You are on page 1of 20

HVAC

TYPES OF HVAC SYSTEMS


1. Based on method used to convey energy
HVAC types
2. Based on type of air- conditioner used
1. Window Air Conditioning System
2. Split Air Conditioner System
3. Packaged Air Conditioners
4. Central Air Conditioning
1. All- air systems
2. Air-and-water systems
3. All-water systems
Window AC
Packaged AC
Split AC
Window air conditioner is the most commonly used air conditioner for single rooms. In this air
conditioner all the components, namely the compressor, condenser, expansion valve or coil, evaporator
and cooling coil are enclosed in a single box. This unit is fitted in a slot made in the wall of the room, or
more commonly a window sill.
The split air conditioner comprises of two parts: the outdoor unit and the indoor unit. The outdoor
unit, fitted outside the room, houses components like the compressor, condenser and expansion valve.
The indoor unit comprises the evaporator or cooling coil and the cooling fan. For this unit you dont
have to make any slot in the wall of the room. Further, the present day split units have aesthetic looks
and add to the beauty of the room. The split air conditioner can be used to cool one or two rooms.

The central air conditioning plants or the systems are used when large buildings, hotels, theaters,
airports, shopping malls etc are to be air conditioned completely. The window and split air
conditioners are used for single rooms or small office spaces. If the whole building is to be cooled it is
not economically viable to put window or split air conditioner in each and every room. Further, these
small units cannot satisfactorily cool the large halls, auditoriums, receptions areas etc.

Central air conditioning is used for cooling big buildings, houses, offices, entire hotels, gyms, movie theaters,
factories etc. If the whole building is to be air conditioned, HVAC engineers find that putting individual units in
each of the rooms is very expensive making this a better option. A central air conditioning system is comprised
of a huge compressor that has the capacity to produce hundreds of tons of air conditioning. Cooling big halls,
malls, huge spaces, galleries etc is usually only feasible with central conditioning units.

THERMAL COMFORT
1999 ASHRAE Applications Handbook (SI)
General Design Criteria

General Category Specific Category Inside Design Conditions Air Movement Circulation,
air changes per hour
Winter Summer
Dining
and
Entertainment
Centers
Cafeterias and
Luncheonettes
21 to 23C 26C
e
20 to 30% rh 50% rh
0.25 m/s at 1.8 m
above floor
12 to 15
Restaurants 21 to 23C 23 to 26C
20 to 30% rh 55 to 60% rh
0.13 to 0.15 m/s 8 to 12
Bars 21 to 23C 23 to 26C
20 to 30% rh 50 to 60% rh
0.15 m/s at 1.8 m
above floor
15 to 20
Nightclubs and
Casinos
21 to 23C 23 to 26C
20 to 30% rh 50 to 60% rh
below 0.13 m/s at
1.5 m above floor
20 to 30
Kitchens 21 to 23C 29 to 31C 0.15 to 0.25 m/s 12 to 15
h
Office Buildings 21 to 23C 23 to 26C
20 to 30% rh 50 to 60% rh
0.13 to 0.23 m/s 4
to 10 L/(s m
2
)
4 to 10
Museums,
Libraries, and
Archives
(Also see Chapter 20.)
Average
20 to 22C
40 to 55% rh
below 0.13 m/s
8 to 12
Archival See Chapter 20, Museums,
Libraries, and Archives
below 0.13 m/s 8 to 12
Bowling
Centers
21 to 23C 24 to 26C
20 to 30% rh 50 to 55% rh
0.25 m/s at 1.8 m
above floor
10 to 15
Communication
Centers
Telephone Terminal
Rooms
22 to 26C 22 to 26C
40 to 50% rh 40 to 50% rh
0.13 to 0.15 m/s 8 to 20
Radio and Television
Studios
21 to 23C 23 to 26C
40 to 50% rh 45 to 55% rh
0.13 to 0.15 m/s 15 to 40
Transportation
Centers
Airport
Terminals
23 to 26C 23 to 26C
30 to 40% rh 40 to 55% rh
below 0.13 m/s at
3.7 m above floor
8 to 12
Ship
Docks
21 to 23C 23 to 26C
20 to 30% rh 50 to 60% rh
0.13 to 0.15 m/s at
1.8 m above floor
8 to 12
Bus
Terminals
21 to 23C 23 to 26C
20 to 30% rh 50 to 60% rh
0.13 to 0.15 m/s at
1.8 m above floor
8 to 12
Garages
l
4 to 13C 27 to 38C 0.15 to 0.38 m/s 4 to 6
Warehouses Inside design temperatures for warehouses often
depend on the materials stored.
1 to 4
HVAC
SYSTEM TYPE SELECTION
Commercial buildings commonly choose several types
of systems based on the space conditioning needs of
different systems.

1. A constant-volume system might cool the interior, which
has relatively uniform cooling requirements
2. A VAV system conditions perimeter areas, which have
variable requirements.
3. Where precision control is required (e.g., laboratories,
precision electronic industry or hospital operating rooms),
custom single-zone air handlers may be used.

In large facilities, which have widely varying requirements,
flexibility is extremely important.
The window and split air conditioners are usually used for
the small air conditioning capacities up to 5 tons.

The packaged air conditioners are available in the fixed
rated capacities of 3, 5,7,10 and 15 tons. These units are
used commonly in places like restaurants, telephone
exchange, homes, small halls, etc.

The central air conditioning system are used for where the
cooling loads extend beyond 20 tons.

Table showing some typical applications for various types of
systems.
HVAC system selection
HVAC
LOAD CALCULATIONS
Internal Loads
Lighting
Occupants
Equipment
Humidification and
dehumidification

TYPES OF LOADS IN HVAC
External loads
Fenestration
Infiltration
Building envelope
Ventilation Loads
The air flow rates for ventilation
purposes

There are many factors which effect the hvac loads calculation.

Climate

Orientation
Latitude

For the classification purpose these can be categorized as follows
HVAC LOAD CALCULATION METHODS

1. Can not be generalized, varies according to
climatic conditions, site location etc

2. Rule-of-thumb sizing does not account for
orientation of the walls and windows,

3. The difference in surface area between a one-
story and a two-story home of the same floor
area,

4. The differences in insulation and air leakage
between different buildings, the number of
occupants, and many other factors.

Rule-of-thumb sizing
One ton of cooling equipment for every 400 square feet of conditioned space. In a concession to recent
improvements in insulation levels and window specifications, some HVAC contractors have adjusted their
rule of thumb, and now size air conditions at one ton per 600 square feet.
One ton of cooling per 1,000 square feet. According to Blasnik, Sizing an air conditioner using tons per
square foot actually works pretty well, as long as you choose the right rule of thumb.
ADVANTAGES DISVANTAGES
1. Easy to calculate HVAC loads

2. Used for initial design stages

3. Takes into account similar types of building
categories around the given site location

4. Usually these rules of thumb may result in gross
oversizing of cooling equipment.


1. Rule of thumb to size an air conditioner is no substitute for performing a room-by-room cooling load calculation.

2. Room-by-room calculations are necessary for many reasons: to properly size ductwork, for example, and to
address unusual architectural features like rooms with large west-facing windows.
NOTES
HVAC LOAD CALCULATION METHODS
Software Programs
The physics involved in the transfer of heat and energy between buildings, occupants, and the environment is quite complex.
The most current and best math models of this problem require significant input data and thousands of calculations in an
iterative process.
ASHRAE has TETD (Total Equivalent Temperature Difference), CLTD (Cooling Load Temperature Difference), TFM
(Transfer Function Method), HB (Heat Balance) and RTS (Radiant Time Series).
Building block
Phase 1
Population
Phase 2
Pop.
Phase 3
Pop.
Total
Population
Area (sq. ft.)
Software
development block
7500 12000 10500 30000 3900000
Food Court 2000 3200 2800 8000 360000
Education &
Research Block
0 0 3000 3000 300000
Employee Care
Centre
150 0 150 300 162000
Support Staff 100 160 140 400
Parking- Cars 1575 2520 2205 6300 (no.)
Parking- Two
Wheelers
675 1080 945 2700 (no.)
Surface Parking- Bus
Bay (45 No)
39 62 54
154 (no.)


INITIAL HVAC LOAD CALCULATION
URBAN DESIGN PROBLEM MAHINDRA SEZ
DESIGN BRIEF
HVAC LOAD CALCULATION : Using Rule-of-thumb sizing method
PHASE-1
DESIGN BRIEF
Total
Population
30000
8000
3000
300
400
6300 (no.)
2700 (no.)
154 (no.)

Area (sq. ft.)
3900000
360000
300000
162000




Building block
Software
development block
Food Court
Education &
Research Block
Employee Care
Centre
Support Staff
Parking- Cars
Parking- Two
Wheelers
Surface Parking- Bus
Bay (45 No)




=
=
=
=
Density
(area/person)
130 sq.ft./person
45 sq.ft./person
100 sq.ft./person
540 sq.ft./person


PHASE-1
Phase 1
Population
7500
2000
0
150
100
1575
675
39
Phase 1
Area (sq. ft.)
975000
90000
0
81000
x
x
x
x
TOTAL BUILT UP AREA IN PHASE-1 1146000 sq. ft.
106466.9 sq. mtr.
=
EXCLUDING 15 % CIRCULATION AREA AND ASSUMING
THAT 60 % OF THE TOTAL BUILT UP AREA TO BE AIR CONDITIONED,
THE TOTAL AREA TO BE AIR CONDITIONED WILL BE = 54298.1 sq. mtr
Applying rule of thumb : one ton of cooling per 1,000 square feet
Total HVAC cooling Load = 584.46 ton= 85 kwhr ( 1 ton=3.5kw )
=
=
=
=
was one ton of cooling equipment for every 400 square
feet of conditioned space. In a concession to recent
improvements in insulation levels and window
specifications, some HVAC contractors have adjusted their
rule of thumb, and now size air conditions at one ton per
600 square feet.
one ton of cooling per 1,000 square feet. According to Blasnik,
Sizing an air conditioner using tons per square foot actually
works pretty well, as long as you choose the right rule of
thumb.
rule-of-thumb sizing does not account for orientation of the
walls and windows, the difference in surface area between a
one-story and a two-story home of the same floor area, the
differences in insulation and air leakage between different
buildings, the number of occupants, and many other factors.