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International Competitive
Bidding (Based on World
Bank Guidelines)
Process of international competitive
Characteristics of undertaking ICB are:
 Publication of General procurement Notice followed
by Invitation for bids (IFB)
 Transmission of IFB to those who have expressed
interest in response to the General Procurement
 Publication of IFB in at least one widely circulated
national daily newspaper at least 45 days prior to
the deadline for submission of bids
 Use of standard bid documents

Process of international competitive
1. Issue of bidding
2. Bidding period 45 to 90
days from date of sale of
bid documents
3. Submission of bids
4. Public opening of bids
5. Bid evaluation using
standard evaluation forms
6. Selection of lowest
evaluated responsive bid-
based on post qualification
7. Contract award
8. Debriefing of bidders
9. Contract performance

Other methods of procurement
 Limited international bidding
 National competitive bidding
 Shopping
 Framework agreements
 Direct contracting
National competitive bidding (NCB)

 NCB is used in country of the borrower, and
may be the most appropriate method of
procurement of goods, works, and non-
consulting services, which, by their nature of
scope, are unlikely to attract foreign competition
 Invitation to bid shall be advertised in at least
one national newspaper, at least 30 days prior to
the deadline for the submission of bids.
 Except with prior concurrence of the Bank there
shall be no negotiation of price with bidders
Shopping procedures

 Shopping is a procurement method based
on comparing price quotations obtained
from several suppliers, or contractors, or
service contractors (in case of non-
consulting services) with a minimum of

Direct contracting

Direct contracting (single source) may be
acceptable under following circumstances:
 An existing contract for goods, works, and
non-consulting services
 Standardization of equipment or spare
parts, to be compatible with existing
equipment, may justify additional
purchases from original supplier
 Required equipment is proprietary and
obtainable only from one source

Direct contracting

 Direct contracting may be necessary
where procurement of certain goods from
a particular supplier is essential to achieve
the required performance
Framework Agreements
 A framework agreement (FA) is a long-
term agreement with suppliers,
contractors, and providers of non-
consulting services which sets out terms
and conditions under which specific
procurements (call-offs) can be made
throughout the term of the agreement
Framework Agreements (FAs)
 FAs may be permitted for
(a)goods that can be procured off-the-
(b)non-consulting services that are of a
simple nature and may be required from
time to time by same agency of the
Borrower, or
(c)Small value contracts for works under
emergency operations