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FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER

Number System
Intro…
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 We all know computer understands the language of
0’s and 1’s only.
 But if we look at our keyboard there are not only 0
and 1 but also other numbers, alphabetic letters
and some specific characters.
 So this 0 and 1 have to represent all those.
 0 and 1 in computers are termed as bits. (binary
digits)
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 The number constitutes of 0 to 9
 And alphabetic letters constitutes a-z, A-Z.
 Again the special characters like * # ^ etc.
 To represent the alphabets, numbers and special
characters we can take the help of the following
number systems
1. Decimal number system
2. Binary number system
3. Hexadecimal Number system
4. Octal number system




Decimal Number System

 It consists of 10 independent numbers 0-9 hence is
known as base 10 number system.
 To represent numbers other than these, the
independent numbers are combined.
 Let us take an example of 5678, we read the number as
Five thousand six hundred and seventy eight.
 This number is made from the addition of
5000+600+70+8
 Now when we look into these numbers 5000, 600 and
70 are not the whole numbers which lie between 0-9.

Contd…
 Here we have used 5,6,7,8 to represent a complete
number five thousand six hundred and seventy
eight. But one thing is different and that’s their
weight or position.
 5 in thousands
 6 in hundreds
 7 in tens and
 8 in unit
Contd…
 Mathematically
5678= 5000 + 600 + 70 +8
5X 1000 + 6X 100 + 7 X 10 + 8
5X 10^3 +6X 10^2 +7X 10^ 1 + 8X 10^ 0
Binary Numbers
 It consists of only 2 numbers and hence this number
system is also called base 2 or radix 2 number system
 Each position of binary number represents a
successive power of 2.
 From right to left the successive positions of binary
number are weighted 1,2,4, 8,16, 32, 64 and so on..
Example 1
1101 = 1x2^3+ 1x2^2 + 0x2^1 + 1x 2^0
= 1x8 +1x4 +0x2 +1x1
= 8+4+ 0+1
= 13
Example 2
1111
= 1x2^3 +1x2^2+1x2^1+1x2^0
= 8+ 4+2+1
= 15
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Decimal NUmber Binary Number Decimal Number Binary Number
0 0000 13 1101
1 0001 14 1110
2 0010 15 1111
3 0011 16 10000
4 0100 17 10001
5 0101 18 10010
6 0110 19 10011
7 0111 20 10100
8 1000 21 10101
9 1001 22 10110
10 1010 23 10111
11 1011 24 11000
12 1100 25 11001
Octal Number System
 If the number is of 3 bit combination then it is called
octal number system.
 The base of octal system is 8, which means the octal
number consists of 8 different numbers.
 Octal number is characterized by values 0-7 and uses
0 or 8 at subscript.
 Is one of the un used number system these days.



Hexadecimal Number system
 Hexadecimal number system is a positional number
system.
 For 0-9 we use decimal and binary system and 0-7
we use octal number system.
 But when the number system id greater than 10 and
symbols need to be represented.
 The hexadecimal number not only uses Arabic
numerals 0-9 but also uses letters A,B,C, D, E and F
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DECIMAL HEXADECIMAL DECIMAL HEXA DECIMAL
0 0 16 10
1 1 17 11
2 2 18 12
3 3 19 13
4 4 20 14
5 5 21 15
6 6 22 16
7 7 23 17
8 8 24 18
9 9 25 19
10 A 26 1A
11 B 27 1B
12 C 28 1C
13 D 29 1D
14 E 30 1E
15 F 31 1F