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• Composite buildings are defined as a those buildings

with a blend of structural steel and reinforced concrete.
• Composite construction consist of structural steel beams
and R.C. slab with shear connectors in between.
• The first composite system was developed for the bridge
construction, was readily adopted for buildings.
• Its success inspired engineers to develop composite
building systems by combining structural steel and
reinforced concrete in a variety of vertical building
Composite Building Systems

• Composite building systems in use today may be

conveniently classified in to the following categories:
1. Shear wall-frame interacting systems.
2. Tube systems.
3. Vertically mixed systems.
4. Frames with super column.
Shear wall-Frame interacting system

• This system has applications in buildings that do not

have cores sufficiently large to resist the total lateral
loads; interaction of shear walls with other moment
frames located in the interior or at the exterior of the
• For interior frame, usually the columns and girders are of
steel because of high cost of formwork for enclosing the
columns and girders.
• These system is used for both concrete structure and
composite structure.
Shear wall-Frame interacting system
First City Tower, Houston

• Architect: morris-aubry
• Year of completion: 1981
• No. of stories: 49
• Height of building: 202m
• Frame material: shear wall with
rigid frames, composite column
• Building is parallelogram in
Floor plan of first city tower
The final scheme has the following component
1. Composite floor framing system, consisting of steel beams
and concrete slab on formed steel deck interconnected with
shear studs.
2. Composite stub girder system, consisting of rolled steel
beams connected to floor slab with a series of studs welded
to the beam.
3. Composite columns consisting of steel rolled shapes
embedded in R.C. columns.
4. Composite frame consisting of composite columns and
moment connected steel beams.
5. Composite shear walls consisting of R.C shear walls with
steel link beams.
6. Composite const. that allows initial growth of steel followed
by placing of conc to form composite columns and shear
Tube System

• A framing system used extensively in louisiana and texas

is the composite concrete tube.
• In this system, closely spaced columns around the
perimeter and deep spandrels form the backbone of the
• There are two types of tube systems:
1. composite columns with concrete spandrels.
2. composite columns with steel spandrels.
Composite columns with concrete spandrels
• In the design of the concrete spandrel, its strength and
stiffness contribution is generally neglected due to its
relatively small size.

Composite Tube With Concrete Spandrels

Composite column connection with concrete
Composite columns with steel spandrels

• A small steel section can be used as a steel spandrel to

stabilize the steel columns.
• In both system, speed of construction is maintained by
erecting a steel skeleton first with interior steel columns, steel
floor framing and light exterior columns.
• Usually steel frame is erected some 10-12 stories ahead of
the perimeter concrete tube.
• The success in this system lies in the rigidity of closely spaced
exterior columns, which together with deep spandrel results in
an exterior facade that behaves more like a bearing wall with
punched windows than a moment frame.
Composite columns with steel spandrels
Composite column connection with steel
The America Tower, Houston, Texas
• Designed by: walter p. moore and
• Year of completion: 1983
• Height of building: 590 ft.
• No. of stories: 42
• Frame material: composite columns
with concrete spandrels.
Composite tube system for America tower
• In this system a concrete exterior tube consisting of
closely spaced columns and deep spandrels forms the
essential wind bracing system.
• Fast erection of the steel frame is achieved by using light
structural columns around the perimeter.
• The system used for america tower is the prefabricated
tree column system.
• A typical tree column consists of a 2 storey column
• The major difference in the mixed tube construction is that
the column sizes are small compared to an all steel
scheme, resulting in savings in the fabrication and
erection of steel members.
• Another features that has resulted in considerable
savings is the use of a hybrid tubular frame on the
perimeter of the building.
• Composite columns used in the typical levels are
integrated in to pure structural steel columns at the
second level.
• Although the savings in the structural cost for this
scheme appeared to be only marginal from the
comparative study, the contractor elected to use this
scheme because his recent job experience on another
similar high rise project had proved that a hybrid frame is
more economical than a full height composite scheme.
Tree Column System Concept
Connection of composite column to steel column


Vertically Mixed system

• Mixed use buildings provide for two or more types of

occupancies in a single building by vertically stacking
different amenities.
• Since different types of occupancies economically favor
different types of construction, it seems logical to mix
construction vertically up the building height.
• In certain types of buildings, use of concrete for the lower
levels and structural steel for the upper levels may provide an
optimum solution.
• The bracing for the concrete portion of the building is
provided by the shear walls, while a braced steel core
provides the lateral stability for the upper levels.

• A suggested technique of transferring steel columns on

to a concrete wall consists of embedding steel columns
for one or two levels below the transfer level.
• Shear studs to the embedded steel column provide for
the transfer of axial loads from the steel column to the
concrete walls.
Vertically mixed system
Shear wall – Bracing Concept
Frames with super columns

• The most efficient method of resisting lateral loads in tall

buildings is to provide “super columns”.
• These columns are connected with a shear resisting system
such as welded steel girders, vierendeel frames or diagonals.
• This idea has given rise to a whole new category of composite
systems characterized by their use of super columns.
• The construction of super columns can take on many
• One system uses large diameter thin walled pipes or
tubes filled with high strength concrete generally in the
range of 41 to 138 Mpa compressive strength.
• Another method is to form the composite column using
conventional forming techniques; the only difference is
that steel columns embedded in the super column are
used for the erection of steel framing and for additional
axial and shear strength.