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Brushless DC Motors

Sohaib Hasan
Motor Basics
• What is a motor
– Converts electrical energy into kinetic energy

• Where did it come from
– Identification of rotating magnetic field principle
by Nicola Tesla in 1882
– Introduction of Electric Motor by Nicola Tesla in
December 1889 (U.S. Patent 0416194)


Parts of a Motor
1. End Bell Fastners
2. Shaft Key & Keyways
3. Bearing & Brushings
4. End Ball Flanges
5. Identification Plates
6. Wire Warnish
7. Commutators
8. Brush Holders
9. Laminations
10. Conduit Connection Box
11. Magnets (Ferrites)
Brushless Motor Components
Brush Type Motor Components
Images courtesy of Hernon Adhesives & Sealents
(http://www.hernonmfg.com/electricmotor.htm)
Parts of a Motor
Images courtesy of How Stuff Works
(http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/motor3.htm)
How It Works

• When electric current passes
through a coil in a magnetic
field, the magnetic force
produces a torque which
turns the motor.

• Force in Motor:
F=ILB
F = Force
B = Magnetic Field
L = Length of Conductor
I = Current in Conductor

• Torque in Motor:
T = IBA sin θ
A = LW
L = Length of Winding
W = Width of Winding

Images courtesy of Wikipedia
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_motor)
Motor Types
AC Hybrid
Electric
Motor
DC
Induction Synchronous Compound
Permanent
Magnet
Series Shunt
Brushless
DC
Variable
Frequency
Steppers
Synchronous
Phase Locked
Loop
Polyphase Single Phase
Wound
Rotor
Squirrel Cage Shaded Pole Capacitor
Capacitor Start
Permanent Split
Capacitor
Two Capacitor
Single /
Polyphase
Wound Field
Permanent Magnet
Reluctance
Hysteresis
Multiple Speed
Pole Switching
AC-DC Split Field
Moving Coil
Basket Weave
DC Torquer
Conventional
Construction
Inverter
Driven
Electronic
Communication
Synchronous Induction
Wound Rotor
Permanent Magnet
Stator Control
Rotor Control
Reluctance
Permanent
Magnet
Small Angle
Reluctance
Permanent
Magnet
Brushless DC Motor
• No Commutators

• Position of Coils with respect to the magnetic
field is sensed electronically.

• Current is commutated through electronic
switches to appropriate phases.
How it Works
• Halls Sensors sense the
position of the coils

• The Decoder Circuit turns
appropriate switches on
and off

• The voltage through the
specific coils turns the motor

Images courtesy of Servo Magnetics
(http://www.servomag.com/flash/2-pole/2pole-bldc-motor.html)
Advantages
• Increased Reliablilty & Efficiency

• Longer Life

• Elimination of Sparks from Commutator

• Reduced Friction

• Faster Rate of Voltage & Current

• Precision Voltage & Current Applied to Field Coils
Applications
• Low Power
– Consumer Electronics
– Medical Field

• High Power
– Industrial Machinery
– Vehicles
– Airplanes
Disadvantages
• Requires Complex Drive Circuitry

• Requires additional Sensors

• Higher Cost

• Some designs require manual labor
(Hand wound Stator Coils)
Useful Links
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_motor

• http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/motor3.htm

• http://www.hernonmfg.com/electricmotor.htm

• http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/hframe.html

• http://www.servomag.com/flash/2-pole/2pole-bldc-motor.html

• http://www.engineersedge.com/motors/brushless_dc_motor.htm

• http://www.freescale.com/webapp/sps/site/application.jsp?nodeId
=02nQXGrrlPY7r803B5