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CHEMISTRY

Electron Arrangement in an Atom


ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO
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Characteristics of Electrons
Extremely small mass
Located outside the nucleus
Moving at extremely high speeds in a
sphere
Have specific energy levels

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Energy of Electrons
When atoms are heated, bright lines
appear called line spectra
Electrons in atoms arranged in discrete
levels.
An electron absorbs energy to jump to a
higher energy level.
When an electron falls to a lower energy
level, energy is emitted.
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Loss and Gain of Energy

G
a
I
n
L
o
s
s
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Bohr Model
First model of the electron structure
Gives levels where an electron is most
likely to be found
Incorrect today, but a key in
understanding the atom
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Quantum Mechanics

Describes the arrangement and space
occupied by electrons in atoms
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Quantum Mechanics
Describes the arrangement of electrons
in atoms in terms of:
Main or principal energy levels (n)
Energy subshells
Orbitals (space occupied within the
atom)

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Quantum Mechanical Atom
Electrons in atoms have quantized energies
Electrons in atoms are bound to the nucleus
by electrostatic attraction
Electron waves are standing matter waves
standing matter waves have quantized
energies, as with the "electron on a wire"
model

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Quantum Mechanical Atom
Electron standing matter waves are 3 dimensional
The electron on a wire model was one
dimensional; one quantum number was
required to describe the state of the electron
A 3D model requires three quantum numbers
A three-dimensional standing matter wave
that describes the state of an electron in an
atom is called an atomic orbital
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Quantum Mechanical Atom
The energies and mathematical forms of the orbitals can be
computed using the Schrdinger equation
quantization isn't assumed; it arises naturally in
solution of the equation
every electron adds 3 variables (x, y, z) to the
equation; it's very hard to solve equations with lots of
variables.
energy-level separations computed with the
Schrdinger equation agree very closely with those
computed from atomic spectral lines

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Quantum numbers
Specify the address of each electron in an
atom

UPPER LEVEL
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Quantum Numbers
The principal quantum number, n
determines the size of an orbital (bigger n =
bigger orbitals)
largely determines the energy of the orbital
(bigger n = higher energy)
can take on integer values n = 1, 2, 3, ...,
all electrons in an atom with the same value
of n are said to belong to the same shell
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Quantum Numbers
The principal quantum number, n
spectroscopists use the following names for shells
n Shell Name
1 K
2 L
3 M
4 N
5 O
6 P
7 Q
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Number of Electrons

Maximum number of electrons in any
electron level = 2n
2


n =1 2(1)
2
= 2
n =2 2(2)
2
= 8
n =3 2(3)
2
= 18


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Quantum Numbers
The principal quantum number, n
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Quantum Numbers
The azimuthal quantum number, l
designates the overall shape of the orbital within a
shell
affects orbital energies (bigger l = higher energy)
all electrons in an atom with the same value of l are
said to belong to the same subshell
only integer values between 0 and n-1 are allowed
sometimes called the orbital angular momentum
quantum number
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Quantum Numbers
The azimuthal quantum number, l
spectroscopists use the following names for subshells
l Subshell name
0 s - sharp
1 p - principal
2 d - diffuse
3 f - fundamental
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Quantum Numbers
The azimuthal quantum number, l

s
p
d
f
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Quantum Numbers
The magnetic quantum number, m
l
determines the orientation of orbitals within a subshell
does not affect orbital energy (except in magnetic
fields!)
only integer values between -l and +l are allowed
the number of m values within a subshell is the
number of orbitals within a subshell
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Quantum Numbers
The magnetic quantum number, m
l
The number of possible m
l
values determines the number of
orbitals in a subshell.
l
possible values of m
l
Number of orbital
in this subshell
0 0 1
1 -1, 0, +1 3
2 -2, -1, 0, +1, +2

5
3 -3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3

7
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Quantum Numbers
The magnetic quantum number, m
l
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Quantum Numbers
The magnetic quantum number, m
l
p
x
p
y
p
z

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Quantum Numbers
The magnetic quantum number, m
l
Orbitals combine to form a spherical shape.
2s
2p
z

2p
y

2p
x

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Quantum Numbers
The spin quantum number, m
s
several experimental observations can be
explained by treating the electron as though it
were spinning
spin makes the electron behave like a tiny magnet
spin can be clockwise or counterclockwise
spin quantum number can have values of
+1/2 or -1/2
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Quantum Numbers
The spin quantum number, m
s
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Electron Configuration
The statement of how many electrons an
atom has in each of its subshells.
a list showing how many electrons are in
each orbital or subshell in an atom or ion
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Pauli Exclusion Principle
Limits the number of electrons in any
orbital to not more than two
Each orbital can hold TWO electrons with
opposite spins.

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Hunds Rule
Priciple of Maximum Multiplicity
Within a sublevel, place one e
-
per orbital before
pairing them.
Empty Bus Seat Rule

RIGHT
WRONG
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Aufbau Principle
Electrons fill the
lowest energy
orbital first.
Lazy Tenant Rule

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Methods of Illustrating Electronic Configuration
s p d f Notation
the distribution of electrons using this
method indicates the energy level and
sublevels that are filled.
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Methods of Illustrating Electronic Configuration
Energy sequence

1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s 7s
2p 3p 4p 5p 6p 7p
3d 4d 5d 6d 7d
4f 5f 6f 7f
Note:
s 2
p 6
d 10
f 14



A way to remember the filling order of subshells, write
subshells designations and follow the diagonal arrows starting
from left.
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Methods of Illustrating Electronic Configuration
s p d f Notation
1s
2

main shell
subshell

number of electrons
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Methods of Illustrating Electronic Configuration
s p d f Notation

Example:
1.)
9
F 1s
2
2s
2
sp
5
2.)
13
Al 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
1

3.)
2
He 1s
2

4.)
12
Mg 1s
2
2s
2
sp
6
3s
2

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Methods of Illustrating Electronic Configuration
Orbital diagram
using arrows to represent electrons and
boxes for orbitals. (Pauli exclusion
principle and Hunds Rule should be
followed)
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Methods of Illustrating Electronic Configuration
Orbital diagram




1s 2s
2p
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Methods of Illustrating Electronic Configuration
Orbital diagram

1. write the electron configuration in subshell
notation
2. draw a box for each orbital.

Remember that s, p, d, and f subshells
contain 1, 3, 5, and 7 degenerate orbitals,
respectively.


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Methods of Illustrating Electronic Configuration
Orbital diagram

Remember that an orbital can hold 0, 1, or 2
electrons only, and if there are two electrons
in the orbital, they must have opposite
(paired) spins (Pauli principle )

3. within a subshell (depicted as a group of
boxes), spread the electrons out and line up
their spins as much as possible (Hund's rule )



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Methods of Illustrating Electronic Configuration
Orbital diagram
Example:
1.)
9
F
2.)
13
Al
3.)
2
He
4.)
12
Mg






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Learning Check
Using the periodic table, write the complete
electronic configuration using electron
notation for each:
A. Cl

B. Sr

C. I
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Solution
Using the periodic table, write the complete
electronic configuration using electron
notation for each:
A. Cl
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
5


B. Sr
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
3d
10
4p
6
5s
2

C. I
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
3d
10
4p
6
5s
2
4d
10
5p
5


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Paramagnetic and Diamagnetic
Paramagnetic
- When there is unpaired electron
- configurations with unpaired electrons are attracted to
magnetic fields (paramagnetism )

Diamagnetic
- When all electrons are paired
- configurations with only paired electrons are weakly
repelled by magnetic fields (diamagnetism )
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Some other important terms
Differentiating electron
- the last entering electron in the electron configuration

Valence Shell
- the outermost shell

Valence Electron
-all the electrons in the outermost shell or valence shell
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Core and Valence Electron
chemistry involves mostly the shell with the
highest value of principal quantum number , n,
called the valence shell
the noble gas core under the valence shell is
chemically inert
simplify the notation for electron configurations
by replacing the core with a noble gas symbol in
square brackets:
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Example of Electron Configuration written with the
Core and Valence Electron
Atom Full configuration Core valence
configuration
Full configuration
using core/valence
notation

O

1s
2
2s
2
2p
4


He 2s
2
2p
4

[He] 2s
2
2p
4


Cl

1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
5


Ne 3s
2
3p
5



[Ne] 3s
2
3p
5

Al


1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
1

Ne 3s
2
3p
1

[Ne] 3s
2
3p
1
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Psuedocore Electrons
electrons in d and f subshells outside the
noble gas core are called pseudocore
electrons
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Examples of electron configurations containing
pseudocore electrons
Atom Core Psuedocore Valence Full
Configuration

Fe


Ar

3d
6


4s
2

[Ar] 3d
6
4s
2


Sn


Kr

4d10

5s
2
5p
2

[Kr] 4d
10
5s
2
5p
2


Hg


Xe

4f
14
5d
10


6s
2

[Xe] 4f
14
5d
10
6s
2


Pu

Rn


5f
6


7s
2

[Rn] 5f
6
7s
2

CHEMISTRY
End Here
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