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Poultry Nutrition and Feed

Ingredients
What and Why

Dr. Park Waldroup
Novus International Distinguished Professor

NCIFAP Feb. 12-13, 2007
Fayetteville AR
Nutrient requirements of chickens are
well known
Easy animal to study
Small numbers needed
Fast growth rate and short life span
Close relationship between poultry
scientists and the poultry industry has
meant rapid transfer of knowledge
Transfer of research results to industry implementation has
been extremely rapid in the poultry industry
Basic Approach to Feed
Formulation
Establish nutrient specifications to be met
Determine ingredients available for use
Establish limitations on ingredient usage
Quantity available
Physical factors
Antinutritive factors
Blend ingredients under the limitations imposed
to provide required nutrients for optimal
economic performance
Nutrient needs of poultry well known
Metabolizable energy 1400 kcal
Arginine 1.25 %
Glycine + Serine 1.25 %
Histidine 0.35 %
Isoleucine 0.80 %
Lysine 1.20 %
Methionine 0.50 %
Methionine + cystine 0.90 %
Phenylalanine 0.72 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 0.72 %
Proline 0.60 %
Threonine 0.80 %
Tryptophan 0.20 %
Valine 0.90 %
Linoleic acid 1.00 %
Calcium 1.00 %
Phosphorus 0.45%
Sodium 0.20 %
Chlorine 0.20%
Potassium 0.30 %
Magnesium 600 mg
Copper 8 mg
Iodine 0.35 mg
Iron 80 mg
Manganese 60 mg
Selenium 0.15 mg
Zinc 40 mg
Vitamin A 1500 IU
Vitamin D 200 ICU
Vitamin E 10 IU
Vitamin K 0.50 mg
Vitamin B12 0.01 mg
Biotin 0.15 mg
Choline 1300 mg
Folacin 0.55 mg
Niacin 35 mg
Pantothenic Acid 10 mg
Pyridoxine 3.5 mg
Riboflavin 3.6 mg
Thiamin 1.80 mg
Complete vitamin mixes used
Metabolizable energy 1400 kcal
Arginine 1.25 %
Glycine + Serine 1.25 %
Histidine 0.35 %
Isoleucine 0.80 %
Lysine 1.20 %
Methionine 0.50 %
Methionine + cystine 0.90 %
Phenylalanine 0.72 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 0.72 %
Proline 0.60 %
Threonine 0.80 %
Tryptophan 0.20 %
Valine 0.90 %
Linoleic acid 1.00 %
Calcium 1.00 %
Phosphorus 0.45%
Sodium 0.20 %
Chlorine 0.20%
Potassium 0.30 %
Magnesium 600 mg
Copper 8 mg
Iodine 0.35 mg
Iron 80 mg
Manganese 60 mg
Selenium 0.15 mg
Zinc 40 mg
Vitamin A 1500 IU
Vitamin D 200 ICU
Vitamin E 10 IU
Vitamin K 0.50 mg
Vitamin B12 0.01 mg
Biotin 0.15 mg
Choline 1300 mg
Folacin 0.55 mg
Niacin 35 mg
Pantothenic Acid 10 mg
Pyridoxine 3.5 mg
Riboflavin 3.6 mg
Thiamin 1.80 mg
Trace mineral mixes provide microminerals
Metabolizable energy 1400 kcal
Arginine 1.25 %
Glycine + Serine 1.25 %
Histidine 0.35 %
Isoleucine 0.80 %
Lysine 1.20 %
Methionine 0.50 %
Methionine + cystine 0.90 %
Phenylalanine 0.72 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 0.72 %
Proline 0.60 %
Threonine 0.80 %
Tryptophan 0.20 %
Valine 0.90 %
Linoleic acid 1.00 %
Calcium 1.00 %
Phosphorus 0.45%
Sodium 0.20 %
Chlorine 0.20%
Potassium 0.30 %
Magnesium 600 mg
Copper 8 mg
Iodine 0.35 mg
Iron 80 mg
Manganese 60 mg
Selenium 0.15 mg
Zinc 40 mg
Vitamin A 1500 IU
Vitamin D 200 ICU
Vitamin E 10 IU
Vitamin K 0.50 mg
Vitamin B12 0.01 mg
Biotin 0.15 mg
Choline 1300 mg
Folacin 0.55 mg
Niacin 35 mg
Pantothenic Acid 10 mg
Pyridoxine 3.5 mg
Riboflavin 3.6 mg
Thiamin 1.80 mg
Many nutrients always present in adequate amounts
Metabolizable energy 1400 kcal
Arginine 1.25 %
Glycine + Serine 1.25 %
Histidine 0.35 %
Isoleucine 0.80 %
Lysine 1.20 %
Methionine 0.50 %
Methionine + cystine 0.90 %
Phenylalanine 0.72 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 0.72 %
Proline 0.60 %
Threonine 0.80 %
Tryptophan 0.20 %
Valine 0.90 %
Linoleic acid 1.00 %
Calcium 1.00 %
Phosphorus 0.45%
Sodium 0.20 %
Chlorine 0.20%
Potassium 0.30 %
Magnesium 600 mg
Copper 8 mg
Iodine 0.35 mg
Iron 80 mg
Manganese 60 mg
Selenium 0.15 mg
Zinc 40 mg
Vitamin A 1500 IU
Vitamin D 200 ICU
Vitamin E 10 IU
Vitamin K 0.50 mg
Vitamin B12 0.01 mg
Biotin 0.15 mg
Choline 1300 mg
Folacin 0.55 mg
Niacin 35 mg
Pantothenic Acid 10 mg
Pyridoxine 3.5 mg
Riboflavin 3.6 mg
Thiamin 1.80 mg
Metabolizable energy 1400 kcal
Arginine 1.25 %
Lysine 1.20 %
Methionine 0.50 %
Methionine + cystine 0.90 %
Threonine 0.80 %
Tryptophan 0.20 %
Calcium 1.00 %
Phosphorus 0.45%
Sodium 0.20 %
Ten key nutrients must be considered
Who sets the standards for poultry feeds?
In many countries, feed is sold to farmers. In
most of these countries a government agency
sets minimum nutrient standards that are
designed to protect the farmer and are usually
much higher than the bird needs.
In an integrated system feed is not sold and
the company sets its own standards regarding
nutrient level and ingredient quality.
Variation in Nutrient Content of
Broiler Starter Diets Among 160
Poultry Complexes
LOW MEAN HIGH
ME KCAL/LB 1311 1394 1435
CP/1400 20.77 22.87 25.00
LYS/1400 1.20 1.32 1.48
TSAA/1400 0.89 1.01 1.12
What do chickens need in their diet?
Well balanced protein source.
Grains, grain byproducts, and fat or oil
for energy.
A source of digestible phosphorus free
from contaminants such as Fl or Va.
Essential minerals such as Ca and Na
along with many trace minerals.
Essential vitamins from natural
ingredients or from chemical synthesis.

Major Grain Sources for Poultry
83
39
89
79
87
98
100
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
DDGS
Wheat bran
Rice Bran
Barley
Wheat
Sorghum
Corn
Relative energy value
Relative energy value of major grains
and grain byproducts for poultry
Amount used (million bushels)
Food
Alcohol
Industrial
Seed Feed
Corn 2,026 20 5,864
Sorghum 22 1 230
Barley 164 8 88
Oats 59 13 148
Cereal grain usage for various purposes (2002)
Source: Feed Situation and Outlook Yearbook, ERS
U.S. Cereal grain usage (2002)
U.S. Corn used for ethanol
production (millions of bushels)

U.S. Ethanol Production
(millions of gallons)

Major Protein Sources for Poultry
Plant proteins % CP
Soybean meal 47.5
Canola meal 34.8
Cottonseed meal 41.0
Sunflower meal 36.8
Peanut meal 49.0
Animal proteins % CP
Meat-bone meal 51.6
Fish meal 50-70
Poultry byproduct 59.5
Feather meal 82.0
Processed feeds 1,000 metric tons
Soybean meal 30,007
Cottonseed meal 2,441
Linseed meal 149
Peanut meal 155
Sunflower meal 232
Canola meal 1,236
Tankage and meat meal 1,740
Fish meal and solubles 223
Milk products 281
Corn gluten feed and meal 2,525
Wheat millfeeds 6,159
Rice millfeeds 625
Miscellaneous byproduct feeds 1,521
Source: Feed Situation and Outlook Yearbook, ERS
Processed feeds and quantity fed in U.S. (2002)
Supplemental ingredients
Inedible fats from rendering, vegetable oil
processing, restaurants and fast-food chains
provide high energy for diets.
Pure amino acid supplements enable the
reduction in crude protein in the diet by providing
a more balanced protein.
Methionine
Lysine
Threonine
Tryptophan
Typical U.S. Broiler Diet
Ingredient Lb/ ton
Yellow Corn 1300.00
Soybean meal 500.00
Animal protein source 100.00
Inedible fat supplement 65.00
Defluorinated phosphate 8.00
Limestone 10.00
Salt 8.00
Vitamin premix 2.00
Trace mineral mix 1.00
Methionine supplement 5.00
Lysine supplement 1.00
MAJOR FEED ADDITIVES
Anticoccidial drugs
Antibiotics for growth promotion
Antibiotics for disease control
Arsenicals for growth promotion and
enhancement of anticoccidial drugs
HORMONES ARE NOT FED!!!!!!!!!!!
Feed Additive Usage in Poultry Feeds
Survey of 112 poultry complexes
Additive Number Percent
None 19 16.9
Antibiotic alone 48 42.8
Arsenical alone 11 9.8
Antibiotic + Arsenical 34 30.3
Total Antibiotic usage 82 73.2
Total arsenical usage 45 40.2
Source: Agri-Stats, November 2006
Nutrition and the Environment
Poultry industry characterized by large
numbers of animals in a concentrated
area.
Much of the poultry production is located
in areas with poor agronomic properties
Results in excess nutrients in broiler
excreta for land application
Nutrition and the Environment
Phosphorus excretion can be reduced by use of
phytase enzymes and more closely adhering to
minimum phosphorus needs. About 80-85% of
US broiler diets use phytase
Nitrogen excretion can be reduced by greater
supplementation with synthetic amino acids and
blending protein sources. This is not without
cost and may reduce performance.
Excretion of trace minerals such as Zn or Cu can
be reduced by more costly organic forms of
these minerals.
Biofuel production may significantly
impact poultry feeding
Increase in ethanol production will remove
significant amount of corn from feed pool
Residual DDGS have reduced energy value for
broilers and poor protein quality
Modifications to use more of the corn value for
ethanol and biodiesel will further reduce DDGS value
Increase in biodiesel will remove considerable
amount of inedible fats
Glycerine byproduct has energy value similar to corn
but much less energy than do fats and oils