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- the full revolving superstructure of this type of unit is

mounted on a pair of continuous, parallel crawler trucks.

- the crawlers provide the crane with good travel capability
around the site.
- soil failure is only a problem when operating on soils with
low bearing capacity
- can be relocated between projects by truck, rail or barge.
- have two variations, the lattice-boom and the telescoping-
- have a self containing telescopic-boom
- most units can travel in public highways between projects
under their own power with a minimum dismantling .
- have short amount of time to assemble and tear down the
- have extendable outriggers for stability.
- high ground loading must be considered in relation to the
soil-bearing capacity.

- has a fully revolving superstructure mounted on a
multiaxle truck/carrier.
- has a lightweight lattice boom which enables additional
lift capacity.
- takes a long time and effort required to disassemble them
for transport.
- in case of larger units, it may be necessary to remove the
superstructure using a second crane.
- are cranes mounted on two-axle carriers.
- sometimes referred to as cherry picker because of its use
during the World War II in handling bombs.
- these units are equipped with unusually large wheels and
closely spaced axles to improve maneuverability at
the job site.
- most units can travel on the highway but have a maximum
speeds of only about 30mph.
- designed with an undercarriage capable of long-distance
highway travel.
- have dual cabs, a lower cab for fast highway travel and a
superstructure cab that has both drive and
crane controls.
- suitable when multiple lifts are required at scattered project
sites or at multiple work locations.
- because this machine combines two features, it has a higher
cost than an equivalent capacity telescoping truck or
rough terrain crane.
Trailing Counterweight
- the additional counterweight is mounted on a wheeled
platform behind the crane with the platform pin
connected to the crane.
- utilizes a mast positioned behind the boom suspension
lines mounted at the top of the mast.
- Settings and operational limits for capacity and for
various load and movement parameters are computer
Extendable Counterweight
- a machine with a suspended counterweight system that
can be extended away from the rear of the machine to
match the leverage with the requirements of the lift.
Ring System
- a large circular turntable ring is created outside the
base machine which supports the heavy
- auxiliary pin-connected frames are at the front and
rear of the base machine enabling the boom/mast foot
and the counterweight be moved away from the
- have a fixed tower and a swing circle mounted at the top,
allowing the jibs , tower top, and operator cab to rotate.
- is assembled from modular lattice-type sections, and hence
often referred to as sectional tower crane.
- can reach greater heights.
- is stabilized partly at its base and partly by ballast on the
- requires more time (one day to one week) transporting,
setting up and dismantling which is a complicated process
and have costlier procedures.
- requires assistance of other equipment in setting up and
- commonly serve high-rise building on jobs requiring a
crane for a long duration.
- have the swing circle located under a slewing platform,
and both the tower and jib assembly rotate relative to
the base chassis.
- The tower is essentially a telescoping mast, and hence
referred to as telescoping tower crane.

- the entire ballast is placed on the revolving base
- are smaller cranes and most can be towed between job
- they essentially erect themselves using their own motors
in a relatively short time using a simple procedure.
- suitable for short-term service on low-rise buildings.
Crawler-Mounted Tower Cranes
- can travel over firm, level ground after he tower is erected,
but it has only limited ability to handle loads while moving.
Truck-Mounted Tower Cranes
must have its outriggers extended and down before the tower
is raised, which does not let it travel while carrying a load
and the tower must be dismantled before the crane can be
- commonly top-slewing, typically has its tower
mounted on an engineered concrete mass
foundation, either on fixing angles sunk in the base
or on its ballasted chassis, which is bolted to the
concrete base.
- Sometimes mounted on a ballasted static rail-
mounted undercarriage.
- a large crawler or mobile crane is usually used to
erect the tower crane to its full height
- the ballast base of this type of tower crane is set on a pair of
fixed rails which enables the crane to be moved along the rails
with a load which increases the coverage of the work area.
- can be top-slewing or bottom-slewing.
- needs the construction (including necessary earthworks) of a
rail track upon operation.
- tracks may also obstruct movement of other equipment and
vehicles on the jobsite.
- a likely solution for spread-out projects, in which the
construction method does not require extensive crane services
in any given zone of the building or in the care of linear
projects such as lock construction.
- a common choice for high-rise building construction and
is a lifting mechanism solution for building exceeding
the maximum-braced height tower crane limit.
- the climbing movement, which causes work
interruptions, is done incrementally, every few floors,
depending on the height of mast.
- structurally supported by the floors of the building that is
being constructed, the crane climbs on special climbing
collars that are fitted to the buildings completed
structural floors.
- this is the most important step in any rigging operation,
determining the weight of the load.
- if this operation cannot be obtained from the shipping
papers, design plans, catalog data, or other dependable
sources, it may be necessary to calculate the weight.
Manual of Steel Construction, American Institute of
Steel Corporation (
Cold Formed Steel Design Manual, American Iron and
Steel Institute (
Aluminum Design Manual, Aluminum Association
- weights and properties of the structural members can be
obtained from:
- of an object is that location where the object will balance
when lifted.
- one way of determining the center of gravity of an odd-
shaped object is to divide the shape into simple masses
and determine the resultant balancing load and its
location at a point where the weights multiplied by the
respective lever arms.
- stresses are developed by the slings due to carry loads.
- a rule of thumb is that having a small sling angle
promotes greater stress to the slings.
- the hook-block and tackle lifting mechanism act as a
lever with the fulcrum at the side of the block and the
rope fixed at the boom point.
- these blocks provide a mechanical advantage for lifting
the loads.
- the inertia of an object at rest or in motion, which takes
place when there is a decrease or increase in speed,
increases the stresses sustained by the rigging.
- defined as the breaking strength of a material divided by
the allowable load weight.
- used to compensate for unseen influences.
- its capacity is limited to the nominal strength of the wire rope.
- factors such as attachment or splicing efficiency, the wire
ropes construction, and the diameter of the hook over which
the eye of the sling is rigged affects the over-all strength of the
wire rope sling.
- suitable for slings used in over head lifting.
- predominantly, grade 80 or grade 100 alloy is used for rigging.
- ideal for rugged loads that would destroy other types of slings.
- Chain slings can have on to four legs connected to a master link.
- are good for use on expensive loads, highly finished
parts, fragile parts, and delicate equipment because they
are flexible and tend to mold themselves to the shape of
the load thus having less tendency to crush fragile
- if damage from any of the following is visible, consider
removing the sling from service:
1. Kinking, crushing, or any other damage resulting
in distortion of the rope structure.
2. Severe corrosion of the rope or end attachments
3. Severe localized abrasion or scraping
- make link-by-link inspection for:
1. Excessive wear
2. Twisted, bent, or cut links
3. Cracks in the weld area or any portion of the link
4. Stretched links
- if damage from any of the following is visible, remove the
sling from service:
1. Acid or caustic burns
2. Melting or charring of any part of the sling
3. Holes, tears, cuts or snags
1-2. two types of crane
3. A crane with a self containing telescopic-boom.
4. Provide high lifting height and good working radius,
while taking up a very limited area.
5. Defined as the breaking strength of a material divided by the
allowable load weight.
6. The location where the object will balance when lifted.
7. Is process of hoisting the load to the crane with the use of a sling.
8-10. things to consider when rigging.