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EMPIRICAL BEARING CAPACITY

Most of the times, it is preferable and more

practical to use empirical formula for pile

design. The most ones are those derived

from the results of standard penetration

test (SPT) and cone penetration test

(CPT).

CONT

Pile capacity based on SPT values

The formulas based on SPT tests have

been proposed by Meyerhoff (1976). The

end bearing capacity of the pile is given in

the following equations:

CONT

For driven pile

For drilled pile

CONT

Where N' is the corrected SPT-N value

near the pile base or within the range of

1B above the tip and 2B below the tip

corrected with the overburden pressure, D

f

is embedded length of pile , and B is the

smallest dimension of the pile.

Most piles have high D

f

/B ratios, thus the

upper limit nearly always control.

CONT

The friction bearing of the pile depends on

the type of piles. For large displacement

pile such as solid driven piles, the friction

is estimated as

CONT

while for small displacement pile such as

H driven piles or shell piles, the friction

resistance is:

where N is the average SPT value along

the embedded length of pile.

CONT

Note that the equations are applicable for

piles embedded in cohesionless soils

because the standard penetration test

does not give reliable estimation of pile

capacity in cohesive soil.

Pile capacity based on CPT data

The pile capacity can be estimated based

on empirical formula developed based on

the results of cone penetration test. Briaud

and Miran (1991) proposed the end

bearing capacity (q

b

) formula as:

CONT

Where q

ca

is the equivalent cone bearing

at pile tip which is the average q

c

values

from 1.5 times pile diameter above the pile

tip to 1.5 pile diameter below the pile tip.

k

c

is the cone end bearing factor which

depends on the soil and pile types.

CONT

The friction resistance is derived based on

side friction (Nottingham and

Schemertmann , 1975). The unit friction

resistance for piles driven in cohesionless

soil is given as:

CONT

CONT

For pile driven in cohesive soil:

where f

sc

is the local side friction, B is the

smallest dimension of the pile, L is the length of

pile embedment, and 's is the adhesion factor

which depends of the soil and pile types and the

types of cone. An average value of 0.5 can be

used for this factor.

DYNAMIC FORMULA

The ultimate resistance of driven piles may be

predicted based on the amount of energy

delivered to the pile by the hammer and the

resulting penetration of the pile.

The greater the resistance to drive the pile, the

greater the capacity of the pile is to carry the

load . In this case, the net kinetic energy is equal

to the work done during penetration equal to the

soil resistance.

CONT

Where W is the weight of hammer, h is the

height of falling hammer, R denotes the

soil resistance , and s is set, that is the

average depth of penetration during the

last blow count.

CONT

Hundreds of pile driving formulas have

been proposed by researchers such as the

Engineering News Record (ENR), US

Navy, Gates, Danish , Eytelwein, etc .

Some of these formulas dating back to the

19th century such as that proposed by

Wellington (1888) which is known as the

ENR formula which come in the form :

CONT

where W

h

is the weight of hammer, h is the falling height

of the hammer, s and c are set and empirical constant

respectively, and FS is the factor of safety.

The empirical coefficient c was given as 1.0 for a drop

hammer (light hammer) and 0.10 for a single acting

steam hammer (heavy hammer).

CONT

The most widely used dynamic formula in Malaysia is

Hiley formula proposed in 1930 .

The formula takes into account the mechanism of impact

between the hammer and the pile . Many formulas used

Newton's theory of impact only, while Hiley tried to

account for energy losses in the pile/hammer system

(i.e. higher energy losses).

CONT

where W

h

, h, s and c are defined

previously, e is the efficiency factor of the

hammer, used to take into account energy

losses during hammer drop, W

p

is the

weight of the pile, is the coefficient of

restitution which takes into account the

energy loss through cushion and pile cap.

CONT

It is to be noted also that the formula was

developed for driving systems and piles in used

in England in the 1930's (e, r and c values) for

which the piles were driven into stiff clays and

dense sands.

Thus, it is to be used with caution in different

soils and elsewhere in the world.

Factors of safety of the order of 2 to 3 were

suggested .

PILE LOAD TEST

Pile cannot be readily inspected once they have

been constructed due to the variations in the

bearing stratum.

It is not easy for the designer to be assured that

the pile foundations are complying with the

design .

Therefore, the pile test should be considered as

a part of the design and construction process.

CONT

To determine the pile capacity directly in

situ, an adequate number of pile load test

depending on the extent of ground

investigation program is required .

In this case, test piles may be installed

and tested to prove the suitability of the

pilling system and to confirm the design

parameters inferred the site investigation .

CONT

The test pile should be driven at a location

where soil conditions are known and

where soil conditions are relatively poor.

Testing of test piles may involve integrity

testing to check the construction technique

and workmanship and for load testing to

confirm the performance of the pile as a

foundation element.

CONT

CONT

Maintained Load Test (MLT) is the most

common method and also known as the

Standard Loading Procedure. This test needs a

long duration, which can take 30-70 hours to

complete.

In this method, the load-settlement relationship

for the test pile is obtained by loading in suitable

increments, allowing sufficient time between

increments for settlement to be substantially

complete.

CONT

The test shall be assessed by two-cycle

static maintained load test to twice the

safe working load.

The ultimate load is normally taken as the

corresponding to a specified settlement,

for example 10% of the pile diameter.

CONT

It is normal to include an unloading-

reloading cycle, after 100 percent of the

design load is reached, to establish the

elastic rebound of the pile.

The final load is maintained for 24 hours,

after which the pile is unloaded in

increments.

CONT

PROBLEMS RELATED TO PILE

FOUNDATION

Uplift / Tension Resistance of Piles

Piles may be required to resist uplift

forces. This is the case when

structure is subjected to large

overturning moments such as

transmission towers , jetty structure or

bridge abutments.

PROBLEMS RELATED TO PILE

FOUNDATION

The uplift force in piles is resisted by friction and

the weight of pile itself. Additional uplift

resistance may be obtained by under-ream or

enlarge base of piles.

CONT

A relatively few pulling test results were

reported in literature. However, for

practical purposes the resistance to uplift

(P

u

) can be calculated based on the fricti

on resistance, plus the weight of piles (W

p

)

:

UNDER- REAMED PILES

Some drilled piles are constructed with

enlarged base in order to increase the end

bearing capacity of the piles.

This type of pile is known as under-

reamed pile. The size of the enlarged

based is about three times the diameter of

the stem.

CONT

Due to the drilling process and the

enlarged base of the pile , it is advised to

disregard skin friction at the top of the pile

(about 1.5 m) and at the enlarged part of

the pile.

In addition, the skin friction along the stem

over a length of 2B above the enlarged

base should not be accounted for.

CONT

Negative Skin Friction

If driven or bored piles are installed in

compressible fill or any soil showing

appreciable consolidation under its own

weight, an additional load is working on

the perimer of the pile.

This is referred as negative skin friction.

CONT

CONT

The negative friction or down drag of piles may

also occur wherever piles are driven through, or

adjacent to, recently placed fill.

Such fill may merely be to raise the existing

ground level, or may be part of an embankment

or a bridge approach .

The problem is normally associated with soft,

lightly over consolidated deposits of clay .

CONT

In some sensitive clay, remolding of the

soil during driving may lead to down drag

of the piles, even where no fill is placed

(Fellenius, 1972).

CONT

The negative skin friction (Q

n

) can be

calculated based on the effective

overburden stress distribution along the

pile:

CONT

If there is no fill above the clay layer, then

equation wiII reduce to:

EXAMPLE

PILE GROUP

In most cases piles are used in groups to

transmit the structural load to the soil. A pile cap

is constructed over a group of three or more

piles.

Pile group works better than a single pile

because a single pile usually does not have

enough capacity and the installation of a pile

sometimes results in some problems such as

eccentricity which can produce moment to the

pile.

PILE GROUP

Multiple pile can minimize the eccentricity and

provide redundancy, thus piles can continue to

support the structure even if one pile is

defective.

CONT

Ideally the bearing capacity of the group of piles

(Q

ug

) should not be less than the capacity of a

single pile times the number of pile.

However, if two piles are driven close to each

other, then soil stresses caused by the piles tend

to overlap, and the bearing capacity of both piles

would be less than the sum of the capacity of the

two piles .

CONT

Thus, piles need to be spaced relatively far apart

so that the stresses do not overlap. This will

results in a bigger size of a pile cap.

CONT

Minimum allowable pile spacing of piles is

often specified by design manual

depending on the types of piles and the

types of soil.

However, for highest efficiency. The center

to center distance of 2 to 8 times the

smallest dimension of pile is suggested.

CONT

The optimum distance of 3 times the

diameter of circular piles or width of

square pile is widely acceptable .

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