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Introduction to the Study of History

interviews or oral history and oral

traditions and cultural artifacts are not
no written records no history
Traditional Definition:
record of the past
record of the past of the human from the
time written records
weak definitions... why? because it is only
based on the written records of the past
according to Gottschalk
past is history of actuality; hence it must
study the past as it happened: This
demands that the historian abandon the
the practical value of studying and using
the past to understand the present is
studying and using the past to understand
the present is lost history is studied,
written and taught for its own sake
Uses or Importance of History
A. Bridging the Gap between the
past and the present
the present is the result of the past
Filipinos are what they are today because of
what happened in the past.
the nature and extent of contemporary
problems in the country can be best be
understood in the light of thier historical roots.
thus, knowing the past improves the understanding of the

C. Projecting the Future
events and developments in the future
may be envisioned using lessons of
history as bases
circumstances in the past have been
observed to contribute to the unfolding of a
significant event
taking stocks of similarities or parallels
between the past and the present also
leads to consideration of likely possibilities
or scenarios in the future.

B. Explaining Causes of things and
no discipline can provide explanations for
causes of events/ and or developments

ex. "the state- side mentality" among Filipinos
is very strong.
question is "what was in the past that brought
about this mentality?"

C. Projecting the Future
history allows us to speculate intelligently
about the future
present and future intelligent actions
springs from sound knowledge of the past
D. Interpreting Conditions of a
given space and time
history is the only branch of knowledge
that can provide information and
corresponding interpretation of periods of
ex. the coming of United States to the
Philippines may be explained by going back
to the events before 1898 and finding out
what factors contributed to the rise of the
United States as an imperialist power
other ex. the coming of Spaniards
the 3 G's
E. Promoting Nationalism and
history is the best area of human knowledge that
can help in promotiong nationalism and
it inspires and develops a sense of national
pride and a sense of devotion to a country by
recording the exploits and struggles of
forefathers to win freedom and interdependence
history affirms the fact that Filipinos posses
many positive traits and a very rich culture
Cyclical View
history repeat itself
all human events occur in cycles
its famous exponents were Herodotus and
this view was popular from the time of
Herodutos (5th century B.C.)
Providential View
history is determined by God
everything is wills by God
it something to do with what is happening
during that year/ time
recording of the death struggle between good
and evil
man is relegated to the role of a pawn in a game
of high stakes
life is like a gamble... that needs to take risk in
order to achieve something...
famous exponent; St Augustine

Progressivist View
this view regards mankind as responsible for the
advancement of civilizations
places faith in human abilities rather than in
divine intervention
mankind is getting better and better
their invention are getting more advance
Bousset, Vicot, Lebnitz, and Marx
the law of continuity (Leibnitz law)
each generation build upon the achievements of
the preceding: its getting better
Relativist View
history creates its own subject
each new situation implies a
reinterpretation of the past- past is the
constant state of change
history does not deal with causal analysis-
"cause and effect relationship"- Foucalts
always changing not fixed
1. Clerico- Imperialist
history is God's grand design
this approach emerged with the coming of
the Spaniards
Catholicism is the instrument of God to
redeem the native inhabitants from the
clutches of Satan
no interpretation is needed because
everything is willed by God
Clerico- Imperialist
the representative of this school is
Pigaffeta, Loarca, Placencia, Concepcion
and Zuniga
Assimiliationist View
the ries of secularism and nationalism
Filipinos were given the opportunity to have a
position in the church or in the government
equality between Filipinos and Americans
aimed uniting the people to prepare them
for membership in the Spanish community
of nations

Nationalist School
product of Philippine Revolution and the
American invasion
freedom from colonial yoke
abandoned making Philippines as part of
Spain and became truly a nationalist
school when they clamored for freedom

Democratic Imperialist
the secular ideas that America's "Manifest
meaning American culture is superior
compare to Asia, Africa, and other continents
in the world

educate, civilize and train the Filipinos in the
art of democratic government
Nationalist- Realist School
history is the reconstruction of the past as
reflected in records, written, collected,
analyzed and synthesized by historians
history is an art
because it evolves imagination and creative
way of reconstruction of the past
Leftist- Socialist or Marxist View
history is science that is capable of being
controlled, influenced, and predicted
is a universalistic extension of the class
conflict theme
regard history as the history of economic
classes, their rise, fall, dominance, and
Pure Nationalist School
started by Agoncillo but expounded by
it is refer to as "PANTAYONG PANANAW"
Philippine history from the Filipino
perspective or point of view
history of the inarticulate (peasants,
workers, cultural communities, womens,
Pure Nationalist School
view as revolutionary as it is a logical
reaction to foreign- dominated and
ilustrado- centered theme of Phil. history
emphasize the importance of history in
nation building
Reason for interpreting Philippine History
from a Filipino point of view
Foreign Interpretation is Biased and
colonial master's interest
Filipino culture are judge on the basis of
the foreigners' own cultural development
and history
Filipinos view of history is better than that
of his colonial masters
Filipino have greater familiarity with and
understanding of their own culture and
Filipino knows his history compare to
foreign invaders
Filipinos are more familiar with the
historical root of thier problems

Filipino point of view can help promote
nationalism and patriotism