CLASS 9TH

Bir Sikhan Wala Faridkot
TOPIC : STRUCTURE OF ATOM

 The word atom is derived from the

Greek word atom which means indivisible. The Greeks concluded that matter could be broken down into particles too small to be seen. These particles were called atoms

Structure of an Atom

1. 2. 3.

It is the smallest unit of an element that cannot exist by itself .An atom is a neutral particle which consist of three sub atomic particles. Proton Electron Neutron

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HYDROGEN ISOTOPE DEUTERIUM

•ELECTRON •PROTON •NEUTRON

+

•NEUCLEUS

•OUTER SHELL

PROTON
 Protons are present in the nucleus

and each have a positive charge of +1. Protons have mass and determine the mass number.

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ELECTRON
 Electrons are tiny, negatively charged

particles with negligible mass that form a cloud around the nucleus of an atom. Around the nucleus in various shells revolve the negatively charged electrons. Starting from the nucleus the electrons revolve in various shells called K, L M, N, etc.
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Neutron
 Neutrons are about the same size as

protons but their mass is slightly greater. without neutrons present in the nucleus ,the repulsion among the positive charge protons would cause the nucleus to fly apart.
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Sub Atomic Particles Charged With
SUBATOM PROTON ELECTRON NEUTRON CHARGE POSITIVE NEGATIVE NO CHARGE

Electron revolves in fixed orbit around the nucleus of an atom.

Structure of Hydrogen
-

+

+ -

1 PROTON +VE CHARGE 1 ELECTRON –VE CHARGE NO NEUTRON

Characteristics of an Atom
 Atomic No  Mass No  Isotopes

Atomic Number
 It is the number of protons that

determines the atomic number.  The number of protons in an element is constant .  It is denoted by Z  e.g in hydrogen Z = 1

Mass Number
 It is the total number of NEUTRONS and

protons present in nucleus of en atom  It is denoted by A  A = neutrons +protons  neutron number may vary, so mass number (protons + neutrons) may vary.

Example for mass no and atomic no with Structure of Hydrogen
-

+

+ -

No of Proton = 1 No of electrons = 1 No of neutrons = 0

Mass No (A) = 1 Atomic no (Z) = 1

Isotopes
 Two or more atom of the same element

which has same no. of protons but different no. of neutrons

Isotope of hydrogen
Element
Hydrogen-1

Isotope
Protium

Neutron
0

Proton
1

electron
1

Hydrogen-2

Deuterium

1

1

1

Hydrogen-3

Tritium

2

1

1

Isotope of hydrogen (diagram)

Protium

Deuterium

Tritium

•ELECTRON •NEUTRON •PROTON •NECLEUS

Isotope of Carbon
Element
Carbon

Isotope
C-12

Neutron Proton
6 6

electron
6

Carbon

C-13

7

6

6

carbon

C-14

8

6

6

Isotope of Carbon (diagram)
C-12 C-13 C-14

•ELECTRON •NEUTRON •PROTON •NECLEUS

BIBLIOGRAPHY
 TEXT BOOK OF 9TH CLASS SCIENCE  INTERNET  http://www.cchem.berkeley.edu  http://www.chem.vt.edu  ENCARTA

Acknowledgement
We are thankful to our 1. Science teacher Mrs. Yeshbir Kaur to help us in collecting and editing the matter. 2. Computer Faculty Mrs. Lalita Goyal and Mr. Harinder Pal Singh to help us in designing.

Prepared by:- class 9th
 Jaspreet Kaur  Narinder Kaur  Pawandeep Kaur  Sandeep Kaur

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