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SENDER A.M.

Transmitters
SENDER S.A.
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SENDER S.A.
Company was created in 1997 by a group of engineers and
technitians with long experience in Solid state A.M.
Transmitters.

Located in Santiago Chile, with 25 employes.
40% of them are shareholders.

Main activity: Design and manufacturing of A.M. transmitters,
antenna tuning units, duplexers and triplexers.

First transmitter in operation Nov 1997.

Transmitters sold up to now:127 from 1 KW to 12.5 KW.
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Product Line
AM 1500 SS 1.5 KW/1.1 KW, single phase / 2 power
amplifiers

AM 3000 SS 2.25 KW/3KW, single phase or 3 phase / 4
power amplifiers.

AM 7500 SS 5.5 KW/ 7.5 KW, 3 phase or single phase / 7
power amplifiers.

AM 15000 SS 11 KW/13 KW,3 phase / 14 power amplifiers

AM 25000 SS 22 KW/26KW, 3 phase / 28 power amplifiers

A.T.Us for 1.5 KW, 3 KW,7.5 KW, 13 KW and 26 KW
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Product highlights
Solid State. Modular / redundant
architecture
High efficiency. PWM & class D R.F.
amplifiers
Hot plug in power amplifiers with Mosfets.
Simple design with standard components.
Totally rustproof cabinet made of iridated
aluminum with stainless steel hardware.
Excellent specs and audio quality.
Outstanding factory support.
Very competitive price.

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Basic specifications
Frequency range: .53 MHZ to 1.7 MHZ.

Input voltage: 110V or 220 V single phase, 220V or 380V 3 ph
+or - 10%. Line frequency 47HZ to 63 HZ.

Efficiency: 75% or better for single phase transmitters,
80% or better for 3 phase transmitters.

Frequency response: Better than +or- 1 dB 30 Hz to 10 KHZ.

Distortion: Less than 1% at nominal power and 90% modulation.

Harmonics and spurious:- 73 dB or better for AM 1500 SS,
- 80 dB or better for other models.

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Frequency stability:+- 5 Hz.

Output impedance: 50 Ohm

Dimentions and weigths:
AM 1500 SS W=44 cm,H=62.5cm
D=60 cM , 100 Kg.
AM 3000 SS W=44 cm,H=65.5cm
D=60 cM , 160 Kg.
AM 15000 SS W=80 cm,H=181cm
D=81 cM , 500 Kg.

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Standard features:
2 power level with independient adjustment
and modulation autotracking.
Start, stop,power level selection and power
level adjustment remotely controled.
Automatic alarm reset.
Positive and negative limiter.


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Basic block diagram
Synth
PWM
Combiner
An
A2
A1
Output

Filter
Control
PWR
Supply
Out
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Relationship with
RICHARDSON ELECTRONICS
Exclusive representation for Asia and other specific countries.

Joint project to manufacture transmitters in U.S.A.

Sender sells Omnicast F.M. Transmitters in Latin America.

Excellent level of personal contacts .
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Near future projects
FCC type acceptance.

Frequency agile 1.5 KW transmitter.

IBOC compatibility.

Inboard audio processor and modulation monitor.

Higher power amplifiers
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Reliability in A.M. stations
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Introduction
Harmonic set of:
Transmitter
Radiating system
Energy System
Auxiliary Equipment


Station Concept
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Experience with stations using Solid
State A.M. Transmitters
Very high reliability if precautions
related with the following topics are
considered:
Antenna discharges
A.C. Source transients and discharges
A.C. Source voltage limits
Load stability
Interference from nearby stations

Reliability is reduced in unprotected stations



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A.C.
Basic elements of a station
GROUND PLANE
ATU
TX
STL
RX
RF
Audio &
Rem. Ctrl.
T.P.
H.V
TRANSF.
DISTR.
BOARD
ANTENNA
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TRANSMITTER BASIC BLOCKS
POWER SUPPLY
PWM MODULATOR
R.F. DRIVER
CLASS D or E
R.F. OUTPUT FILTER
CONTROL,PROTECTIONS,SIGNALING
EXTERNAL INTERFACE
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PWM MODULATOR
GENERATES D.C + A.C. VOLTAGE FOR
THE R.F. AMP.
SWITCHING DEVICE, HIGH EFFICIENCY
A FILTER IS NEEDED TO ELIMINATE
SWITCHING FREQUENCIES
CONMUTATION FREQUENCY IS 72 KHZ.
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PWM (PULSE WIDTH MODULATION)
SIMPLIFIED DIAGRAM:
D.C. SUPPLY Switch
(Mosfet)
PWM FILTER LOAD
R.F.
AMPLIFIER
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PWM BASIC OPERATION
Filtered output voltage PWM waveform
1)
2)
3)
4)
S
V RL
Between 1) y 4) duty cycle is increased
Mean voltage in the load increases proportionally
A filter is required to remove high frequency components
F = 72 kHz
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PWM Frequency spectrum
72 kHz 144 kHz
D.C Component
Audio
Amplitude
Frecuency
PWM 0
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PWM Frequency spectrum
72 kHz
144 kHz
D.C. component
Audio
Amplitude
Frecuency
72 KHZ components out of phase
PWM 180

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PWM filter diagram
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PWM filter frequency response
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PWM filter response sensibility
to load changes
Rload +/- 15%
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Load change consequences
With reduced load (Rload< Rnominal)
transmitter will produce high frequency
submodulation
With increased load (Rload>Rnominal)
transmitter will show high frequency
overmodulation
Distorsion will increase if filter is not
propperly loaded.
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Modulated class D R.F. Amplifier.
T1
T2
RL
T3
T4
PWM filter
+V
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Class D r.f. Amplifier diagram
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Class D Bridge parasitic
elements
RL
V+
Cds
Cgd
Cgs
Cds
Cgd
Cgs
Ciss = Cgs + Cgd Crss = Cgd Coss = Cds + Cgd
Cds
Cgd
Cgs
Cds
Cgd
Cgs
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Mosfets drive
T1
T2
RL
T3
V+
Vgs(thr)
Vgs peak = 13V
Dead
time
Vgs
time
T4
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R.F. drive circuit
SCgs
Drive signal
Ls Cs
Lp
Ls and Cs series resonant
Lp paralel resonant with mosfet input
capacitance (Partially)
MOSFET drive
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Class D bridge current paths
T1
T2
RL
T3
T4
V+
T1
T2
RL
T3
T4
V+
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Class D bridge undisered current
paths.
T1
T2
RL
T3
T4
V+
T1
T2
RL
T3
T4
V+
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Class D Amplifier basics.
Low impedance driver required for:
Fast switching
Low Vgs modulation by Crss
Tuned load to produce sinusoidal
current
High efficiency (>95 %)
Duty cycle should be < 0.5
Avoid transversal currents
Coss charge and discharge through Rl
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Class D R.F. Amp typical
waveforms.
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MOSFET characteristics
No secondary breakdown
positive temperature coeff. Of Rdson
(Simplify parallel operation)
Voltage controled device (Vgs)
Driver impedance dependent switching
times.
Intrinsic antiparallel diode

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IRFP350 MOSFET
Rdson = 0.3 ohms
Vdss = 400 Vdc
Vgs = +/- 20 Vmax Vth = 3 V Vsat = 9 V
Id = 16 A @ Tc=25C 10 A @ Tc=100C
Idmax = 64 A
Capacitance @ f=1MHz, Vds=25V , Vgs=0V
Ciss = 2600 pF (2400 pF for Vds>40V)
Coss = 660 pF (200 pF for Vds>40V)
Crss = 250 pF (50 pF for Vds>40V)

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Class D amplifier example
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Class D Simulation
(1/2 bridge,Vmax<400x.75/2.5)
Cicuit data
Vdc = 110 V
F = 1600 kHz
d = 0.43
Transistor IRFP350
Rdson = 0.3 ohms
Ton = 16 ns
Toff = 40 ns
Coss = 200 pF
L2 = 7.04 uH
C2 = 1.55 nF
Operational data
RL = 15 ohms
Po = 132.36 W
h = 97.93 %
Transistor stresses
Vmax = 110.81 V
Imax = 4.12 A
Pdis = 0.70 W x2
(1.4 Wtotal)
*Simulated with HB plusfrom Design Automation
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Class E Amplifier diagram
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Class E amplifier example
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Class E amplifier basics.
R.F.Choke large enough to produce
constant current
High Q series resonant circuit to
produce sinusoidal current
Vds y dVds/dt =0 prior to starting
conduction
High efficiency (>95%)
if special high voltage transistors with low
Rdson are used
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Clase E Waveforms
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Clase E Simulation
(Vmax<400x.75/2.5)
Circuit Data
Vdc = 33 V
F = 1600 kHz
d = 0.48
Transistor IRFP350
Rdson = 0.3 ohms
Ton = 16 ns
Toff = 40 ns
Coss = 200 pF
L1=12.3uH L2=3.7uH
C1= 4.1nF C2=4.9nF
Operational Data
RL = 7.3 ohms
Po = 125.27 W
h = 90.53 %
Transistor stresses
Vmax = 118.79 V
Imax = 9.84 A
Pdis = 6.55 W x2
(13.1 Wtotal)

*Simulated with HEPA Plus from Design Automation
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Passband Output filter
Reduce R.F. Harmonics
High third harmonic att > 80 dB
Medium second harmonic att. > 40 dB
Higher harmonics att > 70 dB
Permits impedance matching between
amplifier and load.
Atenuates low frequency components
(Lightning protection)

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Output filter
Design oriented to protect R.F.amplifier
Low frequency attenuation
Inductor input
Strategically located sensors:
Spark Gap Transient suppressor
SWR Overpower
Overcurrent Phase
Input transient suppressor(Active or pasive)
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Output filter diagram
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Output filter frequency response
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Real and imaginary part of filter
input impedance
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Protections integrated in the
output filter
S E N D E R
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Posible Transmitter Agresions
Antenna
Impedance change and discharges
A.C. Supply
Voltage variation and transients
Program signal
Level variations and transients
Ground
Transfered potentials and high ground
currents
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Antenna related problems
Impedance change
Low heigth antennas are particularly
unstable
Restricted bandwidth
Interference from other stations
Discharges
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Short antenna example
60 m tower operating at 700 kHz

ZL = 8 - j160
Q = 20
Electrical length = 50.4
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Type T -90 Standard A.T.U.
4.55uH
j20
40.9uH
j180
ZL
8-j160
11.37nF
-j20
Zin
50+j0
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A.T.U.Sensibility to antenna
impedance changes
Change in XL (+/- 10 ohm=6%)
if ZL=8-j150 Zin=19.5-j24.4 SWR=3.26
if ZL=8-j160 Zin=50+J0 SWR=1
if Zl=8-J170 Zin=19.5+j24.4 SWR=3.26

Change in RL ( +/- 1 ohm =12.5%)
if ZL=7-j160 Zin=57.1+j0 SWR=1.14
if ZL=9-j160 Zin=44.4+j0 SWR=1.14
RL and XL simultaneous variation
if ZL=7-j150 Zin=18.8-j26.8 SWR=3.52
if ZL=7-j170 Zin=18.8+j26.8 SWR=3.52
if ZL=9-j150 Zin=19.9-j22 SWR=3.10
if ZL=9-j170 Zin=19.9+j22 SWR=3.10
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Complex A.T.U. (dual T)
j5 j145
ZL
8-j160
j37
Zin
50+j0
j50.5
-j92.5
-j44.9
Variations in XL
if ZL=8-j150 Zin=50+j62.5 SWR=3.26
if ZL=8-j160 Zin=50+j0 SWR=1.00
if ZL=8-j170 Zin=50-j62.5 SWR=3.26
Note: SWR of 8+/-j10 refered to a 8+j0 is 3.26
!
20

-20

20-J13

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Load ladder
RF amplifiers
Zn
Z1
Extreme values for SWR 1:1.5, refered to 50 Ohm, are:
33.3+j0 75.0+j0
50-j20.4 50+j20.4
1
n
combiner
filter
A.T.U.
Antenna
50 Ohm
15 Ohm
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Load variation effects
Class D amplifier
Load VSWR
(%)
P (1/2
bridge)
Vmax (V) Imax (A)
15 1 97.93 132.36 110.81 4.12
15-j6.1 1.5 96.55 151.92 109.80 57.77
15+j6.1 1.5 97.83 93.00 110.83 3.44
22.5 1.5 98.47 96.08 110.02 13.89
10.0 1.5 96.94 165.02 110.84 5.66
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A.T.U. And amplifier stresses

A)ZL=50-J62.5
Eff=93.5% Po=4.5W Ip=15.5A

B) ZL=50+J62.5
Eff=90.9% Po=2.02W Ip=1A

C) ZL=19.5+J24.4
Eff=84% Po=44W Ip=105A

D)ZL=19.5+J24.4
Eff=93.8% Po=395W Ip=73.7A
90
20+20
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Class D waveforms
Ro=15 VSWR=1:1
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Class D waveforms
Ro=15-j6.1 VSWR=1:1.5
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Class D waveforms
Ro=15+j6.1 VSWR=1:1.5
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Class D waveforms

Ro=22.5 VSWR=1:1.5
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Class D waveforms
Ro=10.0 VSWR=1:1.5
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Atmospheric discharges
At the antenna
In A.C.lines
In telephone lines
Characteristics
Imax: 200 kA Itypical: 10 a 20 kA
dI/dT typical: 10 kA/useg
Risetime: 2 useg Decay time:40 useg to 50%
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Criteria to minimize damages
Disipators
Avoid charge acumulation using sharp
points
or active systems
Well designed grounding system
Low impedance direct paths
High impedance undesired paths
Radial equipotential conections
Antenna and ground conection closely
located at TX
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Discharge probability function
N = 15 L (CH+h)
2
10
-6

N = Discharges per year
L = Ceraunic level (N of days per year when thunderstorms
are heared)
C = Site topographic index (0 to 0,3)
H = Site mean heigth above surroundings (1 to2 km)
h = Antenna heigth
Example: C=0.1 L=50 H=100m h=120m
N = 12.7 discharges per year.
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Discharge current
circulation
1
14
10
7
2
5
3
8
6

11

4
13
12
15
9
16
17
1. Strike
2. Antenna
3. Discharge through the antenna
4. Guy
5. Isolator
6. Spark gap
7. Ground rod
8. Base insulator
9. Cnecting Loop
11. A.T.U. isolator
12. A.T.U.
13. Ferrite core
14. Coaxial cable
15. Discharge current in caxial cable
16. A.T.U. Spark gap
17. Disipator
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Equipment Instalation
A.C. Line transient protector
Panelboard
Coaxial cable
Building ground
Ferrite
toroids
Transmitter A.C. line
A.C. mains
Reference ground
Ground to
auxiliary
equipment
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Ground system equivalent circuit
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Discharge voltages and currents
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Interference

1.- Intermodulation products are generated

2.- SWR protection is desensitized

3.- Dangerous voltages at the R.F. Amplifier and
output filter maybe generated.
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Transmitter Protections
A.C.input
Overload
Short cicuit
Transients
Overvoltage
Undervoltage
Assimetry

D.C.supply
Overload
Transients
Failure
R.F.
Overcurrent
SWR
Phase
overpower
Transients


Internal
R.F. Drive
Temperature
PLL


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Factory tests to ensure transmitter
reliability
Power amplifiers
Long time operation at 150% modulation
Output
Open cicuit
Short circuit
Simulated lightning strike
SWR
A.C. input
Phase failure
Simulated transient
Voltage variationSENDER

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Conclusions
Transmitter intrinsic reliability
Power stages regimes much lower than devices
limits
Simple low power stages with low number of
components
Rational protections adjustment
Reliability in a transmitting sytem is a function of:
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Conclusions
High quality station engineering
A.C. Transient protection
Antenna discharges protection
Well dimentioned and coordinated grounds.
Stable radiating sysytem.
Interference filtering
Coordination with the manufacturer
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Recomended instrumentation for
test and adjustment

1.- To measure resonance:
1.1 R.F.Generator
1.2 Oscilloscope or spectrum analyzer

2.- To measure R.F.impedance:
2.1 R.F. bridge (General Radio 1609 or
Delta OIB-3)
2.2 R.F. generator (Delta RG3-A or
similar)
2.2 Spectrum analyzer (HP 8553B or
similar) or detector included in RG3-A

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3.- To measure power:
3.1 R.F. Dummy load,non inductive or with
a tuning network to adjust it to 50+J0 Ohm.
3.2 R.F. Ammeter (Delta TC-1 or similar)
or R.F. Wattmeter

4.- To measure frequency response and distortion:
4.1 General purpose oscilloscope, 2 channel
4.2 Audio analyzer (Audio precision Portable
One or similar)
4.3 Modulation monitor (H.P. 8901 A or B , Belar
AMM3, TFT 923 A.M. or similar.)

2.3 An H.P. vector impedance meter
may be used instead of 2.1,2.2 and 2.3

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5.- To measure spectrum.-
5.1 Spectrum analyzer 100KHZ.to 50 MHZ or more
TEK 2711, H.P. 8553B plus display unit or similar).
5.2 R.F. atenuator.
5.3 OPTIONAL. Notch filter to remove the carrier
frequency and avoid intermodulation

6.- To check efficiency.
6.1 A.C. Analyzer.(To measure A.C. voltage, current,
power and power factor

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7.- To measure transmitter carrier frequency.
7.1 Digital frequency meter up to 10 MHZ.
Or higher frequency, time base 1 P.P.M. or less.

8.- To measure temperature.
8.1 Infrared temperature measuring unit with suitable
digital multitester. (Fluke).


9.- For general voltage and current measurements:
9.1 True RMS digital multimeter, suitable to operate
in high R.F. fields. (Our best experience is with Fuke
Digital multimeters.)

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10.- For long run test.
10.1 USASI Noise generator. (Delta SNG-1).





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Pablo Phillips D.
Agosto 1999
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