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# DIGITAL TACHOMETER

Nelson Murwariya (100104077)
Rohit Raj (100104108)
Sumit Rajput (100104130)
INTRODUCTION
 The word comes from Greek ταχος (tachos)
i.e. speed and metron meaning measure .
 A tachometer (revolution-counter, tach, rev-
counter, RPM gauge) is an instrument
measuring the rotation speed of a shaft or
disk, as in a motor or other machine.
 The device usually displays the revolutions
per minute (RPM) on a calibrated analogue
dial, but digital displays are increasingly
common.
HISTORY
 The first mechanical tachometers were
based on measuring the centrifugal force,
similar to the operation of a centrifugal
governor.
 The inventor is assumed to be the
German engineer Dietrich Uhlhorn; he
used it for measuring the speed of
machines in 1817.Since 1840, it has been
used to measure the speed of
locomotives.
WORKING PRINCIPLE
 Pulses are fed to the tachometer at the
frequency to be measured. A scale factor
is applied to produce readings of desired
types (linear speed, flow rates etc.).

 Tachometer works on two basic
principles:-
a) Principle of the fixed time base
tachometer
b) Principle of the reciprocal
tachometer
CLASSIFICATION
Tachometers can be classified on the basis of data type
 Analog tachometer.
 Digital tachometer.
COMPARISON BETWEEN ANALOG AND
DIGITAL TACHOMETERS
ANALOG TACHOMETER
• Has a needle and dial type
interface.
• No provision for storage of
readings.
• Cannot compute average, deviation
etc.
DIGITAL TACHOMETER
• Has LCD or LED readout.
• Memory is provided for storage.
• Can perform statistical functions
like averaging etc
CONSTRUCTION
1) PIC 18F452
Microchip's PIC microcontroller will be used
to display text to the output LCD and also for
counting the pulses from the IR rpm counter circuit.

2)PIC Programmer
The PICkit 2 PIC Programmer was used to put
the final software code on to the pic microcontroller.

3)Trimpot
The trimpot is used as a variable resistor for both the LCD screen and for the IR rpm
counter circuit. The LCD screen needs to have a certain resistance in order for the contrast
to be right, then the text will show up perfectly. The digital tachometer circuit uses the
trimpot to bias the IR Detector properly, sending pulses whenever there is a change between
the Detector and Emitter.
4) IR Emitter / IR Detector
The IR Emitter device sends an infrared
signal just like any normal LED lights up a room.
The difference is you won't see any light shinning
from the IR Emitter because our eyes cannot see
it. The IR Detector will detect if any infrared light
is being shined at it. If IR light shines at the
detector, it allows current to pass through it to
ground.

5)16x2 LCD
The 16x2 LCD gives us a nice platform for
displaying text that is easily readable and very
accurate. This LCD uses the HD44780 standard .
Other useful equipments are 100Ω Resistor , Breadboard , Wires , Desktop
Computer Fan.
OPERATION
• The IR circuit will output pulses whenever it is interrupted (this type of IR circuit is also
known as a 'photo-interruptor' circuit).
• The PIC microcontroller will stand by waiting to see the rising edge of one of these pulses.
• Anytime a rising edge is detected the PIC will interrupt the current software and run a special
subroutine to take note that the change on the signal occurred.
• Now, if we keep track of how often that change occurs using a timer, we can estimate the
instantaneous RPMs, making a digital tachometer.

Output Signal From IR Circuit
FOR CALCULATING THE RPM
 The Fosc is the current frequency of your system.
 For a 4 MHz oscillator. Since the PIC takes 4 clock cycles to execute 1
instruction, we have to multiply it by 4.
 On the bottom, the reason we multiply the period between photo-interrupts
by 7 is because the fan used has 7 blades. Period*7 = 1 full rotation of the fan.