Hydro Power

Group No.02 3rd year(6th term) Mechanical Engg. UCE&T,BZU Multan

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Contents
• Introduction • Scale of Hydro Power Production • Hydro Power Design • Turbine Design • Hydro Power Calculations • Environmental Impacts
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Introduction

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World Energy Sources

hydropower.org

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Hydrologic Cycle

http://www1.eere.energy.gov/windandhydro/hydro_how.html

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Hydro Power
• Hydro Power, Hydraulic Power or Water Power is the power that
is derived from the force or energy of moving water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes. • Hydro Power can be converted into Mechanical Power to operate machines like Water Mills, Textile Machines, Sawmills, Dock Cranes, Domestic Lifts, Irrigation etc. • Hydro Power can be converted into Electric Power indirectly.

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Water Wheels

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Early Roman Water Mill

Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, 2003

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Early Norse Water Mill

Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, 2003

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Fourneyron’s Turbine

Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, 2003

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Early Irrigation Waterwheel

Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, 2003

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Hydro Power to Electric Power
Potential Energy Electrical Energy Electricity

Kinetic Energy

Mechanical Energy
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Gravitational

Mechanical

Electrical

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Scale of Hydro Power Projects

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Scale of Hydropower Projects • Large-hydro
• Medium-hydro • Small-hydro • Mini-hydro
– 15 - 100 MW usually feeding a grid – 1 - 15 MW - usually feeding into a grid

– More than 100 MW feeding into a large electricity grid

– Above 100 kW, but below 1 MW – Either stand alone schemes or more often feeding into the grid – From 5kW up to 100 kW – Usually provided power for a small community or rural industry in remote areas away from the grid. – From a few hundred watts up to 5kW – Remote areas away from the grid.
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• Micro-hydro

• Pico-hydro

Micro Run-of-River Hydropower

http://www1.eere.energy.gov/windandhydro/hydro_plant_types.html

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Micro Hydro Power Example

Used in remote locations in northern Canada
http://www.electrovent.com/#hydrofr

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Large Hydro Power Example

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World Hydropower

Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, 2003

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Regional Hydropower Potential

Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, 2003

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Hydropower Design

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Terminology (Jargon)
• Head
– Water must fall from a higher elevation to a lower one to release its stored energy. – The difference between these elevations (the water levels in the forebay and the tailbay) is called head – – – high-head (800 or more feet) medium-head (100 to 800 feet) low-head (less than 100 feet)

• Dams: three categories

• Power is proportional to the product of
head x flow

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Parts of Hydro Electric Plant
1. Dam. Raises the water level of the river to create falling water. Also
controls the flow of water. The reservoir that is formed is, in effect, stored energy. 2. Turbine. The force of falling water pushing against the turbine's blades causes the turbine to spin. A water turbine is much like a windmill, except the energy is provided by falling water instead of wind. The turbine converts the kinetic energy of falling water into mechanical energy. 3. Generator. Connected to the turbine by shafts and possibly gears so when the turbine spins it causes the generator to spin also. Converts the mechanical energy from the turbine into electric energy. Generators in hydropower plants work just like the generators in other types of power plants.

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Types of Hydroelectric Installation

Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, 2003

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Types of Systems
1. Impoundment Dam 2. Diversion or run-of-river systems 3. Pumped Storage

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1: Impoundment Dam

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Conventional Impoundment Dam

http://www1.eere.energy.gov/windandhydro/hydro_plant_types.html

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Hoover Dam (US)

http://las-vegas.travelnice.com/dbi/hooverdam-225x300.jpg

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Itaipú Dam (Brazil & Paraguay)

“Itaipu,” Wikipedia.org

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Three Gorges Dam (China)

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Grand Coulee Dam (US)

www.swehs.co.uk/ docs/coulee.html

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World’s Largest Dams
Name Country Year Max Annual Generation Production 18,200 MW 12,600 MW 93.4 TW-hrs 10,200 MW 46 TW-hrs

Three Gorges Itaipú Guri Grand Coulee Sayano Shushenskaya Robert-Bourassa Churchill Falls

China Brazil/Paraguay Venezuela United States Russia Canada

2009 1983 1986 1942/80 1983 1981 1971 1970

6,809 MW 22.6 TW-hrs 6,400 MW 5,616 MW 5,429 MW 35 TW-hrs 2,280 MW 11.3 TW-hrs

Canada Ranked by maximum power. Romania/Serbia Iron Gates

“Hydroelectricity,” Wikipedia.org

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2: Diversion(Run-of-River)

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Diversion (Run-of-River) Hydropower

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Diversion Hydropower (Tazimina, Alaska)

http://www1.eere.energy.gov/windandhydro/hydro_plant_types.html

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3: Pumped Storage

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Pumped Storage Schematic

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Pumped Storage System

Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, 2003

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Cabin Creek Pumped Hydro (Colorado)
• Completed 1967 • Capacity – 324 MW
– Two 162 MW units

• Purpose – energy storage

• Typical efficiency of 70 – 85%

– Water pumped uphill at night • Low usage – excess base load capacity – Water flows downhill during day/peak periods – Helps Xcel to meet surge demand • E.g., air conditioning demand on hot summer days

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Cruachan Pumped Storage (Scotland)

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Pumped Storage Power Spectrum

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Turbine Design
Francis Turbine Kaplan Turbine Pelton Turbine Turgo Turbine New Designs
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Classification of Hydro Turbines
• Reaction Turbines
– – – – – – – Derive power from pressure drop across turbine Totally immersed in water Angular & linear motion converted to shaft power Propeller, Francis, and Kaplan turbines Convert kinetic energy of water jet hitting buckets No pressure drop across turbines Pelton, Turgo, and crossflow turbines

• Impulse Turbines

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Types of Hydropower Turbines

Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, 2003

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Schematic of Francis Turbine

Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, 2003

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Francis Turbine CrossSection

Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, 2003

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Small Francis Turbine & Generator

"Water Turbine," Wikipedia.com

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Francis Turbine – Grand Coulee Dam

"Water Turbine," Wikipedia.com

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Fixed-Pitch Propeller Turbine

"Water Turbine," Wikipedia.com

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Kaplan Turbine Schematic

"Water Turbine," Wikipedia.com

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Kaplan Turbine Cross Section

"Water Turbine," Wikipedia.com

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Vertical Kaplan Turbine Setup

Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, 2003

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Horizontal Kaplan Turbine

Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, 2003

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Pelton Wheel Turbine

Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, 2003

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Turgo Turbine

Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, 2003

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Fish Friendly Turbine Design

www.eere.energy.gov/windandhydro/hydro_rd.html

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Turbine Design Ranges
• Kaplan • Francis • Pelton • Turgo
2 < H < 40   10 < H < 350 50 < H < 1300 50 < H < 250
(H = head in meters)

Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, 2003

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Turbine Ranges of Application

Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, 2003

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Turbine Design Recommendations
Head Pressure
High Impulse Pelton Turgo Multi-jet Pelton Medium Crossflow Turgo Multi-jet Pelton Francis Pump-asTurbine Low Crossflow

Reactio n

Propeller Kaplan
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Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, 2003

Hydro Power Calculations

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Efficiency of Hydropower Plants
• Hydropower is very efficient
– Efficiency = (electrical power delivered to the “busbar”) ÷ (potential energy of head water)

• Typical losses are due to
– Frictional drag and turbulence of flow – Friction and magnetic losses in turbine & generator

• Overall efficiency ranges from 75-95%
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Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, 2003

Hydropower Calculations
P = g ×η × Q × H P ≅ 10 ×η × Q × H
• P = power in kilowatts (kW) • g = gravitational acceleration (9.81 m/s2) ∀η = turbo-generator efficiency (0<n<1) • Q = quantity of water flowing (m3/sec) • H = effective head (m)
Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, 2003

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Example 1a
Consider a mountain stream with an effective head of 25 meters (m) and a flow rate of 600 liters (ℓ) per minute. How much power could a hydro plant generate? Assume plant efficiency (η ) of 83%.

• H = 25 m • Q = 600 ℓ/min × 1 m3/1000 ℓ × 1 min/60sec
Q = 0.01 m3/sec ∀ η = 0.83 P ≅ 2.1 kW

• P ≅ 10η QH = 10(0.83)(0.01)(25) = 2.075
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Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, 2003

Example 1b
How much energy (E) will the hydro plant generate each year?

• E = P×t

E = 2.1 kW × 24 hrs/day × 365 days/yr E = 18,396 kWh annually

About how many people will this energy support (assume approximately 3,000 kWh / person)?

• People = E÷3000 = 18396/3000 = 6.13 • About 6 people
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Economics of Hydropower

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Production Expense Comparison

Wisconsin Valley Improvement Company, http://www.wvic.com/hydro-facts.htm

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Environmental Impacts

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Impacts of Hydroelectric Dams

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Ecological Impacts
• Loss of forests, wildlife habitat, species • Degradation of upstream catchments areas due to inundation of • • • • •
reservoir area Rotting vegetation also emits greenhouse gases Loss of aquatic biodiversity, fisheries, other downstream services Cumulative impacts on water quality, natural flooding Disrupt transfer of energy, sediment, nutrients Sedimentation reduces reservoir life, erodes turbines
– Creation of new wetland habitat – Fishing and recreational opportunities provided by new reservoirs

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Environmental and Social Issues
• Land use – inundation and displacement of people • Impacts on natural hydrology
– Increase evaporative losses – Altering river flows and natural flooding cycles – Sedimentation/silting – Aquatic ecology, fish, plants, mammals – Mercury, nitrates, oxygen – Bacterial and viral infections

• Impacts on biodiversity

• Water chemistry changes
• Tropics

• Seismic Risks • Structural dam failure risks

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Hydropower – Pros and Cons
Positive Negative
Emissions-free, with virtually no CO2, Frequently involves impoundment of NOX, SOX, hydrocarbons, or particulates large amounts of water with loss of habitat due to land inundation Renewable resource with high Variable output – dependent on rainfall conversion efficiency to electricity (80+ and snowfall %) Dispatchable with storage capacity Impacts on river flows and aquatic ecology, including fish migration and oxygen depletion Social impacts of displacing indigenous people Health impacts in developing countries High initial capital costs Long lead time in construction of large projects

Usable for base load, peaking and pumped storage applications Scalable from 10 KW to 20,000 MW Low operating and maintenance costs Long lifetimes

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