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# Direct current (DC)motors

 Principle of work
 Force and torque generation
 Generation of counter clockwise voltage
 Parts (components) of DC motor (machine)
 Simplified description of DC motor (machine)
 Current commutation
 The types of DC motors
 Mathematical model of DC motor (machine), (with
independent excitation)
 Control of DC motors (machine)
 Speed vs torque characteristics
DC motors- Introduction
 Leading role until 1960- years.
Almost ideal Speed vs Torque motor characteristics.
 Possibility of obtaining variable and continuous dc voltage
 Simplicity for control (control paradigm)
 Large range of speed controllabilty
• The lacks:
 Mechanical commutator (inverter/rectifier)
 Large moment of inertia (because of collector)
 Request for often maintaining
Cross cutting of the DC motor
Ф
u
Ф
a
Excitation
winding,(coils)
Armature
winding
(coils)
Rotor
q-axes
d-axes
Ф
u
Ф
a
Stator
Direct current (DC)motors
( ) F I l x B
÷ ÷
=
E v x B l
÷ ÷
| |
= ·
|
\ .
Back-emf (E) and Force (F) definition
 If armature winding is connected to the supply voltage, the electrical
current appears. Because of existing magnetic field (induction
B), tangential force arise according to equation (2).

 Because of force F (2), torque is generated and push the rotor to
rotate .
 When the rotor rotating in magnetic field, the voltage E, equ1, is
induced in armature winding opposed to the voltage U. This voltage
is called as “back-EMF” (back electromotor force) .This voltage is
proportional to rotor speed v, see equ1).
 If supplied (armature) voltage in steady state (constant rotor speed)
is greater than back-emf, U>E, we are talking about motor
work,(motoring) or motor mode of operation; otherwise, U<E we are
(2)
(1)
DC motors- Introduction
Construction of DC motor

 The rotor is made of sliced iron (alternated current in the rotor coils)!!.
Rotor winding consists of one or more solenoid (coils) where each of
them is connected to collector segment (slice), se picture bellow)
 Stator is aimed for a excitation (electromagnetic or permanent magnets)
a) Description of DC motor components
Covering of
housing
shaft
bearing
frame
stator
collector
brushes
and girder
armature

Stator:

Immobile part, made mainly of massive iron (yoke). It doesn’t be
laminated.
Main magnetic poles (electromagnets) are fixed on stator and assure
magnetic fields (B) in the air-gap. The amount of magnetic field can be
changed only if electromagnetic excitation is used.
If permanent magnet is used for excitation, the amount of excitation can
not be changed!
Excitation coils
pole’s shoes
hausing
b) Description of DC motor components
Rotor (Armature):

Moving part, made off laminated iron (because of alternating current in
armature winding)
Rotor has slotings with coils in it. Rotor’s winding consits of one or more
coils where each of it is connected to collector.
shaft
Fe
laminated
Armature
winding
collector
bearing
c) Description of DC motor components
brush with girder
collector
rotor’s winding
d) Description of DC motor components
Rotor (Armature):
Collector with brushes (mechanical commutator!!), we wil see that
later!
Slices
(segments) on
collector)
brush
brush girder
Armature
winding (coils)
e) Description of DC motor components
Rotor (collector):
zur Ankerwicklung
Bürste
Isolation
Kommutator-
lamelle
Kommutatorfahne
To rotor’s coil
isolator
collector’s segment
Coil connection to collector’s segment
brush
 Collector’s segment is connected to rotor’s coil (as presented in the
picture below).
 Current flow from external source, over brush with girder and over
collector’s slice enter into a coil (at the position of the neutral zone,
where there are no induced voltage in this coil)!
Collector’s segment
f) Description of DC motor components
Construction of torque and back-EMF (voltage E)
g) Description of DC motor components

- Magnetic field (permanent
magnets)
- two brushes
- two collector’s segment
- one coil in magnetic field
Forces under poles “S” and “N” results in equivalent torques on the coil
under “S” pole and “N” pole.
Current direction in the coil under pole S change its direction when the
coil reach the position under N pole. This is the reason why we say that
the current in armature winding, when looking from outside the motor, is
ALTERNATE current!!!

a) How DC motor works
Current enter in the motor
from source over collector
and brushes in armature
winding . Result is motor
work.
collector =
mechanical
rectifier
u
i
t
u
t
brush
colector slice
brush
b) How DC motor works
Because magnetic field act on the arm which is changed according to
sinusoidal low, then torque is changed in the same way.
DC motor ANIMATION – motor parts
STATOR÷permanent magnet or electromagnet);
ROTOR÷armature winding
DC motor example (cross and longitudinal section)
DC motor – Animation
Red ÷ Magnet or electromagnet with “N” pole
Green ÷ Magnet or electromagnet with “S” pole
Stator may consist from more permanent magnets (multipole DC motor)
Rotor coils are connected to collector (brown colour ), 3 pair of poles
Brushes are dark-gray.
Distance between collector slices is black.
ANIMATION
PICTURE
Slots
with
coils in it
DC motor animation – demonstration of work
DC motor as generator of DC voltage – animation
System “brush-collector” rectifire alternate armature voltage in DC voltage .
DC motor – mathematical model
a
R
a
L
a
u
a e m
e c e = ·
,
m m
m e
,
t t
m e
t
J
a
i
m
J
M
a e m e m
e k c e e = · u· = ·
a
a a a a a
di
u e R i L
dt
= + +
m m a m a
m k i c i = · u· = ·
( )
1
m
m t
eq
d
m m
dt J
e
= ÷
Stacionarno stanje
m e
k k =
a a a a a a
e e
U I R U I R
k c
e
÷ · ÷ ·
= =
· u
m e
c c =
( )
m t
m
m
M M
c
e e
=
= =
eq m t
J J J = +
The list of variables and constants
U
a
, I
a
Voltage and armature current
R
a
, L
a
Resistance and inductance of armature winding
E
a
(E
i
) back-emf
c
e
, k
e
constants of back-emf
c
m
, k
m
torque constants
M
m
, M
t
e
m
, e
t
J
m
, J
t
moment of inertia for motor and load
u magnetic field, excitation

How to change the speed of motor?
a a a
m
e
U I R
k
e e
÷ ·
= =
· u
(1) Changing armature voltage (3) Changing armature resistor
(2) Changing magnetic field (excitation)
(1) Changing armature voltage (a)
• Historically, first qualitative control solution without considerable losses,
see figure.
• For high power ratings later is used system with asynchronous (induction)
motors
• Next solutions are Induction motor (AM ) which drive machine(generator
G), in order to supply DC motor(M) with separate excitation. Controlling
exciting current of generator G, the armature voltage (motor M voltage) is
directly controlled. DC Motor M has constant excitation u
um
.
• There is now new solution with power converter in motor armature for 4Q
operation
• This solution don’t use rotational machines for voltage change. Voltage is
changed with static converter (in this situation it is simple diode and
autotransformer).
• The alternating voltage from the input side of transformer is changed by
auto-transformer using slider on secondary transformer side. This voltage
is rectifired using diode and forwarded then to the motor .
• It is possible also to change the sign of motor excitation

M
220V~
0-220V~
(1) Changing armature voltage (b)
M
L1 L2 L3
• New solution with AC/DC converters in u armature.
• Two 3-phase converters in antiparalel connection insure 4q operation
with high dynamic performances. The change of current direction is
realized electronically
(1) Changing armature voltage (c)
(Speed vs Torque)
1 a
U
2 a
U
3 a
U
4 a
U
4 3 2 1 a a a a
U U U U > > >
m
e
t
M
simplicity of control, speed is proportional
to the supplied voltage
a a a
m a
e
u i R
ku
k
e
÷
= ~
· u
const.
(1) Changing armature voltage (d)
• In series with armature coil (winding), resistor is added. The slope of the
characteristic is changed.
• Rotor’s resistor as starter
• For starting, the maximal resistor
should be used, R
d4
, (speed=0) ,
see figure
• After start ,R
d3
and finally R
d
=0 (R=R
a
• High losses, heating, not
economical solution,
(3) Changing armature resistance
a
R R =
1 2 3 4 d d d d
R R R R > > >
m
e
1 d a
R R R + =
2 d a
R R R + =
3 d a
R R R + =
4 d a
R R R + =
n
e
1
e
2
e
3
e
t
m
(3) Changing armature resistance (a)
• It is used a lot in the past in DC traction drives. There were a lot of losses
in energy conversion. (converted in heat). Steady state points in motoring
and braking were set changing the amount of resistor added to armature
circuit. Example is the tram. No efficient energy balance, great energy
part is converted in the heat.
M
Ua
+
-
M
Ua
+
-
M
Ua
+
-
Uu
Independent excitation
a)
b)
c)
The types of the excitation systems for DC motors
paralel excitation
serial excitation
DC motor – region of speed control
a a a
P u I ku = =
Controlled by armature voltage,
magnetic field constant
CONSTANT TORQUE region
Controlled by magnetic field, Armature
voltage constant , CONSTANT POWER
region
1
a a a
e m m
u i R
k
k e e
÷
u = ~
·
Konst.
n
U
0
n
M
0
n
u
0
n
I
0
DC motor characteristics-variables of DC motor
armature voltage
current
Flux (mag. field)
torque
Literature
1. http://www.physclips.unsw.edu.au/jw/electricmotors.html#DCmotors
2. http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/motor.htm
3. R.Wolf.”Fundamentals of electrical machines”, str.220-246, Školska
knjiga, Zagreb, 1985. (Osnove električnih strojeva)