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Flowmeter Selection and Sizing

-NIDHIN MANOHAR
What is a Flow meter?
An ideal flow meter is a group of linked components that
will deliver a signal uniquely related to the flow rate or
quantity of fluid flowing in a conduit, despite the
influence of installation and operating environment.


Flowmeter used for
Indication
Quantification ( Estimation & Planning)
Custody Transfer (Billing)
Control ( Demand )
Alarm
Desirable Features of Flowmeter
● Be of intrinsically high accuracy
● Maintain its accuracy under a wide range of liquid conditions
● Have high flow detection sensitivity, even at zero flow
● Have high flow range ability, including reverse flow capacity
● Be of high reliability, requiring little or no maintenance
● Install easily without altering pipe line operating conditions
● Be of low installed cost, as compared to Turbine or PD meters
● Not be subject to wear, or change of calibration through use
● Be of fast response, to detect catastrophic leaks in seconds
● Be capable of monitoring large lengths of pipeline
● Be rugged relative to actual site environmental conditions
● Perform accurately in Multi-product pipelines
● Be capable of detecting and compensating for free gas
● Detect Empty pipe conditions instantly
● Not be affected by corrosive or abrasive liquids
● Produce minimum to zero pressure drop
● Be compatible with many different types of nondescript liquids
● Be capable of installation near bends and elbows
● Require only minimal operating power, for remote area operation
Desirable Features of Flowmeter
● More Information about the process, including pressure and temperature.
● Flowmeters that are easier to calibrate
● Self calibrating flowmeters or flowmeters that can be calibrated with a
software package
● Better diagnostics
● A predictive maintenance light
A typical Process Flow Diagram showing Overall Measurement
Uncertainties expected in a Fiscal Quality measurement

Prescribed Levels of Metering Accuracy for Petroleum Fluids
Hydrocarbon
Liquid
Hydrocarbon
Gas
Fiscal or Custody transfer Quality
measurement
0.25% 1%
Field or Platform allocation 1% 3%
Well allocation 5% 5%
Liquid Gas
Fiscal Quality 0.25 1
Near Fiscal Quality 0.25 - 1.0 1.0 - 2.0
Fiscal Allocation 0.5 - 5 2 - 5
Fiscal Well Test
Fiscal Multiphase Metering
Typical Uncertainty in Mass
Flow rate measurement (%) Measurement Approach
10
10 - 20
Canada Offshore Petroleum Board
Measurement Guidelines – Oct 2003
DTI Measurement Guidelines – December 2003
SELECTION OF FLOWMETERS
• Selection of a flow meter as per the
requirement sometimes poses a challenge to
instrumentation engineers and consultants
because of
i) varying requirements of the installation
ii) availability of large no. of instruments in
the market
iii) absence of comparative data
Here a general approach is considered



• FLOWMETER CLASSIFICATION :
- Different classification of flowmeters
Additive / Extractive
Invasive / Non Invasive
Insertion / Clamp-on
Mass flow / Volume flow / Point velocity
-Based on the technology employed in
metering, about 50 different types of flow
metering devices can be identified.
-These are usually Classified into 9 or 10
groups


Group Description
1 Orifices, Venturi's and Nozzles
2 Other differential pressure types
3 Positive displacement types
4 Rotary turbine types
5 Fluid oscillatory types
6 Electromagnetic types
7 Ultrasonic types
8 Direct and indirect mass types
9 Thermal types
10 Miscellaneous types




FLOWMETER SELECTION
Preliminary selection is based on the application
to which the meter is to be put. Table below
shows the check list for the suitability of various
flowmeters against different applications



Group Type A B C D E F G H J K L M N P Q R S T
Orifice ? ? ? ? ? ?
Venturi ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Nozzle ? ? ? ? ? ?
VA + ? ?
Target + ? ?
Averaging Pitot ? ? ? ?
Sonic nozzle ? ?
Sliding vane + ?
Oval gear + + ?
Rotary piston ? + ? +
Gas diaphragm
Rotary gas
Turbine + ? ? ? +
Pelton ? ? ? ?
Mechanical meter + ?
Insertion turbine ? ? ?
Vortex ? ?
Swirlmeter
Insertion vortex ? ? ? ? ? ?
Electromagnetic + ? ?
Insertion electromagnetic ? ? ?
Doppler ? ? + ? ? ?
Transit time ? + ? + + ? ? + +
Coriolis (direct) + ? ? ? +
Twin rotor (indirect)
Anemometer ? ? +
Thermal mass +
Tracer + + + ? +
Laser ? ?
Key
is suitable; generally applicable
? is worth considering; sometimes applicable
+ is worth considering;limited availability or tends to be expensive
A blank indicates unsuitable; not applicable
NOTE 1. Liquid applications are indicated by the following NOTE 2. Gas applications are indicated by the following :
A General liquid applications (<50cP (<0.05OPa.s) J General gas applications
B Low liquid flows (<0.12m3/H)(<2 L /min) K Low gas flows (<150 m3/h)
C Large liquid flows (>1000m3/h)(>1.7x10 L/min) L Large gas flows (>5000 m3/h)
D Large water pipes (>0.5m bore) M Hot gases (temperatures <200 deg.C)
E Hot liquids (temperatures >200 deg.C) N Steam
F Viscous liquids (>50 cP) (>0.05 Pa.s) Note 3. Miscellaneous applications are indicated by the following
G Cryogenic liquids P Slurries and particle flows
H Hygienic liquids Q Liquid liquid mixtures
R Liquid gas mixtures
S Corrosive liquids
T Corrosive gases
Table 2.1 Broad areas of application
2
3
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
1
Application
Liquids (see note 1) Gases (see note 2) Miscellaneous (see note 3)
SELECTION PARAMETERS

• Performance considerations
• Fluid property considerations
• Installation considerations
• Environment considerations
• Economic factors







Table 2.2 Selection procedure variables
1 Performance
considerations
Accuracy Repeatability Linearity
Rangeability Pressure drop Output
signal characteristics Response time
Uncertainty Orientation Flow
direction Upstream and downstream
pipework Line size Location
for servicing Effect of local
vibration Provision of accessories
like filters, straighteners, transducers
etc. Hazardous atmosphere Effect of
pulsations/unsteady flow
2 Fluid property
considerations
Liquid or gas Temperature Pressure
Density Specific gravity Viscosity
Lubricity Presence of other
components Chemical properties
Surface tension Compressibility Real
gas effects Abrasiveness Presence of
other phases
3 Installation
considerations
Orientation Flow direction Upstream
and downstream pipework Line size
Line size Location for servicing Effect
of local vibration Provision of
accessories like filters, straighteners,
transducers etc. Hazardous
atmosphere Effect of
pulsations/unsteady flow
4 Environments
considerations
Ambient temperature effects Humidity
effects Safety factors Pressure effects
Electrical interference
5 Economic Purchase price Installation costs
Operation costs Pumping power and
headloss Technical optmization
Meter life Spares cost and
availability Maintenance costs
Calibration costs


Performance considerations
Accuracy :
is the closeness to truth.
considering application of flowmeter, eg.
Custody transfer very high accuracy is required.
Should be careful about method of specifying
errors by the vendors ie., whether % of Full
scale Or % of reading
Repeatability :
is the ability of a meter to reproduce a
measurement each time a set of conditions are
reproduced and is expressed as the allowable
percentage deviation from the stated value
under a given set of conditions.
Is a measure of the stability of the meter
Good Accuracy
Good Repeatability
Bad Accuracy


Rangeability :
is the ratio of the maximum to minimum
flowrates for a given performance. A
judicious choice is needed for the application since
rangeability differs with the meter selected. eg.
Orifice plate - 3:1 to 4:1
Thermal mass flow meter/PD 100:1 to 500:1
Pressure drop at maximum flow:
The pressure drop caused by the meter is
important since it may affect process efficiency.
In liquid applications extreme pressure drops can
lead to cavitation and consequent faulty metering





Output signal characteristics :
Normally a flow meter may directly or indirectly
measure
Volume rate of flow
Mass flow rate
Totalized flow
Mean flow capacity
Point velocity
These output may be in voltage, current or pulses
which may have to be interfaced with flow
computers, data loggers, alarm systems etc. The
particular instrument selected should be
compatible to these.

Group – 1

Group – 2

Group – 3

Group – 4

Group – 5

Group – 6

Group – 7

Group – 8

Group – 9

Group – 10
0.03 0.1 0.3 1.0 3.0 10 30
Uncertainty % Flow rate
Typical Performance Distribution of Flow meter Groups
Group Type Linearity (%) Repeatibility (%)
Rangeability X
: 1 where X
Pressure
drop at
maximum
flow
Flow
parameter
Response time
1
Orifice
Venturi
Nozzle
#
#
#
#
#
#
3 or 4
3 or 4
3 or 4
3-4
2
2-3
R
R
R
#
#
#
2
Variable area
Target
Averaging Pitot
Sonic nozzle
+/-1%FS to +/-5% FS
NS
#
+/-0.25%
+/-1%FS to +/-5% FS
NS
#
+/-0.25% R
10
3
#
100 : 1
3
3
1-2
3-4
R
R
Vm
R
No data
NS
#
NS
3
Sliding vane
Oval gear
Rotary piston
Gas diaphragm
Rotary gas
+/-0.1R to +/-0.3%R
+/-0.25%R
+/-0.5R to +/-0.2%R
No data
+/-1%
+/-0.01%R to +/-0.05% R
+/-0.05%R to +/-0.1% R
+/-0.2% R
No data
+/-0.2%
10 to 20
-
10 to 250
100
25
4-5
4
4-5
2
2
T
T
T
T
T
> 0.5 ms
< 0.5 ms
> 0.5 ms
> 0.5 ms
< 0.5 ms
4
Turbine
Pelton
Mechanical meter
Insertion turbine
+/-0.15 R to +/-1% R
+/-.25R to +/-0.2% R
No data
+/-.25 R to +/- 5% R
+/-0.02%R to +/-0.5% R
+/-0.1%R to +/-0.25% R
+/-1% FS
+/-0.1% R
5 or 10
4 or 10
10 or 280
10 to 40
3
4
3
1-2
R
R
R
Vp
5ms to 25 ms
5ms to 25 ms
50 ms
5ms to 25 ms
5
Vortex
Swirlmeter
Insertion vortex
+/- 1 % R
<+/-2% R
+/-2%
+/-0.1%R to +/-1% R
NS
+/-0.1% R
4 or 40
10 or 30
15 or 30
3
3
1
R
R
Vp
0.5s minimum
NS
5ms
6
Electromagnetic
Insertion
Electromagnetic
+/-0.5%R to +/-1% R
+/-2.5%R to +/-4% R
+/-0.1% R to +/-0.2%FS
+/- 0.1%R
10 to 100
10
1
1
R
Vp
> 0.2 s
NS
7
Doppler
Transit time
No data
+/-0.1R to +/-1% R
+/-0.2% FS
+/- 0.2%R to +/-1%FS
5 to 25
10 to 300
1
1
Vm
R
0.1s to 120s
8
Coriolis Twin
rotor
NS
No data
+/-0.1%R to +/-0.25% R
No data
10 to 100
10 to 20
2-5
3-4
R
R
0.1s to 3600s
50ms
9
Anemometer
Thermal mass
No data
+/-0.5R to +/-2% R
+/-0.2% FS
+/-0.2%FS to +/-1% R
10 to 40
10 to 500
2
2
Vp
R
No data
0.12 to 7 s
10 Tracer Laser
No data
No data
No data
+/-0.5% R
Upto 1000:1
Upto 2500:1
1
1
Vm
Vp
No data
No data
Performance Factors in meter selection
Fluid Property Considerations
Fluid Temperature & Pressure/Vacuum
Provision for Compensation
Materials should stand the temp/pressure/vacuum
Fluid Density and Specific Gravity
Provide for compensation (on line) ?

Viscosity
Gases  effect is small
Rangeability and performance affected

Chemical Properties
Compatibility of materials

Compressibility

Single Phase/Multi-phase Fluid





Group Type
Orifice 400 <+650 3 x 10
4
L,G P
Venturi 400 <+650 1 x 10
5
L,G P
Nozzle 400 <+650 2 x 10
4
L,G N
VA 700 -80 to 400 No data L,G N
Target 100 -40 to 120 3 x 10
4
L,G S
Averaging Pitot 400 <+540 1 x 10
4
L,G N
Sonic nozzle 400 <+650 2.5 x 10
4
G N
Sliding vane 100 -30 to +200 1 x 10
3
L N
Oval gear 100 -15 to + 290 1 x 10
2
L N
Rotary piston 170 -40 to +170 1 x 10
2
L N
Gas diaphragm 200 -30 to +200 2.5 x 10
2
G N
Rotary gas 100 -40 to +150 1 x 10
3
G N
Turbine 3500 -268 to +530 L,G
Pelton 600 -225 to 530 1 x 10
4
L,G N
Mechanical meter 70 -25 to +200 L,G N
Insertion turbine 250 -50 to +430 L,G N
Vortex 260 -200 to + 430 2 x 10
4
L,G P
Swirlmeter 100 -40 to +110 No data L,G N
Insertion vortex 70 -30 to +150 5 x 10
3
L,G N
Electromagnetic 300 -60 to +220 No limit L S/P
Insertion electromagnetic 20 +5 to +25 No data L N
Doppler * -20 to +80 5 x 10
3
L S
Transit time 200 -200 to +250 5 x 10
3
L,G N/P
Coriolis 390 -240 to 400 1 x 10
2
L P
Twin rotor 400 -240 to 350 1 x 10
4
L N
Anemometer 20 -200 to 400 No data L,G N
Thermal mass 300 0 to 100 No data L,G N
Tracer No data No data No limit L,G P
Laser No data No data No limit L,G N
Key
S is suitable
P is possible
N is not suitable
* is dependent on the rating of the pipe wall
Gas (G) or
Liquid (L)
Two or
more
1
Maximum
pressure
Temperature
range
Minimum
Re
D
Table 2.4 Selection by fluid property constraints
2
3
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
The Effect of Pressure Deviations on a Variable-Area Flowmeter
{PRIVATE}Maximum
flowrate, L/min
Fluid temperature, °F Outlet pressure, psi
Fluid type: Air
2.23 70 0
1.65 70 15
1.30 70 35
2.26 90 0
2.28 110 0
2.32 150 0
Fluid type: water
4.82 70 0
4.82 70 15
4.82 70 35
4.86 90 0
4.89 110 0
4.95 150 0
As Table shows, the effect of pressure deviations can be quite significant. This table was created
using data from a variable-area flowmeter that was calibrated for air at 70°F and with the outlet of
the flowmeter vented to the open atmosphere (i.e. , 0 psi of outlet pressure).


Pipe work Orientation
Flow Direction
Will the meter work only in one direction ?
Chances or reverse flow  check valve ?
Bi-directional meters to be calibrated in two directions
Upstream/Downstream Pipe Works
Orientation
Straight Length
Line Sizes
Availability of meters of various bore sizes
Local Vibration
Provide pipe supports ?
Provide pulsation (fluid) dampers ?
Location of Valves
Provide valves downstream of meter
Provide upstream (full bore) and downstream valves for isolation of meter – provide
bypass line.
Electrical connections – EMI/RFI Elimination
Hazardous atmosphere
Pulsations in Flow
Fast response instrumentation needed ?
Installation Considerations



mm
Orifice H,VU,VD,I U,B 5D/80D 2D/8D N 6 to 2600
Venturi H,VU,VD,I U 0.5D/29.5D 4D N >6
Nozzle H,VU,VD,I U 5D/80D 2D/8D
VA VU U 0D 0D P 2 to 600
Target H,VU,VD,I U 6D/20D 3.5D/4.5D N 12 to 100
Averaging Pitot H,VU,VD,I U,B 2D/25D 2D/4D P >25
Sonic nozzle H,VU,VD,I U >5D >0D N >=5
Sliding vane H,VU,VD,I U 0D 0D L N
Oval gear H U 0D 0D L N
Rotary piston H,VU,VD,I U 0D 0D L N
Gas diaphragm H U 0D 0D G N
Rotary gas H,VU,VD,I U,B 0D/10D 0D/5D G N
Turbine H,VU,VD,I U,B 5D/20D 3D/10D P 5 to 600
Pelton H,VU,VD,I U 5D 5D R 4 to 20
Mechanical meter H,VU,VD,I U 3D/10D 1D/5D R 12 to 1800
Insertion turbine H,VU,VD,I U,B 10D/80D 5D/10D L,G >75
Vortex H,VU,VD,I U 1D/40D 5D N 12 to 200
Swirlmeter H,VU,VD,I U 3D 1D N 12 to 400
Insertion vortex H,VU,VD,I U 20D 5D N >200
Electromagnetic H,VU,VD,I U,B 0D/10D 0D/5D N 2 to 3000
Insertion electromagnetic H,VU,VD,I U,B 25D 5D N >100
Doppler H,VU,VD,I U,B 10D 5D L S
Transit time H,VU,VD,I U,B 0D/50D 2D/5D L,G N/P
Coriolis H,VU,VD,I U 0D 0D L P
Twin rotor H,VU,VD,I U 20D 5D L N
Anemometer H,VU,VD,I U,B 10D/40D No data L,G N
Thermal mass H,VU,VD,I U No data L,G N
Tracer H,VU,VD,I U,B + + N Unlimited
Laser H,VU,VD,I U,B 0D 0D P
Key
H is horizontal flow U is uni-directional flow
VU is upward vertical flow B is bi-directional flow
VD is downward vertical flow R is rcommended
I is inclined flow N is not necessary
+ is mixng length P is possible
Table 2.5 Selection by installation constraints
2
3
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
Quoted range of
d/s lengths
Filter
Pipe bore
range
1
Orientation Direction
Quoted range of
u/s lengths
Group Type

Group – 1

Group – 2

Group – 3

Group – 4

Group – 5

Group – 6

Group – 7

Group – 8

Group – 9

Group – 10
Liquid
Bypass
Types
Insertion
Types
Insertion
Types
1 10 100 1000 10000
Line size, mm
Note:- The shaded areas represent the overlapping range of insertion and full bore meters.
Size distribution of flowmeter group


• Environments considerations
Ambient temperature effects
Humidity effects
Enhances corrosion
Powers Electrical Insulation Efficiency
Safety factors
Pressure effects
Electrical interference


Orifice 4 + + 1/2
Venturi 3 + + 1/2
Nozzle 3 + + 1/2
VA 3 A A 1
Target 3 NA A 3
Averaging Pitot 3 + + 2
Sonic nozzle 3 A NA 1/2
Sliding vane 4 A A 1/3
Oval gear 4 A A 1/3
Rotary piston 4 A A 1/3
Gas diaphragm 4 A NA 1/3
Rotary gas 4 A NA 1/3
Turbine 3 A A 4
Pelton 3 A A 3
Mechanical meter 3 A A 3
Insertion turbine 3 A A 3
Vortex 2 A A 4
Swirlmeter 2 A A 3
Insertion vortex 1 A N 3
Electromagnetic 1 A A 3
Insertion electromagnetic 1 A N 3
Doppler 3/4 A A 4
Transit time 3/4 NA A 4
Coriolis 1 A A/NA 4
Twin rotor 2 No data No data 4
Anemometer 3 NA NA 2
Thermal mass 4 A A 2
Tracer 1 N N 1
Laser 1 NA NA 4
Key
N is not necessary
A is available
NA is not available
+ is dependent on differential pressure measurement
Table 2.6 Selection by environmental constraints
Group
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1)
1is low 5 is high
Temperatu
re effect
1)
Intinsically safe
version
Water and
explosion proof
EMI or RFI
effect
1)
8
9
10
Type
Economic Considerations
Purchase price
Installation costs
Operation costs
Head loss (Pumping cost)
Meter life
Spares cost and availability
Maintenance costs
Calibration costs

Calibration
• All flowmeters require an
initial calibration.
• Need to recalibrate depends
to a great extent on how
well the meter fits the
application.


Orifice 2/4 1 3 2 1
Venturi 4 1/4 2 3 3
Nozzle 3 3 2 3 2
VA 1/3 2 2 1 1
Target 3 3 2 3 3
Averaging Pitot 2 3 2 2 2
Sonic nozzle 2 1 3/4 2 5
Sliding vane 3 5 4 4 5
Oval gear 3 4 4 4 5
Rotary piston 3 3 3 3 4
Gas diaphragm 3 3 1 2 2
Rotary gas 3 4 3 3 3
Turbine 3 4 3 4 4
Pelton 4 3 2 4 3
Mechanical meter 3 2 2 3 3
Insertion turbine 2 3 A 2 3
Vortex 3 3 3 3 3
Swirlmeter 3 4 3 3 3
Insertion vortex 2 3 2 3 3
Electromagnetic 3 3 1 3 3
Insertion electromagnetic 2 3 2 3 2
Doppler 1/3 1 1 3 2
Transit time 1/4 3 1 3 2
Coriolis 3 4 4 3 3
Twin rotor 3 3 3 3 3
Anemometer 3 2 1 3 3
Thermal mass 3 4 2 4 3
Tracer 2 - 4 2 4
Laser 5 - 4 5 5
Key
1 is low
5 is high
Note For purchase price see fig. (a) and (b) of fig 2.6
Installation
costs
Calibration
costs
9
10
3
4
5
6
Table 2.7 Selection by economic factors
Spares
costs
7
8
Operations
costs
Maintenance
costs
1
2
Group Type
Example-1
Select a flowmeter for the following requirement:

a. Application : Custody Transfer Application
b. Line size : 12 inches
c. Fluid : Natural Gas
d. Operating pressure : : 20 bar
e. Operating Temperature : 30
0 +/
- 5
0
C
f. Uncertainty : 0.25% of actual flow
g. Output : To interface with flow computer
h. Pipe work : No limitation
i. Pressure drop at max flow : Medium


1. Groups to be considered : 1, 2, 4, 5, 10 Select L in Table – 2
2. For uncertainty 0.25% : 1, 2, 3, 4, 7 Table – 5
3. Flow rate : 6000 m3/hr in 12 inch line
4. Line size : 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10 Table - 7
5. Pressure drop at max flow : 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,10 Table - 4


Answer : I Choice : Group 4
II Choice : Group 2
III Choice : Group 1
Example-2
Select a flowmeter for the following requirement:

a. Application : Acid Production
b. Line size : 25 mm
c. Fluid : Hydrochloric Acid
d. Operating pressure : 3 bar
e. Operating Temperature : 25
0
- 5
0
C
f. Uncertainty : 1% of actual flow
g. Output : To interface with flow computer
h. Pipe work : 3D upstream, 3D downstream, Horizontal
i. Capital Investment : Item is not critical


1. For (a) and (c), select S in Table – 2
2. Groups to be considered : 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10
3. For uncertainty 1% : 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 Table – 5
4. Flow rate : 3.5m3/s in 25 mm line
5. Find velocity and re : 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8 Table- 8
6. Line size : 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
7. Installation ( straight length) : 3, 6, 8
8. Economic Factors : 3, 6, 7, 8 Table 10


Answer : I Choice : Group 6
II Choice : Group 3
III Choice : Group 8
Table-2
Table-5
Table-8
Table-10
Example-3
Select a flowmeter for the following requirement:

a. Application : Metro water supply
b. Line size : 1800 mm
c. Fluid : water
d. Operating pressure : : 17 bar
e. Operating Temperature : 25
0
- 5
0
C
f. Uncertainty : 1% of actual flow
g. Output : To interface with flow computer
h. Pipe work : No limitation
i. Capital Investment : Item is not critical


1. Groups to be considered : 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10 select D in Table – 2
2. For uncertainty 1% : 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 ,9 Table – 5
3. Flow rate : 3700 l/s in 1800 mm line
4. Find velocity and re : 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,10 Table- 8
5. Line size : 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 10
6. Pressure drop at max flow : 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,10
7. Economic Factors : 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 9 Table 10


Answer : I Choice : Group 6
II Choice : Group 1
III Choice : Group 2
Example–4
Groups to be considered
Application : Steam Billing : N in Table 2
Line size : 0.3 : 1, 2, 4, 5, 10 Table 8
Fluid : Superheated steam : 1, 2, 4, 5, 10 Table 2
Operation Pressure : 1000 psi : 1, 1, 5, 8 Table 6
Operating Temperature : 300
o
C : 1, 2, 5, 8, 9 Table 6
Uncertainty required : 0.5% of actual flow : 0, 4, 6, 8 Table 5


Flow rate : 4 kg/s to 45 kg/s

Output : Pulse for totalization

Pipe work : Not specified

Budget : Very limited : 1, 2, 6

Answer : No meter satisfies the specifications

Table -7
Table -4
Manufacturers are anxious to help customers
pick the right flowmeter for a particular job.

Many provide questionnaires, checklists and
specification sheets designed to obtain
critical information necessary to match the
correct flowmeter to the job.

• Technological Improvements of flowmeters must
be considered.
• Availability of computer programs to perform
tedious calculations often necessary for selecting
flowmeters
Brooks Instruments
For selection and sizing of metal tube/glass tube
Variable area flowmeter
Fisher – Rosemount
For selection of vortex meters
Dos based
C. Johnson – Yokogawa
Windows based flow sizing program
Admag magnetic flowmeters and Yewflow vortex flowmeters
The Foxboro Co, Mass
Software “Flow Expert”
Interactive, Windows – based
Menu
Flowmeter review (Catalogue)
Selection guide
Sizing for orifice plates/integral orifice assembly
Sizing for vortex meters, Coriolis meters, magmeters
Physical properties of fluids
Engineering Measurements Co.,

Program „Emcosize‟
Interactive
Selects different types of meters for same application

Software for Flowmeter selection
Honeywell
Specific application driven softwares for Coriolis, Magmeter and DP
devices
Has build – in checks and warnings

Krohne, America
Program ‘Corisize’, DOS – based
Selects the correctly sizes Coriolis meter
Anticiplated pressure loss, liquid velocity and accuracy based on
nominal flow are predicted

Endress + Hauser Instruments
Sizes 24 different types of flowmeters working or
Coriolis/Vortex/Magmeter Technologies
Provides data for 270 fluids

Abb Instruments
Software ‘Genie’
Selects the meter, prints out the part number and the catalogue price.

George Fischer Inc.,
Selection of Signet paddle-wheel insertion meter
Selection based on flow profile dependent on Reynolds N., Pipe I.D.,
Flow rate, Viscosity, Density
Indicates Whether a sensor will/may/will not work.
Flowmeter selection software
Windows based Flowmeter selection program
as per BS 7405
Dos based Flowmeter Selection and Sizing
software FMSEL 2.0
Windows based
Flowmeter selection
program as per BS 7405
Dos based
Flowmeter
Selection and
Sizing software
FMSEL 2.0
Flowmeter Sizing
Orifice with flange tappings
Orifice with corner tappings
Orifice with D and D/2 tappings
Classical Venturi tube
Long radius nozzle
ISA 1932 nozzle
Venturi nozzle (ISA inlet)
Meter Sizing in Turbine Meters
Turbine meters are sized by volumetric flow rate.
When sizing the meter, it is recommended that the application
maximum flow rate is approximately 70 to 80 percent of the
maximum flow rate. This results in a good flow range – 7 or 8:1.

For optimum performance and flow range, most turbine meters are
designed to a nominal maximum velocity of 30ft/s (9.14m/s).

Consequently, if the turbine meter is selected to be of the same size
as the pipeline, the meter flow range will be severely limited and
will only be approximately 2 or 3:1.

If the turbine flow meter is sized on volumetric flow rate, it will be
smaller than the pipeline.
Meter sizing in Vortex meters

The meter minimum flow rate is established by a Reynolds number of
10000, fluid density and a minimum acceptable shedding frequency for
the electronics. The maximum flow rate is governed by the meter
pressure loss(typically two velocity heads), the onset of cavitation with
liquids and compressibility with gases.
On low viscosity products like water, gasoline and liquid ammonia, and
with an application maximum velocity of 15 ft/s (0.45m/s), vortex meters
can have a rangeability of 40:1 with a pressure loss of approximately 4
psig.
On liquid applications, it is necessary to verify that sufficient line
pressure exists to prevent cavitation in the vortex meter.
Case Study – VenCorp Australia


Pipeline company crews in the Australian state of Victoria
have installed 102 new ultrasonic, turbine and coriolis meters to
measure at intermediate custody transfer points during a major gas
industry reorganization and privatization.

Industry reformers have created one transmission company, three
distribution companies and three retail companies from what was a
single, vertically integrated organization in Victoria.

As a result of the restructuring, new custody transfer meters were
required at the interfaces between the transmission and distribution
systems



Of the 102 new meters installed in the 18-month, $20-
million project, 18 multipath ultrasonic meters are used
at large flow installations, 60 turbine meters for
intermediate flows and 24 coriolis meters for small
volumes.
Technologies were sought that would not only achieve
the required measurement uncertainties, but would
minimize the meter installations’ life cycle costs.
Reduction or elimination of the need for regular re-
calibration at pressure is highly desirable as the cost of
removing the meter and shipping from Australia is high.
Multipath ultrasonic meters were generally chosen for
category A and B meters, turbine meters for category C
and coriolis meters for category D.


For large sites or sites where bi-directional flow is a possibility, multipath
ultrasonic meters were chosen as they incorporate continuous internal
diagnostic checks which indicate if any of the ultrasonic paths is fouled, if
the meter is subject to external noise or if any of the ultrasonic
transducers is deteriorating.
Monitoring the measured velocity of sound will show if there is any
change in a critical dimension or if the reference clock has drifted. If
there is any doubt about the meter’s operation, a dry calibration can be
performed which will verify correct operation. In principle, there should
be no need to return the meter for high-pressure calibration if there are
no faults showing in the meter diagnostics and the measured velocity of
sound is consistent with the gas passing through the meter.
Ultrasonic meters were installed at sites with peak hourly flows
exceeding 40,000 m
3
/hr. The meter sizes range from 200 mm to 400 mm
(8 to 16 in.).

In sizes less than 200 mm, cost considerations led to the
selection of turbine meters. Turbine meters that comply
with ISO 9951: Measurement of Gas Flow in Closed
Conduits – Turbine Meters were chosen. They were tested
to ensure compliance with minimum perturbation
requirements with 2D upstream of the meter because this
design maximized site-selection flexibility and minimized
the metering-skid physical dimensions.
Turbine meter sizes below 50 mm were rejected because
the turndown ratio suffers at the small sizes due primarily
to dominant bearing effects.

For small-meter installations, coriolis meters were
chosen because they offer high turndown ratio
capability and can be calibrated with water and used to
measure gas with an added uncertainty of less than
0.5%. Coriolis meters exhibit a turndown ratio in excess
of 100:1 and cannot be damaged by excessive flows.
Many small offtakes, especially country towns serving
small populations of residential users without significant
industry, have large turndown ratios with only a small
maximum flowrate.

2006 Flowmeter User Study Results
Flow Research (www.flowresearch.com) recently conducted a six-month survey of the flowmeter user community.
The survey, which was undertaken in cooperation with Venture Development Corporation (www.vdc-corp.com)
and Flow Control magazine, was conducted in the second half of 2005 via an Internet-based questionnaire
ThankYou !