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# DC Current Electricity

and
Magnetism
in
Electrical Conductors
Electric Field
An Electric Field or Force Surrounding a Charged Particle
An electric field radiates outward from a positive charge and
radiates in toward a negative point charge.
•The movement of Electric Charges is called Current.

• Current is measured by the amount of charge
(Coulombs) passing through the cross-sectional area of
a conductor in a given period of time (Seconds).

•A Conventional Current flows from a positive battery
terminal to a negative battery terminal.

Current Electricity
Electric Fields Drive Current Electricity
Conventional Current
Assumes Charge Flows from Positive to Negative
Cation Anion
Ions contain CHARGES that create
electric fields
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Current Electricity
Batteries use
electrochemical
reactions to
produce
dissimilar
charges used to
create current
in DC motors
and circuits.
Ions contain CHARGES that create electric fields. These
opposite electric fields produce imbalanced forces necessary
to move the charges through the circuit.
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Current Electricity
The electric
field produced
in a battery
forces current
through an
electric circuit
or conductor
connected
across the
battery poles,
A current created by the unidirectional movement of
charge(s) through a conductor is called a direct current.
This current is produced by all batteries
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When current moves through a conductor a circular
magnetic field is induced around the conductor
Magnetic Field Lines
Negative Battery
Terminal
Positive Battery
Terminal
The Right Hand Rule
The direction of the magnetic field
surrounding the conductor can
be found using your
right hand
Position the thumb of your right hand
pointing in the direction of
conventional current (Positive to
Negative) and your fingers will wrap
around the conductor in the direction
of the induced magnetic field.
The Direction and Motion of an Induced
Magnetic Field in a Conductor
Current Coming
Towards You
Current Moving
Away From You

X
When current moves through a coiled conductor a
circular magnetic field is induced about the coil
Current and Magnetism in a Coil
Motor (armature) rotation is caused by the simultaneous
attraction and repulsion between the electromagnetic
field in the armature and a fixed magnetic field
Fixed Magnets
Armature
Induced Magnetic Field
(Due to current)
Fixed Magnetic Field
Force
A Conductor in a Fixed
Magnetic Field
A Current Carrying Conductor
in a Fixed Magnetic Field
N
S
A Motor Armature in a Fixed
Magnetic Field
The magnetic field surrounding a current
carrying conductor interacts with an
existing magnetic field.
Direction of Force (Torque) acting
to turn the Armature (Conductor)
Fleming's Left Hand (Motor) Rule
Determines the direction of DC current
carrying conductor in a fixed magnetic field
Thumb = Direction of
Conductor Motion
Fore Finger = Direction of
Fixed Magnetic Field (N to S)
Middle Finger =
Conventional
Current Direction
Fleming's Left Hand (Motor) Rule
N
S
Direction of Rotation
Fixed Magnetic Field Direction
Conventional
Current Direction
N
S
N
S
Use the Left Hand Rule to
Determine the Rotation
Direction of the Armatures
in A and B
Notice that when the
current through the
armature is reversed,
it moves (Rotates) in
the opposite direction
A
B
Hint: You will have to turn
for example A
Two parallel conductors carrying current
in the same direction will attract each
other
Magnetic Forces Acting on Parallel
Current Carrying Conductors
Magnetic Forces Acting on Parallel
Current Carrying Conductors
X
Two parallel
conductors
carrying currents
in opposite
directions will
repel each other,
and they will set
up a polarized
magnetic field
between
themselves.
North
South
Magnetic Forces Acting on Parallel
Current Carrying Conductors
X
South
North
South
North
Wrapping current carrying conductors around
an iron core creates an electro magnet
The Armature of a Brush Commutated DC
Motor is made up of Current Carrying
Conductors Wrapped Around an Iron Core
The Motor Armature is an electro Magnet and
Operates according to the Principles Described in
this Slide Show
The
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