This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS -LATERAL LOAD RESISTANT SYSTEMS
GROUP-3 PHASE-1 ROLL NO.:06MCL008
Why is structural system study important
The structural system is most important criterion for development tall building as it interrelates 1. Plan shapes 2. Floor plate 3. Floor height 4. Service core and 5. Vertical transportation
CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF STRUCTURAL SYSTEM OF TALL BUILDINGS
Apartment buildings are generally built-up of Reinforced concrete buildings with flat plate and core walls Up to 30 storey, concrete shear wall core with columns and flat plate slab floors are adequate to take care of lateral load For range of 30 to 60 storey, concrete shear wall core is inadequate, so usual practice is to provide outrigger beams or walls at service floors to connect core walls to exterior columns For more than 60 storey, bundled tube or tubular system or other new approach by combinations
Structural system alternatives for Tall structures
Core walls i.e. cantilevered building system Core walls with outrigger Tubular systems
Framed tube Deep spandrel tube Tube with parallel shear wall Tube in tube Bundled tube
Hybrid systems Spine wall system
Core supported system
60 street bldg plan
Frequent use of shear walls is in form of box shaped cores around stairs and elevators Walls around the core can be considered as a spatial system capable of transmitting lateral loads in both direction Core has ability to resist all type of loads Shape of core to large extent is governed by elevator and stair requirement
has the ability to resist all types of loads; vetical loads, shear forces and bending moments in two direction, as well as torsion especially when additonal stiffnes and strength are provided
Single core serves to carry gravity and horizontal loadings. Slabs are supported at each levels from the core In some cases, slabs are supported between the core and perimeter columns, which terminate either on major cantilevers or as required Merits: Mainly architectural, in providing a column-free perimeter at the ground level and at other levels Demerits: Resiting floor load by cantilevers-a highly inefficient structural components Large quantity of steel at junction of cantilever slab and core due to large negative moment Less efficient in resisting lateral forces compared to other system
CONCRETE CORE WITH OUTRIGGERS
Concept taken from the tall and slender mast of the ships with spreaders i.e. horizontal member tied with mast and vertical end stays, helps in resisting wind force efficiently In high rise buildings, concrete core relates to tall mast of ship outriggers relates to spreaders exterior column related to end stays These outriggers serve to reduce the overturning moment in the core that would otherwise act as a pure cantilever, and to transfer the reduced moment to columns outside the core by way of a tensioncompression couple, which takes advantage of increased moment arm between these columns.
Many high rise bldg consists of central elevated core and exterior support columns which results in greater functional efficiency and it also disconnects both systems which leads to less efficiency to resist lateral loads and overturning force because of sum of independent resistances of individual elements The incorporation of outrigger in this systems couples these two components and enhances the systems ability to resist the overturning forces. A core system alone can also generate excessive uplift forces in the core structure along with high overturning forces in the building’s foundation system
In foundation system, these uplift forces can lead to the need for: 1. The addition of expensive and labour-intensive rock
anchors to an otherwise simple foundation alternative 2. Greatly enlarged mat dimensions and dimensions and depth solely to resist overturning forces. 3. Time consuming and costly rock sockets for caisson systems along with the need to develop reinforcement throughout caisson depth 4. Extensive and intensive field-work connections at the interface between core and foundation
1. Core overturning moments and their associated induced deformation can be reduced 2. Significant reduction and possibly the complete elimination of uplift and net tension forces throughout the columns and the foundation system 3. The exterior column spacing is not driven by structural considerations and can easily mesh with aesthetic and functional considerations 4. Exterior framing can consist of “Simple” beam and column framing without the need for rigid-frame-type connections, resulting in economies 5. Outrigger systems can efficently incorporate almost every gravity column into the lateral load resisting system, leading to economies
The most significant drawback with use of outrigger systems is their potential interference with occupiable and rentable space The obstacles can be minimized by following approaches Locating outriggers in mechanical and interstitial levels Skewing and offsetting outriggers in order to mesh with the functional layout of the floor space Incorporating multilevel single diagonal outriggers to minimize the member’s interference on any single level
JIN MAO BUILDING, SHANGHAI The tower is built around an octagonshaped concrete shear wall core surrounded by 8 exterior composite super columns and 8 exterior steel columns. Three sets of a two-story high outrigger trusses connect the columns to the core at six of the floors to provide additional support.
PETRONAS TOWER, MALAYSIA
Architect: Murphy Jahn Year of completion:1987 Ht from street to roof: 248m Number of stories: 75 Number of levels below GL:2 Building use:office & residential Frame material: concrete Earthquake loading:not applicable Basic wind speed:47m/s Fund time period:5.5 Hori & 2 tors Type of system: Shear wall with outriggers at transfer level and interior diagonals in office level Core: concrete walls of varying thickness Conc grade: 56MPa Most slender structure at time of const
The modelling of city spire was complex because the structure is subdivided into nine major structural subsystems The main structural system is a shear-wall-open-core system, which traverses the center 24.4m wide octagon in each direction Staggered rectangular concrete panels were used to form space diagonal in the lower office levels. These panels were used to provede continuity between the 1.7x2.1m jumbo columns The east and west octagon columns were similarly connected by stagered concrete panels The apartments above 26 floors required too many coupling beams to connect many parts of shear walls as above this 26th floor large open span, free of support was maintained between the esterior and the central elevator core to accommodate flexible duplex and penthouse
SHEAR LAG EFFECT
The Bernoulli-Euler assumption that, plane section before bending remains plane after bending is often used for analysis of beam structure According to this assumption, the longitudinal stresses in web and flanges should be linearly and uniformly distributed. However, this assumption is approximate and applicable strictly when there is no shear force or structure having infinite shear stiffness
Axial stress distribution with no shear la
In actuality, when structure is subjected to shear forces, a shear flow would be developed between web and flange panels, and owing to shear deformation of panels the longitudinal dispacements in the parts of web and flanges remote from the web-flange junctions would lag behind those at junctions As a result, longitudinal stresses in web and flanges would become distributed Such shear lag phenomenon reduces the effectiveness of web and flanges and increase the longitudinal stresses at web-flange junctions and lateral deflection of structure
Axial stress distribution with effect of shear lag
Axial stress distribution with or without shear lag effect
Framed Tube Structures
A framed tube structure is a new addition to the structural systems. Khan is generally credited with its invention in the 1960s. "a three dimensional space structure composed of three, four, or possibly more frames, braced frames, or shear walls, joined at or near their edges to form a vertical tubelike structural system capable of resisting lateral forces in any direction by cantilevering from the foundation."
Dr.Fazlur Rehman Khan
Framed Tube Structures
The framed-tube structure has its columns closely spaced around the perimeter of the building, rather than scattered throughout the footprint, while stiff spandrel beams connect these columns at every floor level. This structural system was first implemented in 1964 in the construction of the DeWitt-Chestnut Apartments in Chicago, a 43-story reinforced concrete tower designed by Dr.Fazlur Rehman Khan and his colleagues at Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM). Because of its great relative strength and stiffness, the tubular form immediately became a standard in high-rise design.
The revolutionary framed-tube structural system was first seen in the construction of the DeWittChestnut Apartments in Chicago.
Framed Tube Structures
In 1998 the city of Chicago named the intersection of Jackson and Franklin Streets (located at the foot of the Sears Tower) “Fazlur R. Khan Way.”
Although, the structure has a tube-like form, its behavior is much more complex than that of a plain unperforated tube, and the stiffness may be considerably less When subjected to bending under the action of lateral forces, the primary mode of action is that of a conventional vertical cantilevered tube, in which the columns on opposite sides of the neutral axis are subjected to tensile and compressive forces In addition, the frames parallel to the direction of lateral load are subjected to in-plane bending and shearing action assocaited with an independent rigid frame The primary action is complicated by the fact that the flexibility of the spandrel beams produces a shear lag that increses the stresses in the corner columns and reduces those in the inner columns
Mode of Behaviour of frame tube system
Framed Tube Structures plan & modelled 3-D view
DIAGONAL TRUSS TUBE SYSTEM 100 storey JOHN HANCOCK CENTRE IN CHICAGO THE BUILDING WAS COMPLETED IN 1970
Trussed tube structures
The inherent weakness of the framed tube lies in the flexibility of it spandrel beams. Its rigidity is greatly improved by adding diagonal members. The shear is now primarily absorbed by diagonals, and not spandrels. The diagonals carry the lateral forces directly in predominantly axial action. Shear lag effect is comparatively reduced compared to frame tube
Tube in Tube
The stiffness of a hollow tube system is very much improved by using the core not only for gravity loads but to resist lateral loads also The exterior columns and beams are spaced so closely that the façade has the appearance of a wall with perforated window openings. The floor structure ties the exterior and interior tubes together, and they respond as a unit to lateral forces The entire building acts as a hollow tibe cantilevering out of the ground
Tube with parallel shear walls
The exterior tubular wall can be stiffened by incorporating interior shear walls into the plan. One can visualize the exterior tube walls as the flanges of a huge built-up beam system in which the shear walls represent the webs.
Fig shows respectively two approaches, 1. wide spacing of façade columns requiring shear wall for every column 2. Close spacing of façade columns, requiring only two shear walls
Looking up at the Sears Tower, the worlds tallest building for over twenty years. The design for this 1454-foot tall tower introduced the bundled tube structural system, as well as a new vocabulary in architectural form.
The bundled tube system can be visualized as an assemblage of individual of individual tubes resulting in a multiple-cell tube. The increase in the stiffness is apparent The system allows for the greatest height and most floor area
•The structure is formed from 9 bundled square tubes, each 75 feet wide with no columns between the core and perimeter. Two of the tubes are 50 floors high, two are 66 floors, three are 90, and two are 108.
Structures are often built in which the lateral resistance is provided by a mixture of structures. The most common are moment resisting frames combined either with structural walls or diagonal bracing.
Both externally and internally the new Toyota building is visually exciting
OTHER PLAN WITH CORE OR TUBE SYSTEMS
SOME STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS USED IN ASIA PACIFIC REGIONAL BUILDINGS
STRUCTURAL SYSTEM OF BURJ DUBAI
Designer purposely shaped the plan of Y-shaped to reduce the wind forces on tower The structural system could be described as buttressed core. Each wing with its own high performance concrete core and perimeter column, buttresses the other via six –sided central core This results in tower which is extremely torsionally rigid
SPINE WALL SYSTEMS
Walls are placed along the corridors as a spine running through the length of floors. Triangular core wall along stair and elevators in the core of the building takes care for improving the torsional resistance of tower.
Structural systems that are suitable for different ranges of number of stories
THE TWO COMMONLY USED STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS FOR TALL BUILDINGS ARE 1. CEN TRAL CORE AND OUTRIGGER SYSTEM 2. REINFORCED CONCRETE TUBE-INTUBE SYSTEM WITH OR WITHOUT OUTRIGGERS
Steel,concrete design of tall buildings --By: B.S.Taranath Tall structures --By Smith & Coul ACI Manual for tall building design Proceeding for Structural system Highrise Building –W Schueller