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The efficient ways of using

petroleum and other natural
fuels
Fuel efficiency is dependent on many parameters of a
vehicle, including its engine parameters, aerodynamic
drag, weight, and rolling resistance. There have been
advances in all areas of vehicle design in recent decades.
Hybrid vehicles use two or more power sources for
propulsion. In many designs, a small combustion engine is
combined with electric motors. Kinetic energy which
would otherwise be lost to heat during braking is
recaptured as electrical power to improve fuel efficiency.
Engines automatically shut off when vehicles come to a
stop and start again when the accelerator is pressed
preventing wasted energy from idling

Advanced Technology improvements to
improve fuel efficiency

The most efficient machines for converting energy to rotary motion
are electric motors, as used in electric vehicles. However, electricity
is not a primary energy source so the efficiency of the electricity
production has also to be taken into account.
Currently railway trains can be powered using electricity, delivered
through an additional running rail, overhead catenary system or by
on-board generators used in diesel-electric locomotives as common
on the UK rail network. Pollution produced from centralised
generation of electricity is emitted at a distant power station, rather
than "on site". Some railways, such as the French SNCF and Swiss
federal railways derive most, if not 100% of their power, from
hydroelectric or nuclear power stations, therefore atmospheric
pollution from their rail networks is very low. This was reflected in a
study by AEA Technology between aEurostar train and airline
journeys between London and Paris, which showed the trains on
average emitting 10 times less CO
2
, per passenger, than planes,
helped in part by French nuclear generation
Take your measurements

Substantial gains in fuel economy can be had just
from choosing the right vehicle for the job. It
doesn't pay to use vehicles with substantial
towing and hauling capacity, high passenger
counts, or four-wheel drive for tasks that don't
require such capabilities. Take an inventory of
your fleet's duties to determine whether you
have opportunities to shed some weight. You'll be
ready to select the most fuel-efficient vehicle
available for a given application the next time you
make an acquisition.
Find out more in the AFDC's Rightsizing section.
Use the Find A Car tool on FuelEconomy.gov to
make side-by-side comparisons of fuel economy
ratings and emissions scores of individual vehicle
models.

Lubricants

Machinery with moving parts, from car
engines to industrial equipment, lasts longer
when friction between the parts is reduced
through the use of a lubricant. Other
lubricants, such as petroleum jelly, can
protect sensitive or damaged skin from
friction and ease in the assembly of tightly
fitted parts. Lubricated machines should
occasionally be flushed of old lubricant and
refilled with a new, clean replacement.
Lubricants used in assembly generally do not
need to be replaced or reused.


Reducing Natural
Gas Consumption in the
Electric Power Sector
Beyond savings in the residential, commercial,
and industrial sectors, there is also a potential
for reducing natural gas consumption in the
electric power sector. As Figures 2 and 5 show,
electricity generation is an important and
growing use of natural gas. In 2003, electricity
generation comprised about 22 percent of all
natural gas consumption.28
Generation of electricity from gas- and coal-
fired power plants can be greatly reduced by a
combination of energy efficiency for electric
end users (you and me) plus an increased
investment in renewable energy. In Western