPROPRIATE VISCOSITY
GOOD RUST PREVENTION
HIGH OXIDATION STABILITY
GOOD ANTI FOAM PROPERTIES
GOOD WATER DEMULSIBILITY
GOOD AIR RELEASE PROPERTIES
GOOD ANTI FRICTIONAL PROPERTIES

VISCOSITY
VISCOSITY IS ONE OF THE KEY PROPERTIES AND OPTIMUM
VISCOSITY OF TURBINE OIL PROVIDES
PROPER THICKNESS OF OIL FILM
DISSIPATION OF HEAT
REMOVAL OF CONTAMINANTS

TURBINE OILS ARE AVAILABLE IN ISO VG 32, 46, 68
EXAMPLE: SERVOPRIME 46

DEMULSIBILITY
INGRESS OF WATER IS UNAVOIDABLE IN TURBINE SYSTEM
THE PRESENCE OF WATER CAN CAUSE
POOR LUBRICATION
RUST FORMATION
METAL CORROSION
FOAMING & AIR RELEASE
INGRESS OF AIR MUST BE AVOIDED IN SYSTEM. THE INGRESS
OF AIR IN OIL MAY CAUSE
REDUCTION IN TRUE FLOW OF OIL
POOR HEAT DISSIPATION
REDUCTION IN OIL FILM THICKNESS
INCREASE IN OXIDATION RATE OF OIL
RUST & CORROSION
CORROSION OF FERROUS & YELLOW METALS IS A PERENNIAL PROBLEM
SPECIAL ADDITIVES ARE BEING INCORPORATED IN OILS TO RESIST AGAINST
CORROSION FOR A LONGER PERIOD OF TIME
OXIDATION & THERMAL STABILITY
OXIDATION STABILITY OF OIL - DIRECT BEARING WITH THE LIFE OF OIL IN
SYSTEM
THE OIL IS EXPOSED TO ELEVATED TEMP., INGRESS OF AIR, METAL & WATER
DURING ITS SERVICE AND OIL OXIDATION PROCESS INITIATED
GENERATION OF ACIDS & INSOLUBLE SLUDGE DURING OXIDATION MAY
CAUSE SEVERE DAMAGE TO SYSTEM




DETERIORATION OF TURBINE OILS IN SERVICE

* HOW TURBINE OIL DEGRADE :

- OXIDATIVE DEGRADATION : CHEMICAL REACTION WITH AIR
- THERMAL OXIDATIVE : UNSTABLE COMPOUNDS DUE TO
CRACKING OF HIGHER MOLECULES
- WATER INGRESS GENERALLY : THROUGH COOLING CIRCUIT
- LOSS OF ADDITIVES PRESENT IN OIL

* PROPERTIES OF OILS TO BE RETAINED :
- VISCOSITY
- OXIDATION STABILITY RESERVE
- FREEDOM FROM SLUDGE
- FREEDOM FROM ABRASIVE CONTAMINANTS
- ANTI CORROSION PROTECTION
- OTHER PROPERTIES OF USED TURBINE OIL
COLOUR / FLASH / FOAMING / ELEMENTS / DEPLETION OF
ADDITIVES

TYPICAL TURBINE OIL SPECIFICATIONS
Property Test Method UOM Requirement
Viscosity DIN 51562-1 ISO VG 46
ASTM-D 445
KV @ 40 deg C DIN 51562-1
ASTM-D 445
KV @ 100 deg C DIN 51562-1
ASTM-D 445
Viscosity Index DIN ISO 2909 95 Min
ASTM-D 2270
Density at 15 C DIN 51757 gm/q.cm. s 0.90
ASTM-D 1298
Appearance light and clear
Color DIN ISO 2049 2 Max.
ASTM-D 1500
Flash Point DIN ISO 2592 C > 180
ASTM-D 92
Flow Point ISO 3016 C (-) 9 Max.
ASTM-D 97
Neutralisation Index DIN 51558-1 mg KOH/g 0.15 Max
ASTM-D 974
Ash DIN EN ISO 6245 % by wt s 0.01
ASTM D 482
Water content DIN 51777-1 mg/kg s 150
ASTM-D 1744
Water release Property DIN 51589-1 seconds 300 Max
ASTM-D 1401
Air release property at 50 C DIN 51381 minutes 5 Max
ASTM-D 3427
Emulsion Test @ 82 Deg C, D-1401, 40-37-3,
Minutes, Max ASTM-D 1401 minutes
Corrosive effect of Copper DIN EN ISO 2160 s 2100 A3
ASTM-D 130
Corrosion protection for steel DIN 51585 s 0A
ASTM-D 665
Solid foreign matter DIN ISO 5884 mg/kg 300 Max
Fouling Class ISO 4406 s 20/17/14
Foaming Characteristics, Foam formation Seq I/seq
II/ Seq III
DIN 51566 ASTM-D 892(Seq 1-
3) s 50/50/50
Foam stability (10 min.) 0/0/0
Load carrying ability (Fail load stage) FZG/SRC standard test 7 Min
DIN 51534-02-A/8,3/90
TOST aging stability DIN 51587 Hours 4000 Min
ASTM-D 943
RPVOT aging stability ASTM-D 2272 Min. 350 Min.
Testing of low-viscosity lube oils for oxidation and
corrosion preventing properties
DIN 51394 FTN791B-5308.6
Visc. Change: 20 to 5% TAN change: 2.0
Max Sludge to be indicated
Zinc Content Nil Nil
HYDRAULIC OILS
FUNCTIONS OF HYDRAULIC OILS
SMOOTH AND ACCURATE TRANSMISSION OF POWER
LUBRICATION OF ALL RUBBING SURFACES TO REDUCE WEAR & FRICTION
HEAT REMOVAL FROM HIGH FRICTION SPOTS
PROTECTION OF THE EQUIPMENT FROM RUST & CORROSION
SEPARATION FROM WATER & AIR
KEEPING THE SYSTEM CLEAN FROM CONTAMINANTS
INERTNESS TOWARDS ALL NON-METALLIC PARTS INCLUDING PEOPLE
RETENTION OF ALL THE ABOVE PROPERTIES FOR A LONGER PERIOD OF TIME
HYDRAULIC OIL REQUIREMENTS
PROPER VISCOSITY
WEAR PROTECTION
OXIDATION & THERMAL STABILITY
CORROSION PROTECTION
GOOD FOAM RESISTANT CHARACTERISTICS
RESISTANT TO AIR ENTRAINMENT
NON-COMPRESSIBLE
GOOD DEMULSIBILITY
ADEQUATE FILTERABILITY IN USE
INDUSTRIAL GEAR OILS




FUNCTIONS OF GEAR OILS

CONTROL FRICTION AND WEAR
REMOVE HEAT GENERATED BY FRICTION
PROTECTION AGAINST DIRT&RUST
CLASSIFICATION OF GEARS
ENCLOSED OR OPEN

SPUR/HELICAL -
REFERRED TO AS STEEL ON STEEL
TEETH ARE HEAVILY LOADED
TOOTH CONTACT IS A MIXTURE OF ROLLING &SLIDING
LITTLE ENERGY DISSIPATION(2%)
GEAR CLASSIFICATION
WORM GEARS-
STEEL WORM AND BRONZE WHEEL
USED FOR HIGH SPEED REDUCTION
LARGE AREA OF CONTACT,LESS TOOTH LOADING
HIGH ENERGY DISSIPATION(25%)
LOADING TYPE ONLY SLIDING.
CHARACTERISTICS OF GEAR LUBRICATION
PRESSURE INVOLVED BETWEEN MATING SURFACES ARE
VERY HIGH
SLIDING ACTION WIPES OUT OIL
SUDDEN LOADING
GEAR OIL PROPERTIES
EP PROPERTY- ESSENTIAL IN SPUR & HELICAL GEARS DUE TO ROLLING
MOTION
EP ADDITIVES ARE S/P BASED
S- CAUSES CONTROLLED CORROSION OF METAL SURFACES AT HIGH
TEMPERATURE WHILE ROLLING
P- ACIVE AT LOWER TEMPERATURE WHILE SLIDING- BY ADSORPTION
GEAR OIL PROPERTIES
ANTI OXIDANT- LIFE, SLUDGE
ANTI RUST- MORE TAN IN FRESH OIL
ANTI FOAM- CALCIUM & RUST INHIBITORS CAUSES FOAMING.
DEMULSIBILITY
LUBRICATION METHODS
SPLASH
SPRAY(JET)
OIL MIST
SPALSH/SPRAY METHODS NEDD OIL TIGHT HOUSING
SUMP MUST BE FILLED TO SPECIFIED LEVEL.
OIL MUST BE BROUGHT EFFECTIVELY TO GEAR TOOTH
SURFACES.
SAME OIL MAY LUBRICATE SHAFT BEARINGS.
SPLASH LUBRICATION
OIL FROM SUMP IS CARRIED UP BY TEETH OF LARGER
GEAR DIPPING IN TO OIL.
OIL LEVEL IS MAINTAINED SO THAT TEETH ALWAYS DIP
INTO OIL.
IF OIL LEVEL TOO LOW- POOR LUBRICATION.
IF OIL LEVEL TOO HIGH CHURNING WILL CAUSE RAISE IN
TEMP.
FIXED VOLUME OF OIL IS SUBJECTED TO SEVERE SERVICE.
THERE IS NO COOLING AND NO WAY TO FILTER THE OIL
CONTINUOUSLY.
SPRAY LUBRICATION
CIRCULATING SYSTEM MOST OFTEN USED IN LARGER
GEAR SETS AND HIGH SPEED GEARS.
OIL IS CIRCULATED BY PUMP VIA NOZZLE OR JET TO THE
GEAR TEETH CONTACT AREA.
OIL IS DIRECTED AT PARTING TEETH.
OPERATING TEMP REDUCED BY COOLING VIA HEAT
EXCHANGER.
FILTERATION IS USED TO REMOVE CONTAMINATION.
A CENTRALISED SYSTEM IS USED WHEN MULTIPLE GEAR
DRIVES OF SIMILAR DESIGN ARE LOCATED CLOSE TO EACH
OTHER.
MIST LUBRICATION
LUBRICANT ATOMISED IN A MOVING AIR STREAM TO
FORM MIST.
MIST IS PIPED TO THE POINT OF APPLICATION AND
DEPOSITED AS A FINE OIL SPRAY DIRECTED AT ENGAGING
AND PARTING TEETH
ADVANTAGES-REDUCED OIL CONSUMPTION,ELIMINATION
OF CONTAMINATION.
USED AT MEDIUM AND HIGH SPEEDS.
GOOD COOLING
LOW POWER LOSS DUE TO OIL DRAG.
OPEN GEAR LUBRICATION
CONTINUOUS OPERATION
SPLASH LUBRICATION.
HIGH VISCOSITY LUBES ARE REQUIRED.
INTERMITTENT OPERATION
OPERATE UNDER BOUNDARY CONDITIONS.
METHODS
AUTOMATIC SPRAY,HOT MELT,FORCED FEED,GRAVITY DRIP
AND HAND APPLICATION.
Typical Gear Oil Specifications
Sr. Property Test Method Test Condition UOM Servo Mesh SP 320

1 Viscosity Grade DIN 51562-1 ISO VG 320
ASTM-D 445
2 KV @ 40 deg C DIN 51562-1 305 to 335
ASTM-D 445
3 KV @ 100 deg C DIN 51562-1 24.0
ASTM-D 445
4 Viscosity Index DIN ISO 2909 96
ASTM-D 2270
5 Density at 15 C DIN 51757 gm/q.cm.
ASTM-D 1298
6 Appearance
7 Color DIN ISO 2049
ASTM-D 1500
8 Flash Point DIN ISO 2592 C 234
ASTM-D 92
9 Flow Point ISO 3016 C -6
ASTM-D 97
10 Neutralisation Index DIN 51558-1 mg KOH/g
ASTM-D 974
11 Ash DIN EN ISO 6245 % by wt 0.003
ASTM D 482
12 Water content DIN 51777-1 mg/kg nil
ASTM-D 1744
13 Water release Property DIN 51589-1 seconds
ASTM-D 1401
14
Air release property at 50 C DIN 51381 minutes
ASTM-D 3427
15
Emulsion Test @ 82 Deg C, D-
1401, 40-37-3, Minutes, Max ASTM-D 1401 minutes 15
16
Corrosive effect of Copper DIN EN ISO 2160 1b
ASTM-D 130
17
Corrosion protection for steel DIN 51585
ASTM-D 665
18 Solid foreign matter DIN ISO 5884 mg/kg
19 Fouling Class ISO 4406
20 Foaming Characteristics, Foam
formation Seq I/seq II/ Seq III
DIN 51566 ASTM-
D 892(Seq 1-3) Nil/Nil, Nil/Nil, Nil/Nil
21
Foam stability (10 min.)
22 Load carrying ability (Fail load
stage)
FZG/SRC standard
test 13

DIN 51534-02-A/8,3/90
23 TOST aging stability DIN 51587 Hours
ASTM-D 943
24 RPVOT aging stability ASTM-D 2272 Min.
25 Testing of low-viscosity lube
oils for oxidation and
corrosion preventing
properties
DIN 51394
FTN791B-5308.6

26 Zinc Content Nil Nil
27 Four Ball Weld Load -
Weld Load Kgs - Load
Wear index, Kg
IP 239
D2783 250 46.4
28 4 Ball Wear Test @ 54 C, 1800
rpm, 20 kg, 1hr, mm D 2266 0.3
29 Saponification Num
30 Rust /test Procedure B D 665 Pass
31 Oxidation Test @95 C for 312
hrs increase in KV, %
Precipitatiin No , ml D 2893 %, ml 3.6, Nil
32 Timken OK load test D 2782 lbs 60
33 Sulphated Ash DIN 51575 % mass 0.003








COMPRESSOR OILS

TYPES OF COMPRESSORS
BASIC CATEGORIES -
* POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT TYPE :
AIR IS COMPRESSED BY THE SQUASHING EFFECT OF MOVING
COMPONENTS
EXAMPLE-
* RECIPROCATING: SINGLE ACTING , DOUBLE ACTING
* ROTARY : SCREW, VANE, ROOTS etc.

* TURBO COMPRESOR TYPE :
- HIGH VELOCITY OF MOVING AIR IS CONVERTED INTO
PRESSURE

EXAMPLES-
* CENTRIFUGAL TYPE
* AXIAL FLOW TYPE
COMPRESSORS PARTS
REQUIRE LUBRICATION
1) RECIPROCATING TYPES
BEARINGS - MAIN, CRANKSHAFT, PIN BUSHINGS
CYLINDERS - WALLS, PISTON, PISTON RINGS, VALVES
SHAFT SEALS IN SOME CASES
2) ROTARY VANE TYPE
BEARINGS - ROTOR SHAFT
CYLINDERS - WALLS
ROTOR - BLADES SLOT SURFACES, VANE, SLIDING
AREAS WITHIN SLOTS
3) ROTARY SCREW
ALL PARTS OF COMPRESSORS UNDER ROTARY ACTION
4) ROOTS TYPE
CONNECTING GEARS, LOBE SHFT BEARINGS
5) CENTRIFUGAL TYPE
BEARINGS, GEARS, SHAFT, SEALS, COUPLINGS etc.
WORKING ACTION OF
COMPRESSORS
COMPRESSOR TYPE OPERATING TEMP,C LUBRICATION PROBLEMS

RECIPROCATING - SINGLE STAGE - VARNISH & CARBON
UPTO 270C DEPOSITS
- MULTI STAGE - PISTON RING WEAR
160 - 210C INCREASE, LEAKAGE
DEPOSITS
ROTARY 80 - 120 C - DEPOSIT BLOCK
FILTER & SEPARATOR
ELEMENTS
- VARNISH ON
BEARINGS
SLIDING VANE 80 - 150 C - DEPOSIT BLOCK
FILTERS
- VANE WEAR INCREASES
FILTER DEPOSITS
SIGNIFICANCE OF
ANTIWEAR PERFORMANCE
INCREASE IN PISTON RING GAP DURING COMPRESSOR OPERATION WOULD
INDICATE EXCESSIVE WEAR OF CYLINDER BORE / PISTON RINGS

AW PROPERTY IS REQUIRED SPECIFICALLY AT SLIDING / ROTATING SURFACES

CONVENTIONALLY HIGHER LOAD CONDITIONS ARE OVERCOME BY ADOPTING
HIGHER VISCOSITY COMPRESSOR OILS

TO ENSURE PROPER LUBRICATION, RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR OILS MUST
HAVE EXCELLENT THERMAL / OXIDATION STABILITY AS WELL AS ADEQUATE
AW PERFORMANCE
FUNCTIONS OF COMPRESSOR LUBRICANTS
ACT AS A COOLANT TO REMOVE THE HEAT OF COMPRESSION
TO PROVIDE LIQUID SEAL
MINIMISE WEAR IN FRICTIONAL COMPONENTS e.g., PISTON,
CYLINDER, BEARING, VANE, SLOTS etc.
TO PROVIDE RUST FREE SURFACES
TO MINIMISE BUILT UP OF DEPOSITS BY PROVIDING HIGH LEVEL OF
THERMAL - OXIDATIVE STABILITY
TO KEEP OIL - AIR SEPARATORS CLEAN
CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPRESSOR LUBRICANTS
CORRECT VISCOSITY AT OPERATING TEMP.TO ASSURE OIL FILM
FORMATION ON ALL FRICTIONAL COMPONENTS
HIGH OXIDATION-THERMAL STABILITY - RESIST DEPOSIT FORMATION
ADEQUATE WEAR PROTECTION
GOOD DEMULSIBILITY IN ROTARY FLOODED SYSTEMS TO AVOID
EMULSION FORMATION
LOW CARBON DEPOSITS ON DISCHARGE VALVES & PASSAGES OF
RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS
TROUBLE FREE STARTING AT LOW TEMP.
EFFECT OF WATER CONTAMINATION IN
LURICATING OIL
DIRECTION OF OIL FLOW IN FILTERS
Centrifugal Casting up to 120" O.D.
The most highly recommended repair procedure for large
steam and hydro turbine generator equipment. Centrifugal
casting is the method used to obtain maximum bond strength
in the recasting process of Babbitt bearings.

Other casting methods (Static casting, TIG and Puddling, and
Metalizing) are available for:
Fan Bearings Motor Bearings
Ball Mill Bearings Tilt Pad Bearings
Thrust Shoes Pillow Blocks
Hydrogen Seals
Pivoted Shoe
Rotating
Thrust Collar
Wire Ropes
The life of a wire rope can be extended through the proper application of the correct lubricant.
The individual wires in a wire rope are subject to abrasive wear as they move relative to each
other any time the rope is bent, such as when it goes over a sheave or is wound on a drum.
Unless the rope is constructed of stainless steel, it is also subject to corrosion damage. Corrosion
is especially a problem for wire ropes that are exposed to the elements.
To be effective, the lubricant must penetrate into the rope to provide lubrication between the
individual wires and strands. It also must provide lubrication externally to reduce friction
between the rope and sheaves or drum, and it should act as a sealant to prevent corrosion. The
lubricant coating should not prevent the visual inspection of the rope for broken wires or other
damage.
Many times, a light mineral oil, such as an SAE 10 motor oil, is used to lubricate wire rope. The
advantages of such a light oil is that it can be applied cold and it will penetrate into the rope
easily. The main disadvantage is that it will work out of the rope just as easily as it works in, and
frequent application will be required.
Heavy, adhesive lubricants can provide longer lasting protection, but most require heating before
application to provide proper penetration. A heavy lubricant, when properly applied, will not
only provide internal lubrication, but also provide a durable outer coating to prevent corrosion
and keep dust and abrasives out of the rope. Heavy adhesive lubricants usually must be heated
or thinned with a solvent to ensure they provide internal lubrication.
The lubricant can be applied by brush, spray, or dripped on, or, preferably, by passing the rope
through a heated reservoir filled with the lubricant. Before applying the lubricant, clean any
accumulated dirt, dust, or rust from the rope because they can prevent the lubricant from
penetrating properly. The lubricant should be applied to the entire circumference of the rope and
the rope slowly wound on and off the drum several times to work the lubricant into the rope. If
the lubricant is being applied by hand, it may be helpful to apply the lubricant as it passes over a
sheave because the ropes strands are spread by the bending, and the lubricant can penetrate

Heavy, adhesive lubricants can provide longer lasting protection, but
most require heating before application to provide proper
penetration. A heavy lubricant, when properly applied, will not only
provide internal lubrication, but also provide a durable outer coating
to prevent corrosion and keep dust and abrasives out of the rope.
Heavy adhesive lubricants usually must be heated or thinned with a
solvent to ensure they provide internal lubrication. The lubricant can
be applied by brush, spray, or dripped on, or, preferably, by passing the
rope through a heated reservoir filled with the lubricant. Before
applying the lubricant, clean any accumulated dirt, dust, or rust from
the rope because they can prevent the lubricant from penetrating
properly.
The lubricant should be applied to the entire circumference of the
rope and the rope slowly wound on and off the drum several times to
work the lubricant into the rope. If the lubricant is being applied by
hand, it may be helpful to apply the lubricant as it passes over a
sheave because the ropes strands are spread by the bending, and the
lubricant can penetrate more easily.

Gates, Radial gates, Dampers and
butterfly valves
Grease for the slow moving, highly loaded, bronze bushings such as
those found on wicket gates, radial gates, and butterfly valves should
be adhesive, water resistant, able to withstand high
bearing pressures, and of a consistency that can be pumped at the
lowest temperature encountered. Usually, a grease with extreme
pressure or antiwear capabilities is specified. It should be noted that
the term, extreme pressure, is used fairly liberally by grease
manufacturers, and the presence of extreme pressure additives and
extreme pressure properties should be verified. Because the grease is
lubricating a bronze bearing, it should not be corrosive to copper.
TIN BASE ALLOYS FOR BEARINGS
Tin base babbitts commonly contain copper and antimony. They have hardness up
to 32BHN which gives them excellent load-carrying characteristics. They show low
friction resistance, low wear, good run-in properties and good emergency behavior
in the absence of adequate lubrication. They wet easily and maintain an oil film,
resist corrosion, are easily cast and bonded and retain good mechanical properties at
elevated temperatures.
STORAGE AND HANDLING OF
LUBRICANTS

WHY PROPER STORAGE AND HANDLING ?

TEMPERATURE VARIATION
RAINS
DUST CONTAMINANTS


WHY PROPER STORAGE AND HANDLING ?


WHY PROPER STORAGE AND HANDLING ?

OIL EXPANDS 20 TIMES MORE THAN
STEEL AIR EXPANDS 100 TIMES MORE
THAN STEEL

IF STEEL BARREL IS FILLED FULLY &
THE BUNG IS TIGHTENED, BARREL
WILL BURST IF THE TEMPERATURE
INCREASES


WHY PROPER STORAGE AND HANDLING ?

IF SMALL CLEARANCE IS LEFT TO
ACCOMOFDATE OIL EXPANSION, THEN
ALSO BARREL WILL BURST DUE TO
COMPRESSION OF THE CLEARANCE AIR

HENCE ATLEAST 2.5% CLEARANCE IS
LEFT. NORMALLY 8-10 LITERS AIR
CLEARANCE IS AVAILABLE IN 210
LITER OIL BARREL

WHY PROPER STORAGE AND HANDLING ?

AIR IS TRAPPED
NO BREATHING
ACTION
NO MOISTURE
INGRESS

WHY PROPER STORAGE AND HANDLING ?

TO PRESERVE INTEGRITY OF PRODUCT
HEAT OXIDATION
COLD GELLING
WATER AND DUST CONTAMINATION



WEATHERING

OBLITERATE LABELS, BATCH MARKS

AVOID INTERMIXING

PERSONAL SAFETY BY PROPER HANDLING


ELIMINATE WASTE
LESS DISPOSAL, NO POLLUTION


?


OUTSIDE STORAGE

KEEP BUNGS TIGHT
BUNGSI IN 3 OCLOC K - 9 OCLOCK
COVER WITH A TARPAULIN



RECOMMENDATIONS FOR WAREHOUSE

SPACIOUS
WORKPLACE WITH PUMPS, DISPENSING
EQUIPMENT, ETC.
GOOD VENTILATION AND LIGHTING
DUST FREE
FIRE PROTECTION
FOLLOW FIFO

ADVANTAGES
ORIGINAL PLANT CONDITION OIL:
ENSURES RIGH LUBRICATION
LESS MACHINERY DOWN TIME
ELIMINATION OF WASTE
MONITARY SAVINGS
DISPOSAL PROBLEM ELIMINATED
NO ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
ADVANTAGES
SAFETY IS ENSURED
GOOD HOUSEKEEPING
Performance Enhancing additives
Anti oxidants
Anti Wear and EP Agents
Corrosion inhibitors
Foam inhibitors
Detergency
Dispersancy
Viscosity index improvers
Pour Point Depressants
Friction Modifiers

Physico Chemical Properties of
Lubricating Oil

VISCOSITY
VISCOSITY INDEX
DENSITY AND GRAVITY
COLOUR
FLASH POINTS
NEUTRALISATION NUMBER
POUR POINT
FOAMING TENDANCY
Classification of Lubricants
Based on viscosity
Example: SAE15w40, ISOVG 68 etc
Based on application
Automotive oil (engine oil, Gear oil,
coolants etc)
Industrial Oil: Turbine Oil, Gear oil,
Hydraulic oil
Based on Performance
Example: API SF, CJ etc
ADVANTAGES OF GREASES

CAN BE USED IN NON ACCESIBLE AREAS
CAN BE USED IN OPEN GEARS
ACTS AS A SEALANT/ KEEP DUST/DIRT OUT
SOLID ADDITIVES CAN BE SUSPENDED
STAYS IN PLACE
FOR LONG TIME OR PACKED FOR LIFE
APPLICATIONS GREASE IS PREFERRED
Thank You