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# PILE FOUNDATION - 3

## Mr Mohd Faiz b Mohammad Zaki

EMPIRICAL BEARING CAPACITY
Most of the times, it is preferable and more
practical to use empirical formula for pile
design. The most ones are those derived
from the results of standard penetration
test (SPT) and cone penetration test
(CPT).
CONT
Pile capacity based on SPT values

The formulas based on SPT tests have
been proposed by Meyerhoff (1976). The
end bearing capacity of the pile is given in
the following equations:
CONT
For driven pile

For drilled pile
CONT
Where N' is the corrected SPT-N value
near the pile base or within the range of
1B above the tip and 2B below the tip
corrected with the overburden pressure, D
f

is embedded length of pile , and B is the
smallest dimension of the pile.

Most piles have high D
f
/B ratios, thus the
upper limit nearly always control.
CONT
The friction bearing of the pile depends on
the type of piles. For large displacement
pile such as solid driven piles, the friction
is estimated as
CONT
while for small displacement pile such as
H driven piles or shell piles, the friction
resistance is:

where N is the average SPT value along
the embedded length of pile.
CONT
Note that the equations are applicable for
piles embedded in cohesionless soils
because the standard penetration test
does not give reliable estimation of pile
capacity in cohesive soil.
Pile capacity based on CPT data
The pile capacity can be estimated based
on empirical formula developed based on
the results of cone penetration test. Briaud
and Miran (1991) proposed the end
bearing capacity (q
b
) formula as:
CONT
Where q
ca
is the equivalent cone bearing
at pile tip which is the average q
c
values
from 1.5 times pile diameter above the pile
tip to 1.5 pile diameter below the pile tip.

k
c
is the cone end bearing factor which
depends on the soil and pile types.
CONT

The friction resistance is derived based on
side friction (Nottingham and
Schemertmann , 1975). The unit friction
resistance for piles driven in cohesionless
soil is given as:
CONT

CONT
For pile driven in cohesive soil:

where f
sc
is the local side friction, B is the
smallest dimension of the pile, L is the length of
pile embedment, and 's is the adhesion factor
which depends of the soil and pile types and the
types of cone. An average value of 0.5 can be
used for this factor.
DYNAMIC FORMULA
The ultimate resistance of driven piles may be
predicted based on the amount of energy
delivered to the pile by the hammer and the
resulting penetration of the pile.

The greater the resistance to drive the pile, the
greater the capacity of the pile is to carry the
load . In this case, the net kinetic energy is equal
to the work done during penetration equal to the
soil resistance.
CONT

Where W is the weight of hammer, h is the
height of falling hammer, R denotes the
soil resistance , and s is set, that is the
average depth of penetration during the
last blow count.
CONT
Hundreds of pile driving formulas have
been proposed by researchers such as the
Engineering News Record (ENR), US
Navy, Gates, Danish , Eytelwein, etc .

Some of these formulas dating back to the
19th century such as that proposed by
Wellington (1888) which is known as the
ENR formula which come in the form :
CONT

where W
h
is the weight of hammer, h is the falling height
of the hammer, s and c are set and empirical constant
respectively, and FS is the factor of safety.

The empirical coefficient c was given as 1.0 for a drop
hammer (light hammer) and 0.10 for a single acting
steam hammer (heavy hammer).
CONT
The most widely used dynamic formula in Malaysia is
Hiley formula proposed in 1930 .

The formula takes into account the mechanism of impact
between the hammer and the pile . Many formulas used
Newton's theory of impact only, while Hiley tried to
account for energy losses in the pile/hammer system
(i.e. higher energy losses).

CONT
where W
h
, h, s and c are defined
previously, e is the efficiency factor of the
hammer, used to take into account energy
losses during hammer drop, W
p
is the
weight of the pile, is the coefficient of
restitution which takes into account the
energy loss through cushion and pile cap.
CONT
It is to be noted also that the formula was
developed for driving systems and piles in used
in England in the 1930's (e, r and c values) for
which the piles were driven into stiff clays and
dense sands.

Thus, it is to be used with caution in different
soils and elsewhere in the world.

Factors of safety of the order of 2 to 3 were
suggested .
PILE LOAD TEST
Pile cannot be readily inspected once they have
been constructed due to the variations in the
bearing stratum.

It is not easy for the designer to be assured that
the pile foundations are complying with the
design .

Therefore, the pile test should be considered as
a part of the design and construction process.
CONT
To determine the pile capacity directly in
situ, an adequate number of pile load test
depending on the extent of ground
investigation program is required .

In this case, test piles may be installed
and tested to prove the suitability of the
pilling system and to confirm the design
parameters inferred the site investigation .
CONT
The test pile should be driven at a location
where soil conditions are known and
where soil conditions are relatively poor.

Testing of test piles may involve integrity
testing to check the construction technique
and workmanship and for load testing to
confirm the performance of the pile as a
foundation element.
CONT
CONT
Maintained Load Test (MLT) is the most
common method and also known as the
Standard Loading Procedure. This test needs a
long duration, which can take 30-70 hours to
complete.

In this method, the load-settlement relationship
for the test pile is obtained by loading in suitable
increments, allowing sufficient time between
increments for settlement to be substantially
complete.
CONT
The test shall be assessed by two-cycle
static maintained load test to twice the
safe working load.

The ultimate load is normally taken as the
corresponding to a specified settlement,
for example 10% of the pile diameter.
CONT
It is normal to include an unloading-
reloading cycle, after 100 percent of the
design load is reached, to establish the
elastic rebound of the pile.

The final load is maintained for 24 hours,
after which the pile is unloaded in
increments.
CONT
PROBLEMS RELATED TO PILE
FOUNDATION
Uplift / Tension Resistance of Piles

Piles may be required to resist uplift
forces. This is the case when
structure is subjected to large
overturning moments such as
transmission towers , jetty structure or
bridge abutments.
PROBLEMS RELATED TO PILE
FOUNDATION
The uplift force in piles is resisted by friction and
the weight of pile itself. Additional uplift
resistance may be obtained by under-ream or
enlarge base of piles.
CONT
A relatively few pulling test results were
reported in literature. However, for
practical purposes the resistance to uplift
(P
u
) can be calculated based on the fricti
on resistance, plus the weight of piles (W
p
)
:
UNDER- REAMED PILES
Some drilled piles are constructed with
enlarged base in order to increase the end
bearing capacity of the piles.

This type of pile is known as under-
reamed pile. The size of the enlarged
based is about three times the diameter of
the stem.
CONT
Due to the drilling process and the
enlarged base of the pile , it is advised to
disregard skin friction at the top of the pile
(about 1.5 m) and at the enlarged part of
the pile.

In addition, the skin friction along the stem
over a length of 2B above the enlarged
base should not be accounted for.
CONT
Negative Skin Friction
If driven or bored piles are installed in
compressible fill or any soil showing
appreciable consolidation under its own
weight, an additional load is working on
the perimer of the pile.

This is referred as negative skin friction.
CONT
CONT
The negative friction or down drag of piles may
also occur wherever piles are driven through, or
adjacent to, recently placed fill.

Such fill may merely be to raise the existing
ground level, or may be part of an embankment
or a bridge approach .

The problem is normally associated with soft,
lightly over consolidated deposits of clay .
CONT
In some sensitive clay, remolding of the
soil during driving may lead to down drag
of the piles, even where no fill is placed
(Fellenius, 1972).
CONT
The negative skin friction (Q
n
) can be
calculated based on the effective
overburden stress distribution along the
pile:
CONT
If there is no fill above the clay layer, then
equation wiII reduce to:
EXAMPLE
PILE GROUP
In most cases piles are used in groups to
transmit the structural load to the soil. A pile cap
is constructed over a group of three or more
piles.

Pile group works better than a single pile
because a single pile usually does not have
enough capacity and the installation of a pile
sometimes results in some problems such as
eccentricity which can produce moment to the
pile.
PILE GROUP
Multiple pile can minimize the eccentricity and
provide redundancy, thus piles can continue to
support the structure even if one pile is
defective.
CONT
Ideally the bearing capacity of the group of piles
(Q
ug
) should not be less than the capacity of a
single pile times the number of pile.

However, if two piles are driven close to each
other, then soil stresses caused by the piles tend
to overlap, and the bearing capacity of both piles
would be less than the sum of the capacity of the
two piles .
CONT
Thus, piles need to be spaced relatively far apart
so that the stresses do not overlap. This will
results in a bigger size of a pile cap.
CONT
Minimum allowable pile spacing of piles is
often specified by design manual
depending on the types of piles and the
types of soil.

However, for highest efficiency. The center
to center distance of 2 to 8 times the
smallest dimension of pile is suggested.
CONT
The optimum distance of 3 times the
diameter of circular piles or width of
square pile is widely acceptable .