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Speed Control of DC motors

(DC Drives)
Dynamics of Motor Load Systems
m m
m
B T
dt
d
J T e
e
+ + =
L
m
T
dt
d
J T + =
e
J moment of inertia kg-m2
instantaneous angular velocity rad/sec
m
e
T developed torque of the motor N.m.
The load torque.
L
T
Viscous Friction torque.
B Viscous Friction coefficient.
m
Be
Steady State Stability
0 =
dt
d
m
e
m m
L
d
dT
d
dT
e e
>
Torque
m
e
T
L
T
T
L
T
A
B
Stable
Unstable
Four-quadrant operation.
DC Motors
Steady State Speed Torque Relations
a a m e
R I K V + = |e
a
e
a
e
m
I
K
R
K
V
| |
e ÷ =
|
e
a
K
T
I =
a a
R I E V + =
m e
K E |e =
a e
I K T | =
( )
T
K
R
K
V
e
a
e
m
2
|
|
e ÷ =
Separately Excited DC Motor
a a m
R I K V + = e
a
a
m
I
K
R
K
V
÷ = e
K
T
I
a
=
a a
R I E V + =
m
K E e =
a
I K T =
T
K
R
K
V
a
m
2
÷ = e
|
e
K K =
Series DC Motor
a a m a f e
R I I K K V + = e
f e
a
a f e
m
K K
R
I K K
V
÷ = e
f e
a
K K
T
I =
a a
R I E V + =
2
a f e
I K K T =
a f
I K = |
a e
I K T | =
m a f e
I K K E e =
f e
a
f e
m
K K
R
T K K
V
÷ =
1
e
Methods of Speed Control
Armature Voltage Control
Field Flux Control
Armature Resistance Control
( )
T
K
R
K
V
e
a
e
m
2
|
|
e ÷ =
Armature Voltage Control
1.Controlled Rectfier
2. Chopper (DC-DC Converter)
Field Flux Control
( )
T
K
R
K
V
e
a
e
m
2
|
|
e ÷ =
Deacreasing
at constant V
|
Deacreasing V
at constant |
T
m
e
( )
T
K
R
K
V
e
a
e
m
2
|
|
e ÷ =
Torque
m
e
Decreasing flux
at constant V
Decreasing V
at Full flux
Separately
Series
Torque & Power Limitations in Combined
armature Voltage and Field Control
Torque
T
o
r
q
u
e
Armature Voltage
Control
Field Control
rated
Speed
m
e
m
P
m
P
A 230 V 500 rpm, 100 A separetly excited DC motor has O = 1 . 0
a
R . The motor is
driving at a rated conditions, a load whose torque is constant and independent of
speed. The speeds below the rated speed are obtained with armature voltage control
(with full field) and the speeds above the rated speed are obtained by field control
(with rated armature voltage).
(a) Calculate the motor terminal voltage when the speed is 400 rpm.
(b) by what amount should flux be reduced to get a motor speed of 800 rpm?
220 100 * 1 . 0 230
1 1
= ÷ = ÷ =
a a t
I R V E
1
2
1
2
N
N
E
E
=
500
400
220
2
=
E
V E 176
2
=
V
R I E V
a a
186 1 . 0 * 100 176
2 2 2
= + =
+ =
b.
1 1
3 3
1
3
*
*
N I
N I
E
E
f
f
=
500
800
220
3
x
E
=
1
3
f
f
I
I
x =
x E 352
3
=
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
* *
a
a
a
a
f
f
I
I
x
I
I
I
I
T
T
= = x I I
a a
/
1 3
=
a a
R I E V
3 3 3
+ =
x
x
1 . 0 * 100
352 230 + =
0 10 230 312
2
= + ÷ x x
61 . 0
1
= x
05 . 0
2
= x
A220 V 600 rpm, 100 A separetly excited DC motor has O = 12 . 0
a
R . The motor is driving
at a rated conditions, a load whose torque is constant and independent of speed at speeds
below the rated speed and the mechanical power is constant and independent of speed at
speeds higher than the rated speed. The speeds below the rated speed are obtained with
armature voltage control (with full field) and the speeds above the rated speed are obtained
by field control (with rated armature voltage).
(a) Calculate the motor terminal voltage when the speed is 500 rpm.
(b) by what amount should flux be reduced to get a motor speed of 900 rpm?

V R I V E
a a t
208 100 * 12 . 0 220
1 1
= ÷ = ÷ =
1
2
1
2
N
N
E
E
= Then,
600
500
208
2
=
E
Then, V E 3 . 173
2
=
Then, V R I E V
a a
33 . 185 12 . 0 * 100 3 . 173
2 2 2
= + = + =
(b)
1 1
3 3
1
3
*
*
N I
N I
E
E
f
f
= Then,
600
900
208
3
x
E
= , Where
1
3
f
f
I
I
x =
Then x E 312
3
= (1)
e T P = but, as we know from the data
P
=constant above rated speed.
Then
e
o
1
T but N eo Then,
3
1
1
3
N
N
T
T
= (2)
But
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
* *
a
a
a
a
f
f
I
I
x
I
I
I
I
T
T
= = (3)
Substitute from (2) into (3) we get:
1
3
3
1
*
a
a
I
I
x
N
N
= (4)
But
a a
R I E V
3 3 3
+ = Then,
12 . 0
220
3 3 3
3
E
R
E V
I
a
a
÷
=
÷
= (5)
Substitute from (5) into (4) we get the following equation:
12 . 0 * 100
220
*
900
600
3
E
x
÷
= (6)
Substitute from (1) into (6) then,
12 . 0 * 100
312 220
*
900
600 x
x
÷
=
Then, 0 8 220 312
2
= + ÷ x x
Then, 6667 . 0
1
= x and 0385 . 0
2
= x
Armature Resistance Control
( )
T
K
R R
K
V
e
ext a
e
m
2
|
|
e
+
÷ =
R
T
e
R
m
e
Torque
e
R
m
e
Increasing
Separately or shunt field
f e
a
f e
m
K K
R
T K K
V
÷ =
1
e
Armature Resistance Control
Torque
e
R
m
e
Increasing
Series field
(b) A DC series motor drives an elevator load that requires a constant torque of 200
N.m. The DC supply voltage is 400 V and the combined resistance of the armature and
series field winding is 0.75 ohm. Neglect rotational losses and armature reaction effect.
(i) The speed of the elevator is controlled by variating the supply DC voltage. At 220V
input voltage and 40A motor current, determine the speed and the horsepower output of
the motor and the efficiency of the system.
(ii) The elevator is controlled by inserting resistance in series with the armature of the
series motor. For the speed of part (i), determine the values of the series resistance,
horsepower output of the motor, and efficiency of the system.
(i) ( ) V R R I V E
s a a T a
190 75 . 0 * 40 220 = ÷ = + ÷ =
m a a
k E e | = ,
a a
I k T | = , 5
40
200
= = =
a
a
I
T
k |
rpm rad
k
E
a
a
m
363 sec / 38
5
190
= = = =
|
e
HP
I E
HP P
a a
out
188 . 10
746
40 * 190
746
, = = =
Watt P
in
8800 40 * 220 = =
% 364 . 86 100 *
8800
40 * 190
= = =
in
out
P
P
q
(ii) ( )
external s a a T a
R R R I V E + + ÷ =
( ) O =
÷
= + + 25 . 5
40
190 400
external s a
R R R
O = ÷ = 5 . 4 75 . 0 25 . 5
external
R
% 5 . 47 100 *
40 * 400
40 * 190
= = =
in
out
P
P
q
(b) A DC series motor drives an elevator load that requires a constant torque of 200 N.m.
The DC supply voltage is 400 V and the combined resistance of the armature and series
field winding is 0.75 ohms.
(i) The speed of the elevator is controlled by buck converter. At 50% duty cycle (i.e., D=0.5)
of the chopper, the motor current is 40 amps. Determine the speed and the horsepower
output of the motor and the efficiency of the system.
(ii) Compare between the scheme in part(i) and the method of inserting resistance in
series with the armature of the series motor for the same speed.
(i) A D D
L
V T
I
d S
LB
25
20000 * 0001 . 0 * 2
) 5 . 0 1 ( * 5 . 0 * 400
) 1 (
2
=
÷
= ÷ =
It is clear that the load current (40A) greater than the inductor boundary current.
So, this chopper works in continuous conduction mode.
V DV V
s T
200 400 * 5 . 0 = = =
m a a
k E e | = ,
a a
I k T | = , 5
40
200
= = =
a
a
I
T
k |
rpm rad
k
E
a
a
m
8 . 324 sec / 34
5
170
= = = =
|
e
HP
I E
HP P
a a
out
12 . 9
746
40 * 170
746
, = = =
Watt P
in
8000 40 * 200 = =
% 85 100 *
8000
40 * 170
= = =
in
out
P
P
q
(ii) ( )
external s a a T a
R R R I V E + + ÷ = ,
( ) O =
÷
= + + 75 . 5
40
170 400
external s a
R R R
O = ÷ = 5 75 . 0 75 . 5
external
R ,
% 5 . 42 100 *
40 * 400
40 * 170
= = =
in
out
P
P
q
It is clear that in using the method of inserting
resistance in series with the armature of the series
motor the efficiency get much lower than using
buck converter in DC motor control
The speed of a 125 hp, 680 V, 1200 rpm, separately excited DC motor is controlled by a
single-phase full bridge controlled converter.The converter is operated from a 600 V, 60
Hz supply. The rated armature current of the motor is 170 A. The motor parameters are
O = 1 . 0
a
R , and | K =0.4 V/rpm. The converter and ac supply are considered to be ideal.
For firing angle o =30°,
(i) Draw the converter output voltage and supply current at rated load.
(ii) Find the input power factor and THD of supply current at rated load.
(iii) Find no-load speed, Assuming that, at no load, the armature current is 12% of the
rated current and is continuous.
(iv) Find the firing angle to obtain the rated speed of 1200 rpm at rated motor current.
If we move the axis of
s
I to the point o e = t
the supply current become odd function and,
then
n
a coefficients of Fourier series equal zero, 0 =
n
a , and
| |
| | ... .......... , 5 , 3 , 1
4
cos 0 cos
2
cos
2
sin *
2
0
0
= = ÷ =
÷ = =
}
n for
n
I
n
n
I
t n
n
I
t d t n I b
o o
o
o n
t
t
t
e
t
e e
t
t
t

Then from Fourier series concepts we can say:
) .......... 9 sin
9
1
7 sin
7
1
5 sin
5
1
3 sin
3
1
(sin *
170 * 4
) ( + + + + + = t t t t t t i e e e e e
t

A I
S
054 . 153
2
170 * 4
1
= =
t

Power factor= Lag
I
I
s
s
7797 . 0 30 cos *
170
054 . 153
cos *
1
= = |
% 34 . 48 1
2
4
1 )) ( (
2
2
1
= ÷
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
o
o
S
S
s
I
I
I
I
t I THD
(III) At no load condition the motor terminal voltage is:
( ) V
V
V
o
m
dc
818 . 467 30 cos
2 * 600 * 2
cos
2
= = =
t
o
t

No-load current = A 4 . 20
100
12
* 170 =
V R I V E
a a t a
778 . 465 1 . 0 * 4 . 20 818 . 467 = ÷ = ÷ =
The no-load speed is
, 45 . 1164
4 . 0
778 . 465
0
rpm
K
E
N
a
a
= = =
|

(IV) At full load condition,
V N K E
FL a a
480 1200 * 4 . 0 * = = = |
Then, V R I E V
a a a t
497 1 . 0 * 170 480 = + = + =
Then, ( ) V
V
V
m
dc
497 cos
2 * 600 * 2
cos
2
= = = o
t
o
t

Then,
o
067 . 23 = o