Introduction

•Wind is moving air. The air has a particular mass and moves in a particular direction at a particular direction at a particular velocity. It thus has kinetic energy of the from expressed as, E=1/2mv2 •The radiation effects are mainly responsible for Convection current either upwards or downwards. •It is generally blows horizontal to the ground at high speeds.
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CHARACTERISTIC OF WIND
• • • • • Variation of wind velocity with height Turbulent nature of wind Probabilistic approach Vortex shedding Phenomenon Dynamic nature of wind structure interaction

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Classification wind as per speed

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Wind classification as per saffir-Simpson scale
Category Velocity 1 minute
(km/hr)

Pressure
(mb)

Damages

1 2 3 4 5

120 - 150 150 – 175 175 – 210 210 – 250 > 250

> 980 965 – 980 945 - 965 920 - 945 < 920

Minimum Moderate Extensive Extreme Catastrophic
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Relation of wind velocity to pressure on a stationary object.

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How wind force governing for tall structure?
• For tall structure more than 15 stories ,with innovations in architectural treatment, increases in strength of materials and advance in method of analysis, tall building structures have become more efficient and lighter and consequently more prone to deflect and even to sway under wind loading.
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• If decrease cross sec. property of structural element with increase height of building • Construction cost per unit area decrease • Increasing lightness in weight per unit area • More danger against high velocity of wind force at high level

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Typical flow of wind for tall structure-Turbulent flow of wind on longitudinal and transverse sides

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Turbulent flow on tall structure due to upwind obstructions

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Wind velocity increase due to large openings at lower floors

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Different types of forces acting on structural element

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Pressure coefficient on tall structure
- 0.6 - 0.5 - 0.6 - 0.6 0.9 0.8 - 0.5 0.7 - 0.6 - 0.6 WIND - 0.6 Pressure keeps constant with height (Leeward)

- 0.6

ROOF

0.6 - 0.5 0.5 - 0.5

Pressure varies with height (Wind ward)

- 0.6 - 0.7

0.4

0.3

0.4 SIDE

0.3 0.3

0.4 BACK

FRONT

D IN W

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Effect of wind load on tall structure
• Overturning due to wind overturning moment because of larger drift.

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Example
• Building toppled other side due to more overturning moment.

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When there is a lack of symmetry among resisting elements, wind will be induce more torsional effect

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Example of failure of structure due to torsional effect

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Analyses of wind force
• Wind Tunnel Experimental Method for static and dynamic effect • Detailed Analytical Method as per code IS:875-Part-3,Draft IS:875-Part-3. for static and dynamic effect.

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OBJECTIVE OF WIND TUNNEL TEST
• Dynamic Response • Drag, Vortex shedding and wind separation from building surface. • To decide building configurations (shape)

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Wind Tunnel test
• World Trade Center – New York 1973-2001

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•Empire State Building - full-scale and wind-tunnel studies in 1930’s
N-S

1.0

Uh

x 2 1 0
0.5 Y (N-S) wind
E-W
x x

3

x

α

X (E-W)
0 10 x 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Angle of attack - degrees

∆ - Mean deflection (inches) Uh - Mean wind speed at 381m in MPH (uncorrected)
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Wind Analyses by code IS:875 (Part-3)
•Static Analyses by regular &draft code •Dynamic Analyses (Gust factor method) by draft code

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Static Analyses of wind force
• General steps • Design wind speed at height z (Vz)
2 • Wind pressure at height (pz)=0.6 Vz

• Design wind pressure (pd) • Design wind force (F)

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Comparisons

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27

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Selection of k2 Factor
• As per regular code • Class-A,B and C • Terrain category
• As per draft code • Terrain category • Terrain roughness and height factor • Fetch and developed Height

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Sketch showing effects of topography on wind velocity on a hilly island
V g 100

Speed up
V s V g 100 100 120

V g

V g

100

10 m

V s

80

60

V 40 s

Open sea

Wind ward Coast

Speed up over hill crest

Sheltered leeward coast

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Terrain category-1

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Terrain category-2

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Terrain category-3

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Terrain category-4

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Boundary Layer Profile for Diff. Approach Terrain

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37

38

39

40

41

42

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Dynamic Analyses by Gust Factor method

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Codel criteria

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Fundamental Time pereod

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Design Pressure for Dynamic Analyses

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Excel worksheets
• Static Analyses by Regular code • Static and dynamic Analyses by draft code

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Different International standards
Standard
ISO CUBiC ENV DRBC AIJ AS BNSCP

Identification
International Standard Organization Caribbean Uniform Building Code Eurocode Dominican Republic Building Code Japan Standard Australian Standard Barbados Standard
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Different calculations for design wind speeds and dynamic pressures
Standard
ISO 4354 CUBiC ENV 1991-2-4 DRBC-03 AIJ AS1170.2-89 BNSCP28

Speed

Pressure

Building Pressure/Force
W = ( qref ) ( Cexp )( C fig )( C dyn )

V

q ref =1 ρV2 2 q ref =1 ρV2 2
q ref =1 ρ( Vref ) 2 2

V
Vref = CdirC temCaltC ref ,0

W = q ref Cexp Cfig C dyn We = q ref Cexp ( Ze ) C pe

(

)( )

V( 3s − gust)

q z = 1 ρ K z K zt K d IV 2 2 q h = 1 ρU H2 2

p = q z GCp − q h GCpi
Wf = q h Cf G f A Pe = C p,e K a K l K pq z

(

)

(

)

UH = UgEf EgR

Vz = Vz,cat M s M t M i q h =1 ρVz2 2
V

q =1 ρ( VS 1S2S3 ) 2 P = qCpe 2
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Building types in seven international wind standards
Building Shape/Type Stepped Roofs Free-standing walls Multispan canopies Arched roofs Domes Silos and tanks Circular sections Polygonal sections Lattice towers Spheres Signs ISO 4354 no yes no yes no yes yes no yes no yes CUBiC no yes no yes no yes yes no yes yes yes ENV 1991 no yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes DRBC 2003 yes yes yes yes no yes yes no yes no yes AIJ AS1170. BNS 2 CP28 no no no yes yes no yes no no no yes no yes no yes no yes yes yes yes no yes yes no no yes no no yes yes yes yes yes 55

Protection effect of building
A favorable location of adjacent buildings can decrease the hurricane effects by reducing the wind loads

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Unfavorable location of buildings adjacent to a hospital
A bad location of nearby buildings might induce increase of wind loads

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Flat-slab systems without capitals present little resistance against lateral forces. Their use on hospitals should be avoided

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Thank you

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