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Safety in workplace

 Freedom from accidents
 It includes
 Minimization of hazards
 Healthy working conditions
 Minimizing risk
 ensure safety, health and welfare of people engaged
in work or employment

 Occupational safety and health (OSH) is a
cross-disciplinary area concerned with
protecting the safety, health and welfare of
people engaged in work or employment and
entrants. As a secondary effect, OSH may also
protect co-workers, family members,
employers, customers, suppliers, nearby
communities, and other members of the public
who are impacted by the workplace
 Maintaining a safe and healthy working
environment is not only an important human
resources issue, it's the law.
 Whether they're entry-level workers, seasoned
veterans, supervisors, or plant managers,
employees need to understand
 health and safety risks,
 the steps they need to take to minimize those risks,
 and common safety standards and
 compliance procedures.
 The definition reads:

"Occupational health should aim at:
the promotion and maintenance of
the highest degree of physical,
mental and social well-being of
workers in all occupations;
 Moral - An employee should not have to risk injury at
work, nor should others associated with the work
 Economic - many governments realize that poor
occupational safety and health performance results in cost
to the State (e.g. through social security payments to the
incapacitated, costs for medical treatment, and the loss of
the "employability" of the worker). Employing
organisations also sustain costs in the event of an incident
at work (such as legal fees, fines, compensatory damages,
investigation time, lost production, lost goodwill from the
workforce, from customers and from the wider
 Legal - Occupational safety and health requirements may
be reinforced in civil law and/or criminal law; it is
accepted that without the extra "encouragement" of
potential regulatory action or litigation, many
organisations would not act upon their implied moral
 A hazard is something that can cause harm if
not controlled.
 The outcome is the harm that results from an
uncontrolled hazard.
 A risk is a combination of the probability that a
particular outcome will occur and the severity
of the harm involved
Oganisations are required to make a risk assessment of operations.

This assessment should:
 Identify the hazards
 Identify all affected by the hazard and how
 Evaluate the risk
 Identify and prioritise the required actions
 The calculation of risk is based on the likelihood or probability of the
harm occuring and the severity of the consequences.

 This can be expressed mathematically
 as a quantitative assessment (by assigning low, medium and high
likelihood and severity with integers and multiplying them to obtain
a risk factor,
 or qualitatively as a description of the circumstances of harm
 The assessment should be recorded and
reviewed periodically and whenever there is a
significant change to work practices.
 The assessment should include practical
recommendations to control the risk.
 The precautionary principle is an increasingly
used method for reducing potential chemical
or biological risks.

 Workplace hazards are often grouped into
physical hazards,
 physical agents,
 chemical agents,
 biological agents,
 and psychosocial issues
 Physical Hazards
 Slips and trips
 Falls from height
 Workplace transport
 Dangerous machinery
 Electricity
 Heavy metals

 Physical conditions:
 noise
 vibration
 radiation
 heat and cold stress
 lighting

 solvents
 Biological agents
 Chemicals
 Vapours
 temperature, humidity, lighting,
 Work related stress, caused by
 excessive working time
 overwork
 Violence from outside the organisation
 emotional, verbal, and Sexual harassment

 Refers to man – machine system
 Machine should be user friendly
 Lay out should provide for easy, comfortable, safe
movement of men and materials
 one examples of ergonomic design in a chemical
 Temperature gauge in a reactor placed at the eye level of
 Gauge is sufficiently large in size
 Readings are marked in bold letters and are legible and easy to
 The valve to control temperature is placed near the gauge
 The operator can control the valve easily as it is at his height
 He can watch the temperature variation and adjust the valve at
the same time

 Panel board for instruments and the other
accessories like steering , brake, wiper knob,
horn switch etc. in an automobile.
 Add other examples of common house hold
appliances.( exercise)
 Ergonomic design helps to reduce accidents

 It is a British Standard for occupational health
and safety management systems
 Its proponents claim that an occupational
health and safety management system
(OHSMS) promotes a safe and healthy working
environment by with
 consistently identify and control health and
safety risks
 reduce the potential for accidents
 improve overall performance
 The OHSAS 18000 standards provide
organizations with the elements of an effective
OHSMS that can be integrated with other
management requirements
 BS OHSAS 18001 specifies requirements for an
OH&S management system to help an
organization develop and implement a policy
and objectives
 accounts legal requirements and information
about OH&S risks.
 It provides generic assistance for establishing,
implementing or improving an OH&S
management system
 It also demonstrates successful implementation
of BS OHSAS 18001.